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1.
Biomacromolecules ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522599

RESUMO

Multicomponent self-assembly is an emerging approach in peptide nanotechnology to develop nanomaterials with superior physical and biological properties. Inspired by the multicomponent nature of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) and the well-established advantages of co-assembly in the field of nanotechnology, we have attempted to explore the noncovalent interactions among the sugar and peptide-based biomolecular building blocks as an approach to design and develop advanced tissue scaffolds. We utilized TEMPO-oxidized nanofibrillar cellulose (TO-NFC) and a short ionic complementary peptide, Nap-FEFK, to fabricate highly tunable supramolecular hydrogels. The differential doping of the peptide into the TO-NFC hydrogel was observed to tune the surface hydrophobicity, microporosity, and mechanical stiffness of the scaffold. Interestingly, a differential cellular response was observed toward composite scaffolds with a variable ratio of TO-NFC versus Nap-FEFK. Composite scaffolds having a 10:1 (w/w) ratio of TO-NFC and the Nap-FEFK peptide showed enhanced cellular survival and proliferation under two-dimensional cell culture conditions. More interestingly, the cellular proliferation on the 10:1 matrix was found to be similar to that of Matrigel in three-dimensional culture conditions, which clearly indicated the potential of these hydrogels in advanced tissue engineering applications. Additionally, these composite hydrogels did not elicit any significant inflammatory response in Raw cells and supported their survival and proliferation, which further emphasized their ability to form versatile scaffolds for tissue regeneration. This multicomponent assembly approach to construct biomolecular composite hydrogels to access superior physical and biological properties within the scaffold is expected to improve the scope for designing novel ECM-mimicking biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) system was initially identified in bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism to confer immunity against phages. Later on, it was developed as a gene editing tool for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including plant cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: CRISPR/Cas9 approach has wider applications in reverse genetics as well as in crop improvement. Various characters involved in enhancing economic value and crop sustainability against biotic/abiotic stresses can be targeted through this tool. Currently, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing mechanism has been applied on around 20 crop species for improvement in several traits including yield enhancement and resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the last five years, maximum genome editing research has been validated in rice, wheat, maize and soybean. Genes targeted in these plants has been involved in causing male sterility, conferring resistance against pathogens or having certain nutritional value. CONCLUSIONS: Current review summarizes various applications of CRISPR/Cas system and its future prospects in plant biotechnology targeting crop improvement with higher yield, disease tolerance and enhanced nutritional value.

3.
Urol Case Rep ; 43: 102097, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35520032

RESUMO

Vasitis is a rare disorder characterised by inflammation of the vas deferens. It presents with scrotal or inguinal pain/swelling, mimicking the more commonly occurring conditions such as epididymitis, orchitis, testicular torsion or an incarcerated inguinal hernia. While ultrasound may exclude some of these differential diagnoses, computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is needed to distinguish vasitis from an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Vasitis is classically treated with antibiotics so proper diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary surgery. We present the case of a 20-year-old male with CT diagnosed vasitis, whose condition resolved within six weeks without administering antibiotics.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 834: 155444, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461941

RESUMO

Contamination of the environment through toxic pollutants poses a key risk to the environment due to irreversible environmental damage(s). Industrialization and urbanization produced harmful elements such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, nanomaterials, and herbicides that are intentionally or unintentionally released into the water system, threatening biodiversity, the health of animals, and humans. Heavy metals (HMs) in water, for example, can exist in a variety of forms that are inclined by climate features like the presence of various types of organic matter, pH, water system hardness, transformation, and bioavailability. Biological treatment is an important tool for removing toxic contaminants from the ecosystem, and it has piqued the concern of investigators over the centuries. In situ bioremediation such as biosparging, bioventing, biostimulation, bioaugmentation, and phytoremediation and ex-situ bioremediation includes composting, land farming, biopiles, and bioreactors. In the last few years, scientific understanding of microbial relations with particular chemicals has aided in the protection of the environment. Despite intensive studies being carried out on the mitigation of toxic pollutants, there have been limited efforts performed to discuss the solutions to tackle the limitations and approaches for the remediation of heavy metals holistically. This paper summarizes the risk assessment of HMs on aquatic creatures, the environment, humans, and animals. The content of this paper highlights the principles and limitations of microbial remediation to address the technological challenges. The coming prospect and tasks of evaluating the impact of different treatment skills for pollutant remediation have been reviewed in detail. Moreover, genetically engineered microbes have emerged as powerful bioremediation capabilities with significant potential for expelling toxic elements. With appropriate examples, current challenging issues and boundaries related to the deployment of genetically engineered microbes as bioremediation on polluted soils are emphasized.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 802512, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464947

