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1.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(9): 555, 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962834

RESUMO

Microbes regulate soil health by negating ecological disturbances, and improve plant productivity in a sustainable manner. Indiscriminate application of pesticides creates a detrimental impact on the rhizospheric microbiota, thereby affecting soil health. Azadirachtin, earlier believed to be an environment-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides, exhibits a non-target impact on microbial communities. This study aimed to employ potent bacteria to promote the growth of mungbean plant (Vigna radiata), and mitigate the non-target impact of azadirachtin. Bacterial strains were isolated by enrichment from mungbean rhizosphere. A plant growth experiment was performed with mungbean, amended with azadirachtin to assess the impact of bacterial bioinoculants on the rhizospheric microbiota. The impact of azadirachtin on rhizospheric bacterial community was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE and qPCR of various markers, respectively. Residual concentration of azadirachtin in the soil was estimated by HPLC. The bacterial inoculants used in combination significantly promoted plant growth and enhanced the diversity and abundance of total bacterial community in the presence of azadirachtin. Further, the abundance of specific bacterial groups (α-Proteobacteria, ß-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes) were significantly boosted. Compared to the control, the isolates significantly facilitated the reduction in residual concentration of azadirachtin in the mungbean rhizosphere. Bacterial inoculants can serve a tripartite role in reducing the stress imparted by botanical pesticides, together with promoting plant growth and enriching the rhizospheric bacterial community structure.

2.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

3.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(6): 308, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534776

RESUMO

Fabrics serve as fomites in spreading nosocomial infections. As a patient is in close contact with bedsheets, it is important to assess the seasonal variation in bacterial diversity on these in healthcare units. The study was conducted to characterise the bacterial diversity on patients' bedsheets across 7 months in a primary healthcare unit. Polyester-cotton blend fabric was stitched on bedsheets, and temporal dynamics of bacterial communities was assessed from May to November 2019. qPCR and amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was performed for profiling of bacterial community. Results revealed the dominance of Bacillota followed by Pseudomonadota, and Actinomycetota. A seasonal variation was observed in the bacterial load, with maximum values in June. This indicates the impact of environmental conditions on bacterial abundance and composition on fabrics in healthcare unit. The presence of priority pathogens on the patient bedsheets is a human health concern reiterating the need for season-specific laundering protocol.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Clima , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estações do Ano
4.
J Appl Microbiol ; 133(2): 254-272, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35352450

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses detrimentally affect both plant and soil health, threatening food security in an ever-increasing world population. Sustainable agriculture is necessary to augment crop yield with simultaneous management of stresses. Limitations of conventional bioinoculants have shifted the focus to more effective alternatives. With the realization of the potential of rhizospheric microbiome engineering in enhancing plant's fitness under stress, efforts have accelerated in this direction. Though still in its infancy, microbiome-based engineering has gained popularity because of its advantages over the microbe-based approach. This review briefly presents major abiotic stresses afflicting arable land, followed by an introduction to the conventional approach of microbe-based enhancement of plant attributes and stress mitigation with its inherent limitations. It then focuses on the significance of the rhizospheric microbiome and possibilities of harnessing its potential by its strategic engineering for stress management. Further, success stories related to two major approaches of microbiome engineering (generation of synthetic microbial community/consortium, and host-mediated artificial selection) pertaining to stress management have been critically presented. Together with bringing forth the challenges associated with the wide application of rhizospheric microbiome engineering in agriculture, the review proposes the adoption of a combinational scheme for the same, bringing together ecological and reductionist approaches for improvised sustainable agricultural practices.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rizosfera , Agricultura , Microbiota/genética , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Fisiológico
5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 835931, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35308367

RESUMO

Among the various plant-associated microbiota, endophytes (the microbial communities inhabiting plant endosphere without causing disease symptoms) exhibit the most intimate and specific association with host plants. Endophytic microbes influence various aspects of plant responses (such as increasing availability of nutrients, tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses, etc.) by modulating the primary and secondary metabolism of the host. Besides, endophytic microbes produce a diverse array of bioactive compounds, which have potential applications in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries. Further, there is sufficient evidence for endophyte-derived plant metabolites, which could be pursued as alternative sources of commercially important plant metabolites. The field of bioprospecting, the discovery of novel chemistries, and endophyte-mediated production of plant metabolites have witnessed a boom with the advent of omics technologies (especially metabolomics) in endophyte research. The high throughput study of small metabolites at a particular timepoint or tissue forms the core of metabolomics. Being downstream to transcriptome and proteome, the metabolome provides the most direct reflection of the phenotype of an organism. The contribution of plant and microbial metabolomics for answering fundamental questions of plant-endophyte interaction, such as the effect of endophyte inoculation on plant metabolome, composition of metabolites on the impact of environmental stressors (biotic and abiotic), etc., have also been discussed.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(3): 3171-3183, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718953

