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1.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110765, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425170

RESUMO

Wool is a biodegradable fiber, rich in nutrients and can be recycled in soil as a fertilizer for maximum benefits. The present study was planned with the hypothesis that waste wool could be used as a nutrient source or manure to forage crops and aim of this study was to identify practicable recycling options of sheep based wastes in agriculture. In our study, we have compared the effect of different sheep based organic wastes on soil health, crop productivity and water use. Application of waste wool in soil significantly improved the fertility status of soil, and considerable improvement was also observed in organic carbon and nitrogen, i.e. around 30.8 and 32.6% higher over control. The activities of soil enzymes were 10-30% and 3-20% higher in waste wool treatment as compared to control and sheep based manures, respectively. Application of waste wool not only improved soil health but produced 50% higher grain and dry fodder yield of barley over control. The improvement in physical properties of soil with waste wool resulted in higher water use efficiency of the system. Our study will help in distinguishing choices for safe use of organic wastes along with up gradation of soil health and crop water utilization, particularly in nutrient poor soils of arid and semi-arid region of India.

2.
Clin Radiol ; 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345438

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the diagnostic performance of split-bolus dual-energy computed tomography (CT) urography (SBDECTU) in the detection and characterisation of urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-centre Institute Ethics Committee (IEC)-approved prospective study was conducted from April 2014 to November 2015. One hundred and thirty consenting adults with microscopic haematuria underwent dual-energy true non-enhanced CT (DETNE) of the whole abdomen followed by a SBDECTU. The SBDECTU protocol consisted of synchronous nephrogram-urogram acquisition following urine dilution by oral hydration and normal saline injection. Calculi were detected and characterised using virtual non-enhanced (VNE) images derived from SBDECT were compared with DETNE (the reference standard). The subjective image quality and radiation dose were compared. RESULTS: Twenty-six participants had one or more calculi (total 129 calculi) detected on DETNE CT. The sensitivity and specificity of VNE on a per-patient basis were 100%. Of the 129 calculi, 118 were detected on VNE, with a sensitivity of 91.47% and an accuracy of 91.47%. Of the calculi, 83.9% (99/118) could be characterised on SBDECTU images. On VNE images, complete iodine subtraction was seen in 73.1% (19/26). By omitting DETNE CT, the mean dose-length product of 537.6±152.9 mGy and volume CT dose index of 10.9±2.9 mGy•cm2 could have been saved. CONCLUSION: SBDECTU has high diagnostic accuracy in the detection and characterisation of clinically significant urinary calculi at potentially half the radiation dose.

4.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 139: 1-13, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270765

RESUMO

Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), primarily caused by the water mold Aphanomyces invadans, is an OIE-notifiable disease, having potential impacts on fisheries. We report EUS epizootics among estuarine fishes of Kerala, India, during 2018, under post-flood conditions 3 decades after its primary outbreak. Six fish species (Mugil cephalus, Platycephalus sp., Scatophagus argus, Arius sp., Planiliza macrolepis and Epinephelus malabaricus) were infected, including the first confirmed natural case in E. malabaricus and P. macrolepis. Salinity, surface temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH of resident water during the epizootic were <2 ppt, 25°C, 4.1 ppm and 7.0. The presence of zoonotic bacterial pathogens (Aeromonas veronii, Shewanella putrefaciens, Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus) in tissues of affected fish indicates that EUS-infected fish may pose a public health hazard if not handled properly. Lack of clinical evidence in the region during the last 3 decades, a high number of affected fishes, including 2 new fish species, the severity of skin lesions and very low water salinity (<2 ppt) during the outbreak in contrast to historical water salinity records suggest relatively recent invasion by A. invadans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene showed that the same clone of pathogen has spread across different continents regardless of fish species and ecotypes (fresh/estuarine environments). Altogether, the present study provides baseline data which can be applied in EUS management strategies within brackish-water ecosystems. We recommend strict surveillance and development of sound biosecurity measures against the disease.


Assuntos
Inundações , Animais , Ecossistema , Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes , Índia , Filogenia
5.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 7(2): 87-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236397

RESUMO

The neuropsychological scores and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) are significant to measure the cognitive and functional domain of the patients affected by the Alzheimer's Disease. Further, there are standardized dataset available today that are curated from several centers across the globe that aid in development of Computer Aided Diagnosis tools. However, there are numerous clinical tests to measure these scores that lead to a challenging task for their assessment in diagnosis. Also, the datasets suffer from common missing and imbalanced data issues. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based framework to overcome these issues. Empirical results demonstrate that improved performance of Genetic Algorithm is obtained for the neuropsychological scores after Miss Forest Imputation and for FAQ scores is obtained after subjecting it to the Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique.