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) toxicity leads to the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are extremely toxic to the plant and must be minimized to protect the plant from oxidative stress. The potential of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and earthworms in plant growth and development has been extensively studied. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of two PGPR (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia gladioli) along with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) on the antioxidant defense system in Brassica juncea seedlings under Cr stress. The Cr toxicity reduced the fresh and dry weights of seedlings, enhanced the levels of superoxide anion (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and electrolyte leakage (EL), which lead to membrane as well as the nuclear damage and reduced cellular viability in B. juncea seedlings. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), glutathione peroxidase (GPOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased; however, a reduction was observed in the activity of catalase (CAT) in the seedlings under Cr stress. Inoculation of the PGPR and the addition of earthworms enhanced the activities of all other antioxidant enzymes except GPOX, in which a reduction of the activity was observed. For total lipid- and water-soluble antioxidants and the non-enzymatic antioxidants, viz., ascorbic acid and glutathione, an enhance accumulation was observed upon the inoculation with PGPR and earthworms. The supplementation of PGPR with earthworms (combined treatment) reduced both the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the MDA content by modulating the defense system of the plant. The histochemical studies also corroborated that the combined application of PGPR and earthworms reduced O2•-, H2O2, lipid peroxidation, and membrane and nuclear damage and improved cell viability. The expression of key antioxidant enzyme genes, viz., SOD, CAT, POD, APOX, GR, DHAR, and GST showed the upregulation of these genes at post-transcriptional level upon the combined treatment of the PGPR and earthworms, thereby corresponding to the improved plant biomass. However, a reduced expression of RBOH1 gene was noticed in seedlings supplemented under the effect of PGPR and earthworms grown under Cr stress. The results provided sufficient evidence regarding the role of PGPR and earthworms in the amelioration of Cr-induced oxidative stress in B. juncea.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 305: 119248, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395353

RESUMO

The presence of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) is considered as prevalent global pollutants that cause serious risks to the environment and living organisms. Due to industrial and anthropogenic activities, the accumulation of heavy metals in the environmental matrices is increasing alarmingly. MSW causes several adverse environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, river plastic accumulation, and other environmental pollution. Indigenous microorganisms (Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Nitrosomonas, etc.) with the help of new pathways and metabolic channels can offer the potential approaches for the treatment of pollutants. Microorganisms, that exhibit the ability of bioaccumulation and sequestration of metal ions in their intracellular spaces, can be utilized further for the cellular processes like enzyme signaling, catalysis, stabilizing charges on biomolecules, etc. Microbiological techniques for the treatment and remediation of heavy metals provide a new prospects for MSW management. This review provides the key insights on profiling of heavy metals in MSW, tolerance of microorganisms, and application of indigenous microorganisms in bioremediation. The literatures revealed that indigenous microbes can be exploited as potential agents for bioremediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Metais Pesados , Bioacumulação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Plantas/metabolismo , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
7.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 28(2): 363-381, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400882