RESUMO

Soil microbiome is a dynamic micro-ecosystem driving and fine-tuning several biological processes in the global macro-ecosystems. Its tremendous potential towards mediating sustainability in the ecosystem necessitates the urgent need to store it optimally and efficiently as "next-generation biologicals" for future applications via soil transplantation. The challenge, therefore, is to devise a strategy for the storage of soil microbiome such that its "functionality" is preserved for later application. This review discusses the current endeavours made towards storage of the soil microbiome. The methods for assessing the integrity of soil microbiome by targeting the structural diversity and functional potential of the preserved microbiomes have also been discussed. Further, the success stories related to the storage of fecal microbiome for application in transplants have also been highlighted. This is done primarily with the objective of learning lessons, and parallel application of the knowledge gained, in bringing about improvement in the research domain of soil microbiome storage. Subsequently, the limitations of current techniques of preservation have also been delineated. Further, the open questions in the area have been critically discussed. In conclusion, possible alternatives for storage, comprehensive analyses of the composition of the stored microbiome and their potential have been presented.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Agricultura , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(3): 272-281, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to explore the potential role and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in tumor shrinkage and resultant mandibular preservation in oral cancers compared with conventional surgical treatment. METHODS: This study was a single-center, randomized, phase II trial of treatment-naive histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity with cT2-T4 and N0/N+, M0 (American Joint Committee on Cancer, seventh edition) stage, necessitating resection of the mandible for paramandibular disease in the absence of clinicoradiologic evidence of bone erosion. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either upfront surgery (segmental resection) followed by adjuvant treatment (standard arm [SA]) or two cycles of NACT (docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil) at 3-week intervals (intervention arm [IA]), followed by surgery dictated by postchemotherapy disease extent. All patients in the IA received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and patients in the SA were treated as per final histopathology report. The primary end point was mandible preservation rate. The secondary end points were disease-free survival and treatment-related toxicity. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients were enrolled over 3 years and randomly assigned to either SA (34 patients) or IA (34 patients). The median follow-up was 3.6 years (interquartile range, 0.95-7.05 years). Mandibular preservation was achieved in 16 of 34 patients (47% [95% CI, 31.49 to 63.24]) in the IA. The disease-free survival (P = .715, hazard ratio 0.911 [95% CI, 0.516 to 1.607]) and overall survival (P = .747, hazard ratio 0.899 [95% CI, 0.510 to 1.587]) were similar in both the arms. Complications were similar in both arms, but chemotherapy-induced toxicity was observed in the majority of patients (grade III: 14, 41.2%; grade IV: 11, 32.4%) in the IA. CONCLUSION: NACT plays a potential role in mandibular preservation in oral cancers with acceptable toxicities and no compromise in survival. However, this needs to be validated in a larger phase III randomized trial.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Osteotomia Mandibular , Neoplasias Bucais/terapia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia , Osteotomia Mandibular/efeitos adversos , Osteotomia Mandibular/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22895, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819575

RESUMO

Biocontrol agents serve as a sustainable means of controlling wilt caused by the widespread plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The present study aimed to develop water dispersible granules (WDG) using response surface methodology (RSM) for Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2274 and Trichoderma harzianum MTCC 3928, and to compare their antifungal efficacy with other formulations. Further, characterization of the bioactive metabolites responsible for biocontrol was performed. A new microbial formulation, WDG, was developed in the present study with talcum powder (substrate), alginic acid (dispersing agent) and acacia gum (wetting agent) (suspensibility 82.23%; wetting time 2.5 min; dispersion time 10.08 min) that fulfilled the guidelines of Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC). In planta study demonstrated that WDG of B. subtilis showed maximum reduction in disease incidence (48%) followed by talc formulation of B. subtilis (44%) and WDG of T. harzianum (42%) with profound effect on plant growth promotion. B. subtilis and T. harzianum demonstrated protease (929 and 846 U ml-1 min-1), chitinase (33.69 and 154 U ml-1 min-1), and ß-1,3-glucanase (12.69 and 21.47 U ml-1 min-1) activities. Culture filtrates of B. subtilis and T. harzianum exhibited significant inhibition against mycelial growth of pathogen. The compounds present in the culture filtrates were identified with GC-MS as fatty acids, alkanes, phenols, benzene, pyran derivatives etc. The major non-volatile compounds in bioactive antifungal fraction were identified as derivatives of morpholine and piperdine for T. harzianum and B. subtilis, respectively. The findings propose a multivariate biocontrol mechanism against phytopathogen by production of hydrolytic enzymes, volatile and non-volatile compounds, together with development of an efficient next-generation formulation.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/metabolismo , Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757556