7.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 294: 113472, 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243956

RESUMO

Kisspeptin (Kiss) is considered an upstream regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in mammals but its role in non-mammalian vertebrates is not unequivocally established. In the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis, a 605 bp long cDNA was identified from the brain by cloning as well as by retrieving from the catfish transcriptome database. The open reading frame (ORF, 93-405 bp) codes for a 113 amino acids long precursor protein. Homology and phylogenetic analyses showed that the predicted protein belongs to the vertebrate Kiss2 type with a high degree of conservation in the Kiss2-10 region (FNFNPFGLRF). The kiss2 transcripts were expressed highly in the brain and gonads in a dimorphic manner with a female bias. In the brain, kiss2 transcripts showed regional differences with higher expression in the medulla oblongata and forebrain regions. The kiss2 transcripts showed significant seasonal variations with the highest expression in the brain in spawning phase and in the gonads in prespawning phase. The kiss2 transcripts were localized in the brain (nucleus preopticus, habenular nucleus, nucleus recessus posterioris, nucleus recessus lateralis) and stratum periventriculare (radial glial cells) of optic tectum, pituitary and ovary (follicular layer and germinal vesicle). Ovariectomy (1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) decreased brain kiss2 mRNA levels and a single injection of estradiol-17ß (E2; 0.5 µg/g body weight) in 3- week ovariectomized (OVX) and sham operated fish resulted in an increase in the transcript levels after 24 h. The E2 receptor antagonist Tamoxifen (TMX) produced biphasic effects on the kiss2 expression in the dose- response study. TMX inhibited the expression in the OVX fish, but elicited a stimulatory effect in the OVX + E2-treated fish. Testosterone (T) decreased, and progesterone (P4) inhibited (resting phase) or stimulated (prespawning phase) the transcript level in 3-week OVX fish. In the 3-week sham groups, E2 increased, and TMX, T and P4 inhibited the kiss2 transcript levels. The results suggest that Kiss2 is an important regulator of the brain- pituitary- gonadal- endocrine axis, and in habenular and optic tectum functions.

8.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(4): 362-365, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews our experience of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser in transcanal totally endoscopic cholesteatoma surgery. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre, involving a consecutive series of children with cholesteatoma who underwent totally endoscopic cholesteatoma surgery with a KTP laser. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 10.5 years (range, 1.8-18 years). A KTP laser was used in 70 of the 83 cases (84 per cent). The laser was not used in 13 'clean' cases, in which disease was removed more easily. Residual disease was detected in five cases (6 per cent), of which the KTP laser had been used in four (5 per cent). No complications were associated with KTP laser use. CONCLUSION: The combination of KTP laser use with endoscopic visualisation is effective for minimising the risk of residual disease using a minimally invasive surgical approach. The thin, semi-flexible fibre carrier of the KTP laser is ideally suited to work alongside the endoscope within the narrow confines of the ear canal.


Assuntos
Colesteatoma da Orelha Média/cirurgia , Meato Acústico Externo/cirurgia , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Meato Acústico Externo/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Neoplasia Residual/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(7): 077203, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142343

RESUMO

In this work we combine theory and experiment to study transient magnetic circular dichroism (TRMCD) in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range in bulk Co and CoPt. We use the ab initio method of real-time time-dependent density functional theory to simulate the magnetization dynamics in the presence of short laser pulses. From this we demonstrate how TRMCD may be calculated using an approximation to the excited-state linear response. We apply this approximation to Co and CoPt and show computationally that element-specific dynamics of the local spin moments can be extracted from the TRMCD in the extreme ultraviolet energy range, as is commonly assumed. We then compare our theoretical prediction for the TRMCD for CoPt with experimental measurement and find excellent agreement at many different frequencies including the M_{23} edge of Co and N_{67} and O_{23} edges of Pt.

10.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114337, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193082

RESUMO

The present study attempts to explore and compare the seasonal variability in chemical composition and contributions of different sources of fine and coarse fractions of aerosols (PM2.5 and PM10) in Delhi, India from January 2013 to December 2016. The annual average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were 131 ± 79 µg m-3 (range: 17-417 µg m-3) and 238 ± 106 µg m-3 (range: 34-537 µg m-3), respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were chemically characterized to assess their chemical components [i.e. organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water soluble inorganic ionic components (WSICs) and heavy and trace elements] and then used for estimation of enrichment factors (EFs) and applied positive matrix factorization (PMF5) model to evaluate their prominent sources on seasonal basis in Delhi. PMF identified eight major sources i.e. Secondary nitrate (SN), secondary sulphate (SS), vehicular emissions (VE), biomass burning (BB), soil dust (SD), fossil fuel combustion (FFC), sodium and magnesium salts (SMS) and industrial emissions (IE). Total carbon contributes ∼28% to the total PM2.5 concentration and 24% to the total PM10 concentration and followed the similar seasonality pattern. SN and SS followed opposite seasonal pattern, where SN was higher during colder seasons while SS was greater during warm seasons. The seasonal differences in VE contributions were not very striking as it prevails evidently most of year. Emissions from BB is one of the major sources in Delhi with larger contribution during winter and post monsoon seasons due to stable meteorological conditions and aggrandized biomass burning (agriculture residue burning in and around the regions; mainly Punjab and Haryana) and domestic heating during the season. Conditional Bivariate Probability Function (CBPF) plots revealed that the maximum concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were carried by north westerly winds (north-western Indo Gangetic Plains of India).