RESUMO

In the present study, green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) using Eucalyptus lanceolatus (leaf litter) extract was explored after characterization with UV spectrophotometery, Fourier Transform Infrared analysis, X-ray diffraction and TEM studies. ZnO NPs stability was ensured with - 32.1 mV zeta potential, while TEM showed ZnO NP as hexagonal structure (100 nm). In vitro antimicrobial activity showed potential of ZnO NP against pathogens causing diseases in maize plants. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 (200 ppm and 400 ppm) over a two year period (2019, 2020) were conducted on Zea mays L. var. PG2458. ZnO NP seed priming improved seed vigor index, germination percentage, shoot and root length and fresh biomass. Foliar application improved stem diameter and leaf surface area. Physiological status was relatively better, while reproductive attributes got altered to guide resource allocation for better cob growth and biomass with ZnO NP. Leaf, cob, grain and total Zn was maximum for 200 ppm ZnO NP. Translocation of Zn from leaf to cob and cob to grain was faster for ZnO NP compared to ZnSO4. Higher concentration (400 ppm) of ZnO NPs and ZnSO4 proved phytotoxic for plant growth attributes. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-022-01136-0.

8.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading menace of death at the global level, cancer is presently the second most important disease-causing death in both developing and developed cultures according to the World Health Organization. Remarkable progress has been made in the war against cancer with the development of numerous novel chemotherapy agents. It remains an immense challenge to discover new efficient therapeutic potential candidates to combat cancer. OBJECTIVE: Majority of the currently used anticancer drugs are from natural origin such as curcumin, colchicine, vinca alkaloid, paclitaxel, bergenin, taxols, and combretastatin. In this contest, this review article presents the structure of the most potent molecules along with IC50 values, structure-activity relationships, mechanistic studies, docking studies, in silico studies of phytomolecules, and important key findings on human cancer cell lines. METHODS: A viewpoint of drug design and development of antiproliferative agents from natural phytomolecules has been established by burrowing into peer-reviewed literature from Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Springer, Science Direct and Web of Science from the past few years. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that this article will assist as a significant tool for chemical biologists and medicinal chemists of industry and academia to gain insights on the anticancer potential of phytomolecules. CONCLUSION: In vitro and in silico studies presents phytomolecules such as curcumin, colchicine, vinca alkaloids, colchicine, bergenin, combretastatin, and taxol encompassing anticancer agents offerings abundant sanguinity and capacity in the arena of drug discovery to inspire the investigators towards the continual investigations on these phytomolecules. It is extremely expected that passable efforts in this track strengthen and will grant some budding cancer therapeutics candidates in near future.

9.
Int J Pharm ; 619: 121710, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367334

RESUMO

The biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing research trend because it has numerous pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. The present study describes the preparation, characterization and anti-cancer evaluation of silver nanoparticles synthesized using an aqueous extract of Bergenia ligulata whole plant as a reducing agent. The physiochemical properties of the Bergenia ligulata silver nanoparticles (BgAgNPs) were measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotmetry (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis for identifying functional groups, crystallinity, structural and morphological features, respectively. Further, BgAgNps, along with the Bergenia ligulata aqueous extract (BgAE), were investigated for their effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis through MTT, colony-forming assay, wound-healing assay and flow cytometry-based approaches. The cytotoxic effects were more pronounced in cells treated with BgAgNps in comparison to BgAE. These effects were evidenced by the decreasing cell viability, migration capacity and loss of characteristic morphological features. In addition, BgAgNps unveiled significant induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, possibly through oxidative stress-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Moreover, molecular mechanism-based studies revealed that BgAgNps robustly augmented p53 levels and pro-apoptotic downstream targets of p53 like Bax and cleaved caspase 3 in MCF-7 cells. Of note, BgAgNps had little or no cytotoxic effect on p53-deficient cancer cells (Mda-mb-231 and SW-620). These findings confirm that the BgAgNPs exhibited superior anti-cancer potential and could be exploited as a promising, cost-effective, and environmentally benign strategy in treating this disease in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prata/química , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
10.
Bioengineered ; 13(4): 9508-9520, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389819