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cattle is widespread because of the increased use of antibiotics to combat microbial diseases and enhance milk production. The cattle excreta released into the environment can be a potent source of contamination in spreading antibiotic resistance, especially upon its application in agriculture. However, the correlation of AMR profile of manure with other physico-chemical parameters is limited. Therefore, the study aimed to generate AMR profiles for manure samples collected from 25 different sites of two agriculturally important states in India, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Samples were tested for physico-chemical parameters, viz., electrical conductivity, pH, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), and total potassium (K). Bacterial community analysis was done by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The influence of feeding practices, nutrient concentration, and bacterial abundance on antibiotic resistance profiles was observed in collected manure samples. Manures of intensive feeding animals harbored highly resistant profiles of bacteria as compared to natural grazing cattle.

11.
Am J Infect Control ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contaminated textiles serve as fomites in healthcare settings. The extent of transfer of pathogens from fabrics depends on the surface properties of the 2 contact surfaces. METHODS: In the current study, the effect of surface energy and surface roughness of fabrics on the transfer of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to and from textiles to surrogate skin were determined. Three fabrics (100% cotton, 100% polyester, and 50-50 blend of cotton and polyester) having identical constructional parameters, were characterised on the basis of surface roughness, and energy. Assessment of transfer of bacteria was carried out by bringing the matrix seeded with inoculum in contact with the sterilized matrix for a predetermined period of time, followed by dislodging of cells from the recipient surface by vortexing, and plating. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Results showed that 100% polyester attracted the highest number of bacterial cells compared to the others. It also released the maximum number of bacteria upon coming in contact with surrogate skin. Properties of fabrics like absorbency, surface energy, and surface roughness, simultaneously affected transfer. CONCLUSIONS: It is advisable to minimize the use of 100% polyester in healthcare settings to curb the transfer load of bacteria from one surface to another.

12.
Microb Ecol ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405251

RESUMO

The rhizosphere is a dynamic and complex interface between plant roots and microorganisms. Owing to exudates, a web of interactions establishes among the microbial members of this micro-environment. The present study explored the impact of a bacterial consortium (Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens, ABP), on the fate of a human pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e, in soil and in the rhizospheres of Cajanus cajan and Festuca arundinacea, in addition to its plant growth promoting effect. The study further assessed the impact these bioinoculants exert on the autochthonous soil bacterial communities. Experiments in sterilised soil inoculated with bioinoculants and L. monocytogenes revealed the inhibition of L. monocytogenes by approximately 80-fold compared to that without the consortium. Subsequently, experiments were conducted in non-sterile soil microcosms planted with C. cajan and F. arundinacea, and in bulk soil. The consortium led to a significant increase in plant growth in both plants and prevented growth of L. monocytogenes. However, the presence of resident soil bacterial communities overshadowed this inhibitory effect, and a sharp decline in L. monocytogenes populations (5-6 log reduction) was recorded under non-sterile soil conditions. A shift in the soil resident bacterial communities was observed upon amendment with the bioinoculants. A significant increase of potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and biocontrol agents was observed, while the abundance of potential phytopathogens dropped. The present study opens up new avenues for the application of such a consortium given their dual benefits of plant growth promotion and restricting phytopathogens as well as human pathogen.

