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1.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 23(5): 507-513, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803589

RESUMO

Background and Aims: In spite of large volume of data linking Vitamin D with cardiovascular morbidity, autoimmunity, cancer, and virtually every organ system, Vitamin D and thyroid is a lesser-known aspect of Vitamin D in clinical practice. This article intends to highlight the current literature on the impact of Vitamin D status and supplementation on thyroid autoimmunity and cancer. Methods: References for this review were identified through searches of PubMed for articles published to from 1950 to August 2019 using the terms "thyroid" [MeSH Terms] AND "Vitamin D" [MeSH Terms] OR "thyroid" [All Fields] AND "Vitamin D" [All Fields]. Results: Significant inverse correlation was documented between anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and serum 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D (25OHD). TPOAb positivity is more prevalent in Vitamin D deficient individuals. A large volume of medical literature is available from observational studies linking Vitamin D with thyroid autoimmunity. Data from interventional studies documenting beneficial effects of Vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity is also available, but lesser than that from observational studies. Short-term high dose oral Vitamin D supplementation reduces TPOAb titers. Certain Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism have been linked to increased occurrence of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). Vitamin D deficiency, decreased circulating calcitriol has been linked to increased thyroid cancer. Certain VDR gene polymorphisms have been linked with increased as well as decreased occurrence of thyroid cancer. Data is scant on use of Vitamin D and its analogues for treating thyroid cancer. Conclusion: In spite of large volume of medical literature from observational studies linking Vitamin D with thyroid autoimmunity and cancer, meaningful concrete clinical data on impact of Vitamin D supplementation on hard clinical end points in these disorders is lacking, and should be the primary area of research in the next decade.

2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(1): 1227-1238, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637624

RESUMO

Seed size and seed metabolites have been the targets of direct or indirect selection during domestication and subsequent crop breeding. Understanding these traits and associated genetics can prove very useful for plant translational research. Large germplasm assemblage (235) of Brassica juncea and its progenitor species (B. rapa and B. nigra) was evaluated to establish seed trait variations for seed size and seed metabolites. Seeds were smallest in B. nigra and largest in B. juncea. Australian B. juncea and Indian B. rapa var brown sarson types averaged more seed oil content. Seed size and oil content were generally higher in modern cultivars in comparison to the land races. Allelic diversity for known associated genes for seed-size and oil-content (AP2, ARF2, TTG2, GRF2, GL2, CYP78A5, CYP78A6, MINI3, IKU2, IKU1, BRI1, DGAT, GPDH, LPAAT, GPAT and DA1) was studied so as to infer the effect of domestication on seed traits. Three genes (IKU1, IKU2, AP2) in B. rapa, two (TTG2 and GL2) in B. nigra and two (IKU1 and GRF2) in natural B. juncea were identified as targets of selection on the basis of Fst outlier and/or sequence diversity tests. We report parallel divergence for seed traits between B. juncea and B. rapa. Directional selection appeared stronger for seed-size as compared to correlated seed metabolites. Positive selection on seed-size is likely to have played a significant role in structuring regional variation in the germplasm.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/genética , Sementes/genética , Alelos , Evolução Biológica , Brassica rapa/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Seleção Genética/genética
3.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab ; 22(2): 236-243, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911038

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Factors determining bone mineral (BM) loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are not well known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of BM loss in the young premenopausal women with RA. Methods: Ninety-six females with RA and 90 matched controls underwent clinical, biochemical, BM density (BMD), and body composition assessments. RA disease activity was assessed using disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) and hand X-ray. Results: In the young premenopausal females with RA having median symptom and treatment duration of 30 (18-60) and 4 (2-12) months, respectively, with moderate disease activity (DAS-28, 4.88 ± 1.17), occurrence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was 7.29% and 25% at spine, 6.25% and 32.29% at hip, and 17.7% and 56.25% at wrist, respectively (significantly higher than controls). RA patients had lower BMD at total femur, lumbar spine (LS), radius total, and radius ultra-distal. Total lean mass (LM) and BM content were significantly lower in RA (P = 0.022 and <0.001, respectively). In RA, BMD at majority of sites (LS, neck of femur, greater trochanter, radius total, and radius 33%) had the strongest positive correlation with LM followed by body fat percent. RA patients with most severe disease had lowest BMD at different sites and lowest LM. Stepwise linear regression revealed LM followed by DAS-28 to be best predictors of BMD. RA patients receiving glucocorticoids did not have significantly different BMDs from patients not taking glucocorticoids. Interpretation and Conclusion: BM loss is a significant problem in the young premenopausal women with recent-onset RA. LM and disease severity were the best predictors of BMD.