RESUMO

Sustainable development serves as the foundation for a range of international and national policymaking. Traditional breeding methods have been used to modify plant genomes and production. Genetic engineering is the practice of assisting agricultural systems in adapting to rapidly changing global growth by hastening the breeding of new varieties. On the other hand, the development of genetic engineering has enabled more precise control over the genomic alterations made in recent decades. Genetic changes from one species can now be introduced into a completely unrelated species, increasing agricultural output or making certain elements easier to manufacture. Harvest plants and soil microorganisms are just a few of the more well-known genetically modified creatures. Researchers assess current studies and illustrate the possibility of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) from the perspectives of various stakeholders. GMOs increase yields, reduce costs, and reduce agriculture's terrestrial and ecological footprint. Modern technology benefits innovators, farmers, and consumers alike. Agricultural biotechnology has numerous applications, each with its own set of potential consequences. This will be able to reach its full potential if more people have access to technology and excessive regulation is avoided. This paper covers the regulations for genetically modified crops (GMCs) as well as the economic implications. It also includes sections on biodiversity and environmental impact, as well as GMCs applications. This recounts biotechnological interventions for long-term sustainability in the field of GMCs, as well as the challenges and opportunities in this field of research.Abbreviations: GMCs-Genetically modified crops; GMOs- Genetically modified organisms; GE- Genetic engineering; Bt- Bacillus thuringiensisNIH- National Institutes of Health; FDA- Food and Drug Administration; HGT- Horizontal gene transfer; GM- Genetically modified; rDNA- Ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid; USDA- United States Department of Agriculture; NIH- National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura , Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Engenharia Genética , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(4): 234, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362813

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to identify microbial communities in pulp and paper industry sludge and their metagenomic profiling on the basis of; phylum, class, order, family, genus and species level. Results revealed that the dominant phyla in 16S rRNA Illumina Miseq analysis inside sludge were Anaerolinea, Pseudomonas, Clostridia, Bacteriodia, Gammaproteobacteria, Spirochetia, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaetaceae, Prolixibacteraceae and some unknown microbial strains are also dominant. Metagenomics is a molecular biology-based technology that uses bioinformatics to evaluate huge gene sequences extracted from environmental samples to assess the composition and function of microbiota. The results of metabarcoding of the V3-V4 16S rRNA regions acquired from paired-end Illumina MiSeq sequencing were used to analyze bacterial communities and structure. The present work demonstrates the potential approach to sludge treatment in the open environment via the naturally adapted microorganism, which could be an essential addition to the disposal site. In summary, these investigations indicate that the indigenous microbial community is an acceptable bioresource for remediation or detoxification following secondary treatment. This research aims at understanding the structure of microbial communities and their diversity (%) in highly contaminated sludge to perform in situ bioremediation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Esgotos/microbiologia
12.
Bioengineered ; 13(4): 10518-10539, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443858

RESUMO

Enzymes of commercial importance, such as lipase, amylase, laccase, phytase, carbonic anhydrase, pectinase, maltase, glucose oxidase etc., show multifunctional features and have been extensively used in several fields including fine chemicals, environmental, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, energy, food industry, agriculture and nutraceutical etc. The deployment of biocatalyst in harsh industrial conditions has some limitations, such as poor stability. These drawbacks can be overcome by immobilizing the enzyme in order to boost the operational stability, catalytic activity along with facilitating the reuse of biocatalyst. Nowadays, functionalized polymers and composites have gained increasing attention as an innovative material for immobilizing the industrially important enzyme. The different types of polymeric materials and composites are pectin, agarose, cellulose, nanofibers, gelatin, and chitosan. The functionalization of these materials enhances the loading capacity of the enzyme by providing more functional groups to the polymeric material and hence enhancing the enzyme immobilization efficiency. However, appropriate coordination among the functionalized polymeric materials and enzymes of interest plays an important role in producing emerging biocatalysts with improved properties. The optimal coordination at a biological, physical, and chemical level is requisite to develop an industrial biocatalyst. Bio-catalysis has become vital aspect in pharmaceutical and chemical industries for synthesis of value-added chemicals. The present review describes the current advances in enzyme immobilization on functionalized polymers and composites. Furthermore, the applications of immobilized enzymes in various sectors including bioremediation, biosensor and biodiesel are also discussed.


