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1.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 3: 100023, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769163

RESUMO

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

2.
Microorganisms ; 9(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442645

RESUMO

Fungus-bacterium interactions are widespread, encompass multiple interaction types from mutualism to parasitism, and have been frequent targets for microbial inoculant development. In this study, using in vitro systems combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR, we test whether the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Kosakonia radicincitans can provide protection to the plant-beneficial fungus Serendipita indica, which inhabits the rhizosphere and colonizes plants as an endophyte, from the fungus-feeding bacterium Collimonas fungivorans. We show that K. radicincitans can protect fungal hyphae from bacterial feeding on solid agar medium, with probable mechanisms being quick hyphal colonization and biofilm formation. We furthermore find evidence for different feeding modes of K. radicincitans and C. fungivorans, namely "metabolite" and "hyphal feeding", respectively. Overall, we demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first evidence for a bacterial, biofilm-based protection of fungal hyphae against attack by a fungus-feeding, bacterial predator on solid agar medium. Besides highlighting the importance of tripartite microbial interactions, we discuss implications of our results for the development and application of microbial consortium-based bioprotectants and biostimulants.

3.
Microbiol Res ; 240: 126556, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683279

RESUMO

The synergistic interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can enhance growth and phosphorous uptake in plants. Since PSBs are well known hyphal colonizers we sought to understand this physical interaction and exploit it in order to design strategies for the application of a combined microbial inoculum. Phosphate-solubilizing bacteria strongly attached to the hyphae of Rhizoglomus irregulare were isolated using a two compartment system (root and hyphal compartments), which were separated by a nylon mesh through which AMF hyphae could pass but not plant roots. Allium ampeloprasum (Leek) was used as the host plant inoculated with R. irregulare. A total of 128 bacteria were isolated, of which 12 showed stable phosphate solubilizing activity. Finally, three bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas showed the potential for inorganic and organic phosphate mobilization along with other plant growth promoting traits. These PSBs were further evaluated for their functional characteristics and their interaction with AMF. The impact of single or co-inoculations of the selected bacteria and AMF on Solanum lycopersicum was tested and we found that plants inoculated with the combination of fungus and bacteria had significantly higher plant biomass compared to single inoculations, indicating synergistic activities of the bacterial-fungal consortium.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Glomeromycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glomeromycota/fisiologia , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Glomeromycota/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/metabolismo , Ácidos Fosforosos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol ; 35(2): 182-187, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303706

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has multifactorial etiology. It is a commonly encountered morbidity after anesthesia specially following middle ear surgery. Various antiemetic medications have been tried with mixed responses. Palonosetron is a newer 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonist marketed for PONV prophylaxis. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of palonosetron and ondansetron in preventing PONV after middle ear surgeries. Material and Methods: One hundred patients of ASA class 1 or 2, aged 18 years and above, weighing between 40 and 90 kg scheduled for elective middle ear surgeries were randomly assigned into palonosetron group (n = 50) and ondansetron group (n = 50). Palonosetron was administered in dose of 1 mcg/kg maximum up to 75 mcg and ondansetron in dose of 0.1 mg/kg maximum up to 8 mg. Intraoperative monitoring of QTc interval was also done to see any significant change after the antiemetic administration. The incidence of nausea, vomiting, and side effects were recorded over 2, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. All parameters were compared between the two groups as mean ± standard deviation and as count (%). Two sided P values of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: The incidence of PONV (P = 0.002), nausea (P = 0.0002) and vomiting (P = 0.006) was significantly lower in palonosetron group than in ondansetron group in 2- to 12-hour period. QTc interval prolongation, a known side effect of ondansetron was not found in palonosetron group intraoperatively. Conclusion: Palonosetron was found to be superior to ondansetron up to 12 hours after the surgery with no significant effect on QTc interval.

5.
3 Biotech ; 8(1): 9, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259884

RESUMO

The importance of germplasm characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources in various breeding programmes. In the present study, genetic variability and relationships among 25 Lactuca sativa L. genotypes were tested using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers. A total of 45 random decamer oligonucleotide primers were examined to generate RAPD profiles, out of these reproducible patterns were obtained with 22 primers. A total of 87 amplicon were obtained, out of which all were polymorphic and 7 were unique bands. The level of polymorphism across genotypes was 100% as revealed by RAPD. Genetic similarity matrix, based on Jaccard's coefficients ranged from 13.7 to 84.10% indicating a wide genetic base. Dendrogram was constructed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages method. RAPD technology could be useful for identification of different accessions as well as assessing the genetic similarity among different genotypes of lettuce. The study reveals the limited genetic base and the needs to diversify using new sources from the germplasm.

6.
Taiwan J Ophthalmol ; 7(3): 155-159, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29034155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the cost effectiveness, outcomes and impact of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening and management model for urban neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). STUDY DESIGN: Public health intervention study. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2013. Staff of a mobile unit assessed all infants aged less than 34 weeks of Gestation age at birth and/or birth weight 1700 GM or less admitted in five NICUs between 2013 and 2015. A trained ophthalmologist performed bedside ROP screening through dilated pupils using indirect ophthalmoscope. ROP was graded and managed as per the International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity treatment guidelines. Counseling and laser treatment were the interventions. The incidence, grade and determinants of ROP were estimated. Direct and indirect costs were calculated to estimate the unit cost of screening and managing a child with ROP using the model. RESULTS: The study sample included 102 preterm/underweight infants. The prevalence of ROP of different grades in either eye was 32% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 23.2-41.5). ROP stage I was present in 75% of these eyes. The model could help in preventing/reducing visual disability in 4 infants with advanced stages of ROP. The unit cost of ROP screening, identifying one child with ROP and addressing visual disability due to ROP was US $ 198.9, 596.7 and 4,137.4 respectively. CONCLUSION: A mobile screening is likely feasible and cost-effective method to detect ROP and offer timely intervention for NICU in urban areas with limited resources.

7.
J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect ; 6(1): 48, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27896783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious endophthalmitis is a serious sight threatening intraocular inflammation that results from exogenous or endogenous spread of organisms into the eye.A retrospective case series to study the profile of endophthalmitis following clear corneal phacoemulsification in western India between years 2008 and 2014 was held in the National Institute of Ophthalmology, Pune, India. Cases of endophthalmitis post-clear corneal phacoemulsification were reviewed pertaining to demography, clinical history, surgeon experience, surgical complications, time of onset following surgery, duration between onset of symptoms and presentation to the center, presenting visual acuity and at follow-ups, slit-lamp examination and ultrasound findings, vitreous tap culture results, treatment, and final functional and anatomical outcomes. RESULTS: Of 60 cases, 34 were operated in the tertiary center and 26 were referred. The incidence of endophthalmitis post clear corneal phacoemulsification performed at the tertiary center was 0.17%. Mean time delay between onset of symptoms and presentation to the tertiary care center was 2.6 days. Fifty percent cases were culture +ve, of which 80% were Gram +ve and 20% were Gram -ve, no fungal isolates. Coagulase -ve staphylococcus was the most common causative organism; rare isolates included Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Streptococcus mitis. Twenty-six eyes underwent primary vitrectomy. Mean presenting visual acuity was 2.14 ± 0.07 logMAR units which improved to logMAR 0.98 ± 0.12 at final follow-up. Presenting VA was >20/200 in 13.3% and

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