4.
Eur Endocrinol ; 14(1): 56-58, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29922354

RESUMO

Parathyroid cysts are extremely rare and are rarely associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), which are difficult to localise, as they are 99mTc-sesta-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (sestaMIBI) negative. We report for the first time the utility of 18F-fluorocholinepositron emission tomography/computerised tomography (PC-PET/CT) in localising parathyroid cyst causing normocalcemic PHPT. A 76-year-old lady with progressively worsening osteoporosis from 2014-2017 (in spite of annual zolendronic acid infusions, daily calcium and vitamin-D supplementation) with persistently normal serum calcium and vitamin D, but elevated parathyroid hormone, had normal sestaMIBI scans of the neck on multiple occasions. FC-PET/CT finally revealed soft tissue uptake, suggestive of right superior parathyroid adenoma/ hyperplasia. Surgical removal of the culprit lesion resulted in resolution of hyperparathyroidism, histopathologic evaluation of which revealed a cystic lesion lined by chief cell variant parathyroid cells without any nuclear atypia, capsular or vascular invasion. FC-PET/CT is useful in localising culprit parathyroid lesions, especially when they are sestaMIBI negative. PC-PET/CT is useful in localising parathyroid hyperplasia and ectopic parathyroids, which are frequently missed by sestaMIBI. There is an urgent need for comparative studies between sestaMIBI and FC-PET/CT in PHPT. We report for the first time the usefulness of FC-PET/CT in localising sestaMIBI-negative functional parathyroid cyst causing normocalcemic PHPT.

5.
Indian J Med Res ; 148(4): 411-421, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666003

RESUMO

Background & objectives: Dyslipidaemia is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity, which is increased in HIV. Data on dyslipidaemia in Indians with HIV are scant. This study was undertaken to determine the predictors of dyslipidaemia and lipoatrophy in Indians with HIV infection and their relation with body composition parameters. Methods: A total of 382 consecutive patients with HIV infection were screened, of whom 257 clinically stable patients, without any acute comorbidity, having at least one year follow up underwent biochemical and DEXA analysis. Results: The most common dyslipidaemia was hypertriglyceridaemia (47.08%), followed by hypercholesterolaemia [total cholesterol (TC)] (38.91%) and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (38.52%), in patients having median age 37 (32-42) yr and HIV duration 57 (33-101) months. Patients with at least one dyslipidaemia (78.99%) had significantly higher insulin resistance (IR), per cent body fat, per cent trunk fat (PTF) and trunk limb fat ratio (TLFR). Baseline CD4 count and delta CD4 count (change in CD4 count 6-12 months following ART) had significant inverse correlation with triglycerides and TC. Patients with highest triglycerides and cholesterol quartiles had significantly higher immune reconstitution, metabolic syndrome, IR, trunk fat mass (FM), PTF and TLFR, with comparable total FM. Logistic regression revealed that body mass index, HIV duration and PTF were independent predictors of hypertriglyceridaemia, with only PTF being significant predictor of hypercholesterolaemia. Every unit increase in PTF was associated with 13 and 4.1 per cent increased hypertriglyceridaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Lipoatrophy was present in 8.57 per cent patients and was a poor predictor of dyslipidaemia. Interpretation & conclusions: : High occurrence of dyslipidaemia was observed in patients with HIV on anti retroviral therapy. Central adiposity (TFM) was the most important predictor of dyslipidaemia in these patients.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Extremidades/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/epidemiologia , Tronco/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Atrofia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Índia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 21(2): 523-531, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare ultrasound-detected abnormalities, namely double contour sign (DCS) and hyperechoic aggregates (HAGs), at two sites (knee and first metatarsophalangeal [1st MTP] joints) versus six sites (knee joint, 1st MTP joint, radiocarpal joint, talar joint, patellar tendon and triceps tendon) in gout patients. METHODS: Forty-seven clinically diagnosed gout patients and 50 subjects (serum uric acid < 7 mg/dL) as controls were included. DCS was looked for at three articular cartilage sites (first metatarsal, tibiotalar and femoral condyle), whereas HAGs were looked for at one joint site (radiocarpal joint) and two tendon sites (patellar tendon and triceps tendon). Ultrasound findings of both the groups were compared. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and positive likelihood ratio (LR) of two sites ultrasound findings for gout were 87.2%, 84%, 83.7%, 85.6% and 5.5 respectively. Similar sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and positive LR were observed with six sites ultrasound findings. Among controls, 16% were found to have these abnormal ultrasound findings by both two sites and six sites examinations. CONCLUSION: Screening of two sites (knee and 1st MTP) has similar sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and positive LR as compared to six sites in diagnosing gout.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Gota/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Gota/sangue , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Articulação Metatarsofalângica/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligamento Patelar/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Articulação do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem
7.
Endokrynol Pol ; 68(6): 642-651, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022646