Assuntos
Enzimas Imobilizadas , Nanofibras , Biocatálise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Lipase , Nanofibras/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Polímeros/química
13.
Chemosphere ; 297: 134172, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248594

RESUMO

The presence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in water resources has significant negative implications for the environment. Traditional technologies implemented for water treatment are not completely efficient for removing EDCs from water. Therefore, research on sustainable remediation has been mainly directed to novel decontamination approaches including nano-remediation. This emerging technology employs engineered nanomaterials to clean up the environment quickly, efficiently, and sustainably. Thus, nanomaterials have contributed to a wide variety of remediation techniques like adsorption, filtration, coagulation/flocculation, and so on. Among the vast diversity of decontamination technologies catalytic advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) outstand as simple, clean, and efficient alternatives. A vast diversity of catalysts has been developed demonstrating high efficiencies; however, the search for novel catalysts with enhanced performances continues. In this regard, nanomaterials used as nanocatalysts are exhibiting enhanced performances on AOPs due to their special nanostructures and larger specific surface areas. Therefore, in this review we summarize, compare, and discuss the recent advances on nanocatalysts, catalysts doped with metal-based nanomaterials, and catalysts doped with carbon-based nanomaterials on the degradation of EDCs. Finally, further research opportunities are identified and discussed to achieve the real application of nanomaterials to efficiently degrade EDCs from water resources.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Ambientais , Nanoestruturas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carbono , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Gels ; 8(3)2022 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323304

RESUMO

The self-assembly of carbohydrate-based low molecular weight gelators has led to useful advanced soft materials. The interactions of the gelators with various cations and anions are important in creating novel molecular architectures and expanding the scope of the small molecular gelators. In this study, a series of thirteen new C-2 carbamates of the 4,6-O-phenylethylidene acetal-protected D-glucosamine derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. These compounds are rationally designed from a common sugar template. All carbamates synthesized were found to be efficient gelators and three compounds are also hydrogelators. The resulting gels were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and rheology. The gelation mechanisms were further elucidated using 1H NMR spectroscopy at different temperatures. The isopropyl carbamate hydrogelator 7 formed hydrogels at 0.2 wt% and also formed gels with several tetra alkyl ammonium salts, and showed effectiveness in the creation of gel electrolytes. The formation of metallogels using earth-abundant metal ions such as copper, nickel, iron, zinc, as well as silver and lead salts was evaluated for a few gelators. Using chemiluminescence spectroscopy, the metal-organic xerogels showed enzyme-like properties and enhanced luminescence for luminol. In addition, we also studied the applications of several gels for drug immobilizations and the gels showed sustained release of naproxen from the gel matrices. This robust sugar carbamate-derived gelator system can be used as the scaffold for the design of other functional materials with various types of applications.

15.
J Chem Phys ; 156(11): 114303, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317601

RESUMO

The integration of machine learning (ML) methods into chemical catalysis is evolving as a new paradigm for cost and time economic reaction development in recent times. Although there have been several successful applications of ML in catalysis, the prediction of enantioselectivity (ee) remains challenging. Herein, we describe a ML workflow to predict ee of an important class of catalytic asymmetric transformation, namely, the relay Heck (RH) reaction. A random forest ML model, built using quantum chemically derived mechanistically relevant physical organic descriptors as features, is found to predict the ee remarkably well with a low root mean square error of 8.0 ± 1.3. Importantly, the model is effective in predicting the unseen variants of an asymmetric RH reaction. Furthermore, we predicted the ee for thousands of unexplored complementary reactions, including those leading to a good number of bioactive frameworks, by engaging different combinations of catalysts and substrates drawn from the original dataset. Our ML model developed on the available examples would be able to assist in exploiting the fuller potential of asymmetric RH reactions through a priori predictions before the actual experimentation, which would thus help surpass the trial and error loop to a larger degree.