11.
Osteoporos Int ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222788

RESUMO

In this secondary analysis of six qualitative studies, we found that approximately one-quarter of individuals with fragility fracture were serving as informal caregivers. The caregiving role appeared to be a cause of the fracture for some and was prioritized over bone health, acting as a barrier to bone health management. INTRODUCTION: Among fragility fracture patients serving as informal caregivers, our objective was to examine how caregiving responsibilities were associated with, and possibly impacted by, the fracture experience and the resulting management of bone health. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis (amplified analysis) of six qualitative studies to understand caregiver responsibilities and the relationship between these responsibilities and patients' management of the fracture and bone health. The primary studies and the secondary analysis were conducted from a phenomenological approach. Eligible individuals in the primary studies were English-speaking men and women who were 45+ years old recruited from three settings (local, provincial, and national). RESULTS: Without being prompted to talk about their experience of caregiving, 33 of 145 (23%) individuals reported they were providing care to a family member or friend at the time of their fracture or during recovery post-fracture. The experience of having caregiving responsibilities was related to the fracture and bone health in two ways: (1) the caregiving role appeared to be a cause of the fracture in some participants and (2) caregiving was prioritized over participants' own bone health and was a barrier to bone health management. CONCLUSION: Fragility fracture is associated with, and potentially leads to an impairment of, an important social role in patients providing physical and emotional support and supervision for dependents as caregivers. Further, an important cause of fragility fracture can occur in the act of caregiving.

12.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216276

RESUMO

We present the first application of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as new, customizable hardware architectures for carrying out fast and energy-efficient quantum dynamics simulations of large chemical/material systems. Instead of tailoring the software to fixed hardware, which is the typical case for writing quantum chemistry code for central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs), FPGAs allow us to directly customize the underlying hardware (even at the level of specific electrical signals in the circuit) to give a truly optimized computational performance for quantum dynamics calculations. By offloading the most intensive and repetitive calculations onto an FPGA, we show that the computational performance of our real-time electron dynamics calculations can even exceed that of optimized commercial mathematical libraries running on high-performance GPUs. In addition to this impressive computational speedup, we show that FPGAs are immensely energy-efficient and consume 4 times less energy than modern GPU or CPU architectures. These energy savings are a practical and important metric for supercomputing centers (many of which exceed over $1 million in power costs alone), as exascale computing capabilities become more widespread and commonplace. Taken together, the implementation techniques and performance metrics of our study demonstrate that FPGAs could play a promising role in upcoming quantum chemistry and materials science applications, particularly for the acceleration and energy-efficient execution of quantum dynamics calculations.

13.
J Dent Res ; 99(5): 530-536, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197057

RESUMO

This study evaluates contributions of jaw injury and experimental pain sensitivity to risk of developing painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Data were from the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) nested case-control study of incident painful TMD. Injury and subsequent onset of painful TMD were monitored prospectively for ≤5 y in a community-based sample of 409 US adults who did not have TMD when enrolled. At baseline, thermal-pressure and pinprick pain sensitivity, as potential effect modifiers, were measured using quantitative sensory testing. During follow-up, jaw injury from any of 9 types of potentially traumatic events was determined using quarterly (3-monthly) health update questionnaires. Study examiners classified incident painful TMD, yielding 233 incident cases and 176 matched controls. Logistic regression models, estimated incidence odds ratios (IORs), and 95% confidence limits (CLs) were used for the association between injury and subsequent onset of painful TMD. During follow-up, 38.2% of incident cases and 13.1% of controls reported 1 or more injuries that were 4 times as likely to be intrinsic (i.e., sustained mouth opening or yawning) as extrinsic (e.g., dental visits, whiplash). Injuries due to extrinsic events (IOR = 7.6; 95% CL, 1.6-36.2), sustained opening (IOR = 5.4; 95% CL, 2.4-12.2), and yawning (IOR = 3.4; 95% CL, 1.6-7.3) were associated with increased TMD incidence. Both a single injury (IOR = 6.0; 95% CL, 2.9-12.4) and multiple injuries (IOR = 9.4; 95% CL, 3.4,25.6) predicted greater incidence of painful TMD than events perceived as noninjurious (IOR = 1.9; 95% CL, 1.1-3.4). Injury-associated risk of painful TMD was elevated in people with high sensitivity to heat pain (IOR = 7.4; 95% CL, 3.1-18.0) compared to people with low sensitivity to heat pain (IOR = 3.9; 95% CL, 1.7-8.4). Jaw injury was strongly associated with elevated painful TMD risk, and the risk was amplified in subjects who had enhanced sensitivity to heat pain at enrollment. Commonly occurring but seemingly innocuous events, such as yawning injury, should not be overlooked when judging prognostic importance of jaw injury.