13.
Oral Oncol ; 121: 105502, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tracheostomy (TT) and delayed extubation (DE) are two approaches to postoperative airway management in patients after major oral cancer surgery. We planned a study to determine the safety of overnight intubation followed by extubation the next morning (DE) compared to elective TT and to identify factors that were associated with a safe DE (maintenance of a patent airway). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in a tertiary referral cancer care center. We included adult patients undergoing elective major oral cancer surgery under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The decision regarding postoperative airway management using either TT or DE was made according to the usual practice at our center. RESULTS: We screened a total of 4477 patients, 720 patients were included. DE was performed in 417 patients (58.4%) and TT in 303 patients (42.4%). On multivariable analysis, T1-T2 tumor stage, absence of extensive resection, primary closure or reconstruction using fasciocutaneous flap, absence of preoperative radiation, no neck dissection or unilateral neck dissection and shorter duration of anesthesia were independent predictors for a safe DE. Overall complications (4.3% versus 22.5%, p = 0.00) and airway complications (1.7% versus 8.7%, p = 0.00) were lower in the DE compared to the TT group respectively. DE was associated with a shorter hospital stay (7.2 ± 3.7 versus 11.5 ± 7.2 days, p = 0.00), time to oral intake and speech compared to TT. CONCLUSIONS: A DE strategy after major oral cancer surgery is a safe alternative to TT in a select group of patients.


Assuntos
Extubação , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais , Traqueostomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Physiol Mol Biol Plants ; 27(7): 1547-1557, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366596

RESUMO

Salinity is a major abiotic stress that negatively impacts plant health and soil microbiota. ACC (1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid) deaminase producing microorganisms act as natural stress busters that protect plants from different kinds of stresses. The study focused on the isolation of potent, indigenous, multi-trait ACC deaminase producers. The shortlisted ACC deaminase producers were checked for their ability to promote growth of Cajanus cajan, and mitigate stress under laboratory conditions followed by validation of their potency in naturally saline field conditions. Physiological stress markers were assessed to evaluate the impact of salinity in plants treated with ACC deaminase producer, compared to controls. Further, the contribution of ACC deaminase in stress mitigation was demonstrated by using a chemical inhibitor for ethylene biosynthesis. This study presents a polyphasic approach, transitioning from the rhizospheric soil to the laboratory to validation in the field, and puts forth a promising eco-friendly alternative for sustainable agriculture. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-021-01031-0.

15.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142921

RESUMO

A patient is in close proximity to different types of textiles in hospital environment, which contribute to the transfer of drug-resistant bacteria in healthcare settings. This study was undertaken to estimate the temporal variations in bacterial load on bedsheets in a primary healthcare unit in Delhi. Data were collected for a period of 7 months. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates was performed. The mean count of Acinetobacter spp. was highest (2.10 × 102 CFU/cm2), and Klebsiella spp. showed the least mean count (7.5 × 101 CFU/cm2). The mean bacterial count over the period showed maximum bacterial load for most microbial groups in June, and minimum in November. Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus spp. were highly resistant to different antibiotics, while Acinetobacter spp. and Group A Streptococcus showed the least resistance toward the antibiotics tested. Bacterial counts on bedsheets were found to vary with the time of the year, indicating that environmental factors affect bacterial load.

16.
Braz J Microbiol ; 52(1): 373-386, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415718

RESUMO

Improper nutrient management is one of the major limitations linked with cultivation of Cajanus cajan. This calls for an urgent need for a promising alternative, employing both bioinoculants and chemical fertilizer. Present study attempted to understand the impact of bioinoculants {Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas fluorescens (ABP)} as their mono-inoculations, triple-inoculation, and their combination with different doses of fertilizer on (a) plant parameters, (b) soil nitrogen (N) economy, (c) resident bacterial community, (d) genes and transcripts involved in N cycle, and to evaluate the extent to which fertilizer could be replaced by ABP without compromising on grain yield. Bradyrhizobium sp. was used in all the treatments (as it was recommended for C. cajan). Combined application of bioinoculants and 75% of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) led to 1.28-fold enhancement in grain yield as compared to RDF alone. Apart from exerting a positive impact on grain yield, the combined application of ABP and fertilizer led to an improvement in soil fertility, and modified the culturable rhizospheric bacterial community involved in N cycle. Integrated use of bioinoculants and fertilizer led to better N substrate utilization and hence, metabolic diversity when compared with application of fertilizer alone. An increase in the transcripts of nifH gene at the harvest stage in the soil treated with ABP alone and its combination with fertilizer, over individual treatment with fertilizer was observed. The combined use of ABP and fertilizer shaped the resident bacterial community towards a more beneficial community, which helped in increasing soil nitrogen turnover and hence, soil fertility as a whole.