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated prevalence and predictors of osteoporosis and sarcopenia in men with HIV. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 220 men with HIV were screened, of which 115 men, 30-50 years-age, having at least 1-year follow-up, underwent hormonal and DEXA analysis. 40 controls were also evaluated. RESULTS: Males with HIV had significantly lower BMD and Z-scores at all sites. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 64.35%; commonest site being radius total (49.56%), followed by radius 33% (45.21%), radius ultra distal (36.52%), lumbar spine (19.13%), neck of femur (17.39%), total femur and greater trochanter (7.82% each). HIV patients had significantly lower fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), total fat percent, bone mineral content, gynoid fat, percent skeletal muscle mass (PSMM). Men with osteoporosis had higher use of anti retroviral therapy (ART), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), tuberculosis, lower FM, LM and PSMM. Logistic regression revealed PSMM, age and delta (Δ) CD4 count (change in CD4 count after 6-12 months of ART, compared to pre-ART) were best predictors of osteoporosis. Greater PSMM was associated with decreased osteoporosis, without adjusting for any variable (Model-1), adjusting for disease duration, tuberculosis and IRIS (Model-2), and model-2 plus gonadotropins and sex steroids (Model-3). Greater ΔCD4 count and age were associated with increased osteoporosis after adjusting for different models. Sarcopenia was observed in 40% men and none in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Men with decreased skeletal mass, age, severe immune dysfunction at diagnosis, having rapid increase in CD4 count following ART and IRIS have higher risk of osteoporosis in the long run.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Acta Reumatol Port ; 41(4): 372-375, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27156236

RESUMO

Microscopic polyangiitis is a small vessel vasculitis, associated with myeloperoxidaseantineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. It rarely occurs in children. Central nervous system involvement in pediatric microscopic polyangiitis is not a well known entity with perhaps only five cases till date. We hereby present a 14-year-old girl with arthralgia, seizure, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, interstitial lung disease secondary to recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and high titers of MPO-ANCA, hence diagnostic of microscopic polyangiitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed diffuse parenchymal involvement which resolved at six months with development of new foci of microhemorrhages in different stages of evolution, reminiscent of vasculitis.

.


Assuntos
Poliangiite Microscópica/complicações , Vasculite do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos
11.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 59(2): 223-226, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27166048

RESUMO

Metastasis to spleen is rare and usually occurs in the setting of extensive multivisceral metastatic disease. A 60-year-old lady with appropriately managed early breast cancer (breast conservative surgery for Grade-2 infiltrative ductal carcinoma [0.7 cm × 0.5 cm diameter]) in 2006, was detected to have splenic incidentaloma (1.4 cm × 0.8 cm) in November 2012, which was fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) avid on positron emission tomography. Fine needle spiration cytology (FNAC) was normal. More than doubling of lesion size by March 2015 (3.83 cm × 3.03 cm diameter) with persistent FDG positivity lead to Tru-Cut biopsy of spleen, which revealed multiple nodular areas of congestion and hemorrhage, composed of sinusoids (CD31+, CD8+, and CD34-), capillaries (CD31+, CD8-, and CD34+), and small veins (CD31+, CD8-, and CD34-), fibrosis, around these nodular areas along with numerous histiocytes (CD68+) consistent with diagnosis of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of spleen. SANT is a benign, reactive vascular transformation of spleen, notorious to mimic metastasis, the cause of its 18FDG avidity due to its rich content of macrophages and myofibroblasts, usually diagnosed postsplenectomy. This report highlights the importance of splenic biopsy over FNAC is diagnosing splenic incidentalomas, which can help prevent splenectomy, and hence the associated morbidity. This is the first report of SANT in carcinoma breast mimicking metastasis.

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