15.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(2): 18-22, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009356

RESUMO

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory connective tissue disorder with wide spectrum of presentation from polyarthritis to multisystem involvement. Apart from bones, muscles and other soft tissues, Vitamin D receptors have been found on many immune cells and tissues. The most vital function of Vitamin D is calcium and phosphorus absorption but it can also act as an immune-modulator hormone, which can affects both innate and adaptive immune responses leading to autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To study the relationship of vitamin D insufficiency with disease activity and functional disability in patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Material and Methods: The present study was an observational, cross sectional study done in a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The inclusion criteria comprised of patients attending the inpatient (IPD) and outpatient department (OPD), age above 18 years and fulfilling 1987 American college of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. The exclusion criteria was patients suffering from any other connective tissue disorder (CTD) and patients who were taking vitamin D supplements for past 6 months. Thirty patients were enrolled in the study after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria and appropriate clinical data and blood sample were collected after informed consent. Joint examination were performed and swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count (TJC), patient global assessment (PGA) and evaluator global assessment (EGA) scores were recorded. Disease activity using DAS28ESR, DAS28CRP and CDAI were calculated and disability index was assessed using Short Fries Health Assessment Questionnaire. Results: In our study mean vitamin D level was 18.93 ng/ml (S.D. 6.64 ng/ml). Mean DAS28 ESR was 4.57±1.48. Mean Disability Index was 0.52±0.89. All the study population had low Vitamin D level (100%), while 50% patients had vitamin D level in deficiency range (<20ng/ml). On analysis by student t-test, statistically higher PGA (p value 0.024) and Disability Index (p value < 0.001) in vitamin D deficient patients, compared to vitamin D insufficient patient group was observed, however there was no significant difference in disease activity between the groups. Conclusion: Low Vitamin D levels are common in Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients. Mean PGA significantly increased, and disability index significantly increased in Vitamin D deficient group compared to insufficient group suggesting vitamin D deficient patients poor wellbeing and more disability.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Sci Adv ; 6(3): eaay8717, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010774

RESUMO

The vision of using light to manipulate electronic and spin excitations in materials on their fundamental time and length scales requires new approaches in experiment and theory to observe and understand these excitations. The ultimate speed limit for all-optical manipulation requires control schemes for which the electronic or magnetic subsystems of the materials are coherently manipulated on the time scale of the laser excitation pulse. In our work, we provide experimental evidence of such a direct, ultrafast, and coherent spin transfer between two magnetic subsystems of an alloy of Fe and Ni. Our experimental findings are fully supported by time-dependent density functional theory simulations and, hence, suggest the possibility of coherently controlling spin dynamics on subfemtosecond time scales, i.e., the birth of the research area of attomagnetism.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(13): 6804-6808, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989122

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that are harmful to both the environment and human health. Using self-interaction-corrected Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, we provide the first real-time assessment of PFAS degradation in the presence of excess electrons. In particular, we show that the initial phase of the degradation involves the transformation of an alkane-type C-C bond into an alkene-type C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond in the PFAS molecule, which is initiated by the trans elimination of fluorine atoms bonded to these adjacent carbon atoms.

20.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 39(2): 117-126, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797691

RESUMO

Icariin, a major component of Epimedium species, was evaluated using isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats. Rats were treated with icariin at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg kg-1 orally for 15 days. Afterward, rats were administered with ISO (85 mg kg-1, subcutaneous) on 14th and 15th day to produce cardiac injury. Sildenafil (0.7 mg kg-1, intraperitoneal) was used as a positive reference to compare the effects of icariin. ISO-treated rats showed significant changes in hemodynamic parameters. Elevated levels of cardiac troponin T, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in serum, positive expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase in cardiac tissue, and a decrease in serum level of interleukin-10, manifested inflammation and associated cardiac injury. However, pretreatment with icariin and sildenafil significantly prevented the hemodynamic fall and showed improved contractile and lusitropic states. Furthermore, pretreatment groups also showed a reversal of other toxicity markers to normal. Additionally, pretreatment with icariin and sildenafil significantly increased the myocardial cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels. Our results thus indicated the potential role of icariin in the restoration of the ISO-induced cardiac toxicity and restored membrane integrity through modulation of cGMP and NF-κB signaling.

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