Assuntos
Cajanus/microbiologia , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Inoculantes Agrícolas , Agricultura/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Nutrientes
17.
Indian J Microbiol ; 61(1): 31-37, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505090

RESUMO

In sectors like healthcare and hospitality, it has been realized that fabrics play a pivotal role in transfer of nosocomial infections. However, there is a major gap in drawing correlation between different fibre types and their interaction with microorganisms. Such information is important to formulate guidelines for textile materials for use in these sectors. In the current study, the adherence of four important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied on six different fibre types namely polyester, wool, polypropylene, viscose, silk and cotton. Among these fibres, viscose showed maximum adherence while silk fibres showed the least attachment of bacterial strains. Bacterial adhesion was correlated with the surface characteristics (surface charge, hydrophobicity etc.) of bacteria, and nanoroughness of fibres. Adhesion of these bacteria was tested on five hydrocarbons of different hydrophobicities. E. coli, the weakest biofilm producer, and with the highest surface energy and lowest hydrophobicity amongst the bacteria compared in the study, had the lowest load on all fibres. Scanning electron microscopy revealed non-uniform binding of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Nanoroughness of fibres favored bacterial adhesion. The study showed correlation between surface properties and adherence of bacteria on fibres, with the results being of direct significance to medical and hospitality sectors.

18.
3 Biotech ; 11(2): 82, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505837

RESUMO

Efficient transformation system for genetic improvement is essential in Crocus sativus, as it lacks sexual reproduction. This is the first report wherein an efficient protocol is developed for the transformation of Crocus sativus L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ARqua1 with a transformation efficiency of 78.51%. The ARqua1 strain harboring both Ri plasmid and binary vector plasmid pSITE-4NB, and marker genes for red fluorescent protein (RFP) and a ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene were used for selection. Transformation was confirmed by RFP signal, GUS reporter assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the test samples after 21 days post inoculation. These results confirm the establishment of protocol for hairy root transformation in C. sativus that can be further used for gene transfer or gene editing in Crocus for its genetic improvement.

19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(7): 2687-2695, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modern agricultural management approaches are often dependent on the application of chemicals, resulting in adverse impacts on human and environmental health. Therefore, for sustainable agriculture, there is a need to implement integrated agriculture practices that can maintain natural soil microbiome and enhance crop production. Various agricultural approaches influence crop production by impacting the functional bacterial community entailed in biogeochemical cycles, for example, nitrogen (N) cycle. This study aimed to assess the rhizospheric N cycling community of soybean under three agricultural practices, namely, conservation agriculture (CA), conventional treatment (CT), and organic agriculture (OA) for two consecutive years (2017 and 2018). RESULTS: A field experiment was designed under soybean-wheat cropping system employing CA, CT, and OA modules that included different practices of tillage, crop bedding pattern, crop residue retention, and nutrient application. Assessment of bacterial communities contributing to N transformation was performed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of important markers (nifH, amoA, narG, and nirK). CONCLUSION: Results concluded that the practice of conservation agriculture comprising of raised bed, zero tillage, crop residue retention, and application of NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) nutrients favorably affected the plant attributes and the abundance of N cycling bacterial community over the two consecutive years. The outcome revealed the mechanistic principle behind enhanced plant growth under conservation agriculture, and opened up the possibility of regulating the N cycling bacterial community to develop sustainable and productive agro-ecosystems. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol ; 13(8): 40-44, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178381

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anogenital warts (AGWs) are one of the leading sexually transmitted infections in the world. This condition poses a number of challenges to dermatologists, including the reluctance of patients to consult a physician and the high likelihood of relapse. Individuals with AGWs suffer a substantial psychological morbidity. Intralesional immunotherapy with the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has been reported to be an effective treatment for warts. However, literature on the efficacy of intralesional immunotherapy with the MMR vaccine for the treatment of anogenital warts is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy of the MMR vaccine for the treatment of anogenital warts at an outpatient dermatology department in Government Medical College Haldwani in India. METHODS: This was a hospital-based, longitudinal study the included 35 patients. In patients with genital warts, 0.5mL of the MMR vaccine after reconstitution with distilled water was injected intradermally into their single largest wart. Injections were given every three weeks until a maximum of three injections was achieved. Pre- and posttreatment photographs were assessed to compare the degree of reduction in the size and number of warts. The therapeutic response was evaluated as follows: No response (<50% reduction in the number of warts), Relative response (50%-99% reduction), complete response (100% reduction). RESULTS: On average, a 42.4-percent response was observed in the first three weeks after administering the MMR vaccine, which increased to 75.8 percent after the second vaccine at six weeks and nearly 98 percent after the last vaccine at nine weeks. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that intralesional immunotherapy with the MMR vaccine can serve as a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of AGWs.

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