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Ann Surg ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596074


OBJECTIVE: To obtain novel perspectives regarding the effects that surgical training has on the well-being of trainees. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Improving trainee well-being is a national concern given high rates of burnout, depression, and suicide among physicians. Supporters of surgical trainees may offer new perspectives regarding the effects of surgical training and point to strategies to optimize trainee wellness. METHODS: This qualitative study employs semi-structured interviews of 32 support persons of trainees at a single tertiary care center with multiple surgical training programs. Interviews focused on perspectives related to supporting a surgical trainee. Interview transcripts underwent qualitative analysis with semantic and conceptual coding. Themes related to effects of training on trainee wellness are reported. RESULTS: Four themes were identified: (1)Who Can Endure the Most Hardship?-trainee attributes and programmatic factors contribute to trainees feeling the need to constantly endure the most hardship; (2)Consequences of Hardship-constantly enduring hardships has significant negative effects on wellness; (3)Trainees are Humans-trainees are people with basic human needs, especially the need for worth; (4)Research Time as Refuge-dedicated research time is treated as an oasis away from clinical hardships. CONCLUSIONS: Perspectives from support persons can offer valuable insight into the wellness needs of surgical trainees. According to support persons, surgical training profoundly negatively impacts trainee wellness. Unlike during clinical training, dedicated research time is a period during which wellness can be prioritized. Programs should provide greater attention to mitigating the negative ramifications of surgical training and promoting wellness in a longitudinal fashion throughout training.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479991


COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to infection. Using peripheral monocytes and sera from human patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and a murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-A59) (an established murine model of SARS), we identified that coronavirus induces an increased Mφ-mediated inflammatory response due to a coronavirus-induced decrease in the histone methyltransferase, SETDB2. This decrease in SETDB2 upon coronavirus infection results in a decrease of the repressive trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) at NFkB binding sites on inflammatory gene promoters, effectively increasing inflammation. Mφs isolated from mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of SETDB2 displayed increased pathologic inflammation following coronavirus infection. Further, IFNß directly regulates SETDB2 in Mφs via JaK1/STAT3 signaling, as blockade of this pathway altered SETDB2 and the inflammatory response to coronavirus infection. Importantly, we also found that loss of SETDB2 mediates an increased inflammatory response in diabetic Mϕs in response to coronavirus infection. Treatment of coronavirus-infected diabetic Mφs with IFNß reversed the inflammatory cytokine production via up-regulation of SETDB2/H3K9me3 on inflammatory gene promoters. Together, these results describe a potential mechanism for the increased Mφ-mediated cytokine storm in patients with T2D in response to COVID-19 and suggest that therapeutic targeting of the IFNß/SETDB2 axis in T2D patients may decrease pathologic inflammation associated with COVID-19.

Coronavirus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
Ann Surg ; 274(3): e295-e300, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856389


OBJECTIVE: To obtain insights into the effects of surgical training on the well-being of support persons. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Surgical trainee wellness is a critical priority among surgical educators and leaders. The impact of surgical training on the wellness of loved ones who support trainees has not been previously studied. METHODS: This qualitative study employs semi-structured interviews of 32 support persons of surgical trainees at a single tertiary care center with multiple surgical specialty training programs. Interviews focused on perceptions about supporting a surgical trainee. Transcripts underwent thematic analysis with semantic and conceptual coding. Key themes regarding the effects that caring for a trainee has on support persons are reported. RESULTS: Three key themes were identified: (1) Sacrifices-support persons report significant tangible and intangible sacrifices, (2) Delaying life-life is placed on hold to prioritize training, and (3) A disconnect-there is a disconnect and a lack of recognition of support person needs that require greater awareness and targeted interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of surgical training can extend beyond trainees and can affect the wellness of their support persons who endure the effects of training alongside trainees. Programs should be aware of these effects and develop meaningful strategies to aid trainees and their support persons.