16.
Environ Res ; 211: 113102, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35300964

RESUMO

Non-degradable pollutants have emerged as a result of industrialization, population growth, and lifestyle changes, endangering human health and the environment. Bioremediation is the process of clearing hazardous contaminants with the help of microorganisms, and cost-effective approach. The low-cost and environmentally acceptable approach to removing environmental pollutants from ecosystems is microbial bioremediation. However, to execute these different bioremediation approaches successfully, this is imperative to have a complete understanding of the variables impacting the development, metabolism, dynamics, and native microbial communities' activity in polluted areas. The emergence of new technologies like next-generation sequencing, protein and metabolic profiling, and advanced bioinformatic tools have provided critical insights into microbial communities and underlying mechanisms in environmental contaminant bioremediation. These omics approaches are meta-genomics, meta-transcriptomics, meta-proteomics, and metabolomics. Moreover, the advancements in these technologies have greatly aided in determining the effectiveness and implementing microbiological bioremediation approaches. At Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-The government placed special emphasis on exploring how molecular and "omic" technologies may be used to determine the nature, behavior, and functions of the intrinsic microbial communities present at pollution containment systems. Several omics techniques are unquestionably more informative and valuable in elucidating the mechanism of the process and identifying the essential player's involved enzymes and their regulatory elements. This review provides an overview and description of the omics platforms that have been described in recent reports on omics approaches in bioremediation and that demonstrate the effectiveness of integrated omics approaches and their novel future use.

17.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147481

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine which plays a crucial role in controlling inflammatory responses. The pathway of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) leading to TNF-alpha is activated by macrophages and quite often by natural killer cells and lymphocytes. In the inflammatory phase, it is believed to be the main mediator and to be anchored with the progression of different diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The major goal of this study is to use in silico docking studies to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of a bioactive molecule from the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. The three-dimensional structures of different phytochemicals of A. paniculata were obtained from PubChem database, and the receptor protein was derived from PDB database. Docking analysis was executed using AutoDock vina, and the binding energies were compared. Bisandrographolide A and Andrographidine C revealed the highest score of -8.6 Kcal/mol, followed by, Neoandrographolide (-8.5 Kcal/mol). ADME and toxicity parameters were evaluated for these high scoring ligands and results showed that Andrographidine C could be a potent drug, whereas Neoandrographolide and Bisandrographolide A can be modified in in vitro and can lead to a promising drug. Further, the top scorer (Andrographidine C) and control drug (Leflunomide) were subjected to 100 ns MD Simulation. The protein complex with Andrographidine C had more stable confirmation with lower RMSD (0.28 nm) and higher binding energy (-133.927 +/- 13.866 kJ/mol). In conclusion, Andrographidine C may be a potent surrogate to the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD's) & Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) that has fewer or minor adverse effects and can aid in RA management.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193957

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) endures a combination of metal scarcity and toxicity throughout the human infection cycle, contributing to complex clinical manifestations. Pathogens counteract this paradoxical dysmetallostasis by producing specialized metal trafficking systems. Capture of extracellular metal by siderophores is a widely accepted mode of iron acquisition, and Mtb iron-chelating siderophores, mycobactin, have been known since 1965. Currently, it is not known whether Mtb produces zinc scavenging molecules. Here, we characterize low-molecular-weight zinc-binding compounds secreted and imported by Mtb for zinc acquisition. These molecules, termed kupyaphores, are produced by a 10.8 kbp biosynthetic cluster and consists of a dipeptide core of ornithine and phenylalaninol, where amino groups are acylated with isonitrile-containing fatty acyl chains. Kupyaphores are stringently regulated and support Mtb survival under both nutritional deprivation and intoxication conditions. A kupyaphore-deficient Mtb strain is unable to mobilize sufficient zinc and shows reduced fitness upon infection. We observed early induction of kupyaphores in Mtb-infected mice lungs after infection, and these metabolites disappeared after 2 wk. Furthermore, we identify an Mtb-encoded isonitrile hydratase, which can possibly mediate intracellular zinc release through covalent modification of the isonitrile group of kupyaphores. Mtb clinical strains also produce kupyaphores during early passages. Our study thus uncovers a previously unknown zinc acquisition strategy of Mtb that could modulate host-pathogen interactions and disease outcome.


