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Sci Total Environ ; 703: 134774, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734495

RESUMO

In arsenic (As) endemic areas of south-east Asia, where a subsistence rice-based diet is prevalent, As exposure from food is mainly focused on rice intake. However, consumption of wheat is substantial and increasing. We present a probabilistic assessment of increased cancer risk from wheat-based food intake in a study population of rural Bihar, India where As exposure is endemic. Total As in wheat grains (43.64 ±â€¯48.19 µg/kg, n = 72) collected from 77 households across 19 villages was found to be lower than reported As in wheat grains from other south-east Asian countries but higher than a previous study from Bihar. This is the first study where As concentration in wheat flour was used for risk estimation, bearing in mind that it was the flour obtained after indigenous household processing of the grains that was used for making the home-made bread (chapati) which contributed 95% of wheat intake for the studied population. Interestingly, while 78% of the surveyed participants (n = 154) consumed rice every day, chapati was consumed every day by 99.5% of the participants. In contrast to previous studies, where As concentration in wheat grains was found to be lower than the flour due to the removal of the bran on grinding, we did not find any appreciable lowering of arsenic in the wheat flour (49.80 ±â€¯74.08 µg/kg, n = 58), most likely due to external contamination during processing and grinding. Estimated gender adjusted excess lifetime cancer risk of 1.23 × 10-4 for the studied rural population of Bihar indicated risk higher than the 10-4-10-6 range, typically used by the USEPA as a threshold to guide regulatory values. Hence, our findings suggest As exposure from wheat-based food intake to be of concern not only in As endemic areas of rural Bihar but also in non-endemic areas with similar wheat-based diet due to public distribution of the wheat across India.


Assuntos
Triticum , Arsênio , Farinha , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Índia , Oryza
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