Família/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Apoio Social , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/educação , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Apoio ao Desenvolvimento de Recursos Humanos , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
Surgery ; 168(5): 851-858, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782115


BACKGROUND: A form of telehealth, a surgical electronic clinic (E-clinic, video or telephone visit) is a safe and efficient way for delivering care; however, factors leading to poor clinic utilization are not well-described. This study was performed to gather electronic clinic utilization data and to better define barriers to visit completion. METHODS: A retrospective review of 199 patients cared for by a general surgery service with subsequent referral to the electronic clinic (January 2019 to June 2019) was performed. Data regarding demographics, medical characteristics, travel distance, and postoperative complications were collected. Patients were categorized based upon visit completion. The χ2 and Fisher exact analyses were performed as appropriate. Reasons for cancellations were categorized. RESULTS: More than 1/5 of all patients (21.6%) failed to complete the visit. No differences were observed in completion rates according to the type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, and age. The failed-completion group had a significantly (P < .05) higher proportion of non-Caucasian patients and those with a marital status of single. Travel distance had no impact. Complication rates were low. Pre-clinic readmission within 30 days contributed to failed completion. Reasons for cancellation included medical issues, technical difficulties, and patient preference to have no follow-up in the electronic clinic. CONCLUSION: Several factors contribute to a patient's failure to complete an electronic clinic visit including marital status, medical complications, technical issues, and patient preference. Electronic clinic utilization patterns also demonstrate racial disparities. Successful electronic clinic program implementation requires understanding the factors that contribute to failed visits to address them and improve access.

Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
Drug Dev Res ; 76(6): 328-42, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26284568


MicroRNAs (miRs) have been causally implicated in the progression and development of a wide variety of cancers. miRs modulate the activity of key cell signaling networks by regulating the translation of pathway component proteins. Thus, the pharmacological targeting of miRs that regulate cancer cell signaling networks, either by promoting (using miR-supplementation) or by suppressing (using antisense oligonucleotide-based strategies) miR activity is an area of intense research. The RAS-extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway represents a major miR-regulated signaling network that endows cells with some of the classical hallmarks of cancer, and is often inappropriately activated in malignancies by somatic genetic alteration through point mutation or alteration of gene copy number. In addition, recent progress indicates that many tumors may be deficient in GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) due to the collaborative action of oncogenic miRs. Recent studies also suggest that in tumors harboring a mutant RAS allele there is a critical role for wild type RAS proteins in determining overall RAS-ERK pathway activity. Together, these two advances comprise a new opportunity for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we evaluate miR-based therapeutic strategies for modulating RAS-ERK signaling in cancers; in particular for more direct modulation of RAS-GTP levels, with the potential to complement current strategies to yield more durable treatment responses. To this end, we discuss the potential for miR-based therapies focused on three prominent miRs including the pan-RAS regulator let-7 and the GAP regulator comprised of miR-206 and miR-21 (miR-206/21).

MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Animais , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
Mol Cell Biol ; 34(22): 4143-64, 2014 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25202123


Despite the low prevalence of activating point mutation of RAS or RAF genes, the RAS-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is implicated in breast cancer pathogenesis. Indeed, in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), there is recurrent genetic alteration of pathway components. Using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) methods, we observed that the zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) can promote RAS-ERK signaling in TNBC cells. Endogenous KLF4 bound to the promoter regions and promoted the expression of two microRNAs (miRs), miR-206 and miR-21 (i.e., miR-206/21). Antisense-mediated knockdown (anti-miR) revealed that miR-206/21 coordinately promote RAS-ERK signaling and the corresponding cell phenotypes by inhibiting translation of the pathway suppressors RASA1 and SPRED1. In TNBC cells, including cells with mutation of RAS, the suppression of either RASA1 or SPRED1 increased the levels of GTP-bound, wild-type RAS and activated ERK 1/2. Unlike the control cells, treatment of RASA1- or SPRED1-suppressed cells with anti-miR-206/21 had little or no impact on the level of activated ERK 1/2 or on cell proliferation and failed to suppress tumor initiation. These results identify RASA1 and SPRED1 mRNAs as latent RAS-ERK pathway suppressors that can be upregulated in tumor cells by anti-miR treatment. Consequently, KLF4-regulated miRs are important for the maintenance of RAS-ERK pathway activity in TNBC cells.

Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína p120 Ativadora de GTPase/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteína p120 Ativadora de GTPase/metabolismo