Assuntos
Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Quelantes/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Metais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sideróforos/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia
19.
Bioengineered ; 13(3): 4923-4938, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164635

RESUMO

Industrial effluents/wastewater are the main sources of hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) pollutants in the environment. Cr (VI) pollution has become one of the world's most serious environmental concerns due to its long persistence in the environment and highly deadly nature in living organisms. To its widespread use in industries Cr (VI) is highly toxic and one of the most common environmental contaminants. Cr (VI) is frequently non-biodegradable in nature, which means it stays in the environment for a long time, pollutes the soil and water, and poses substantial health risks to humans and wildlife. In living things, the hexavalent form of Cr is carcinogenic, genotoxic, and mutagenic. Physico-chemical techniques currently used for Cr (VI) removal are not environmentally friendly and use a large number of chemicals. Microbes have many natural or acquired mechanisms to combat chromium toxicity, such as biosorption, reduction, subsequent efflux, or bioaccumulation. This review focuses on microbial responses to chromium toxicity and the potential for their use in environmental remediation. Moreover, the research problem and prospects for the future are discussed in order to fill these gaps and overcome the problem associated with bacterial bioremediation's real-time applicability.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo/química , Cromo/toxicidade , Humanos , Solo , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Chemosphere ; 295: 133823, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114263

RESUMO

Heavy metals phytoremediation from pulp and paper industry (PPI) sludge was conducted by employing root-associated Brevundimonas sp (PS-4 MN238722.1) in rhizospheric zone of Saccharum munja L. for its detoxification. The study was aimed to investigate the efficiency of Saccharum munja L. for the removal of heavy metals along with physico-chemical parameters through bacterial interactions. Physico-chemical examination of PPI sludge showed biochemical oxygen demand (8357 ± 94 mg kg-1), electrical conductivity (2264 ± 49 µmhoscm-1), total phenol (521 ± 24 mg kg-1), total dissolve solid (1547 ± 23 mg kg-1), total nitrogen (264 ± 2.13 mg kg-1), pH (8.2 ± 0.11), chemical oxygen demand (34756 ± 214 mg kg-1), color (2434 ± 45 Co-Pt), total suspended solid (76 ± 0.67 mg kg-1), sulphate (2462 ± 13 mg kg-1), chlorolignin (597 ± 13.01 mg kg-1), K+ (21.04 ± 0.26 mg kg-1), total solid (1740 ± 54 mg kg-1), phosphorous, Cl-, and Na+. Heavy metals, such as Fe followed by Zn, Mn, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, As, Cr and Hg were above the permissible limit. Root and shoot of Saccharum munja L. revealed highest concentrations of Cd followed by Mn, Ni, Fe, Zn, Cu, As, Cr, Hg, and Pb. Tested metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, As, and Hg) bioaccumulation and translocation factors were also revealed to be < 1 and >1, respectively, demonstrating that these plants have considerable absorption and translocation abilities. Plant growth-promoting activity, such as ligninolytic enzymes, hydrolytic enzymes, indole acetic acid, and siderophore production activity of Brevundimonas sp. (PS-4 MN238722.1) were also noted to be higher. These findings support the use of Brevundimonas sp (PS-4 MN238722.1) in combination with Saccharum munja L. plant as interdisciplinary management of industrial sludge at polluted areas for the prevention of soils near the industrial site.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Saccharum , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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