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1.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917229

RESUMO

The association between fish consumption and new-onset type 2 diabetes is inconsistent and differs according to geographical location. We examined the association between the total and types of fish consumption and type 2 diabetes using individual participant data from 28 prospective cohort studies from the Americas (6), Europe (15), the Western Pacific (6), and the Eastern Mediterranean (1) comprising 956,122 participants and 48,084 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for associations of total fish, shellfish, fatty, lean, fried, freshwater, and saltwater fish intake and type 2 diabetes were derived for each study, adjusting for a consistent set of confounders and combined across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. We stratified all analyses by sex due to observed interaction (p = 0.002) on the association between fish and type 2 diabetes. In women, for each 100 g/week higher intake the IRRs (95% CIs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.02 (1.01-1.03, I2 = 61%) for total fish, 1.04 (1.01-1.07, I2 = 46%) for fatty fish, and 1.02 (1.00-1.04, I2 = 33%) for lean fish. In men, all associations were null. In women, we observed variation by geographical location: IRRs for total fish were 1.03 (1.02-1.04, I2 = 0%) in the Americas and null in other regions. In conclusion, we found evidence of a neutral association between total fish intake and type 2 diabetes in men, but there was a modest positive association among women with heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by geographical location and types of fish intake. Future research should investigate the role of cooking methods, accompanying foods and environmental pollutants, but meanwhile, existing dietary regional, national, or international guidelines should continue to guide fish consumption within overall healthy dietary patterns.

2.
BMJ ; 372: n254, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in household purchases of drinks and confectionery one year after implementation of the UK soft drinks industry levy (SDIL). DESIGN: Controlled interrupted time series analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Members of a panel of households reporting their purchasing on a weekly basis to a market research company (average weekly number of participants n=22 183), March 2014 to March 2019. INTERVENTION: A two tiered tax levied on manufacturers of soft drinks, announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018. Drinks with ≥8 g sugar/100 mL (high tier) are taxed at £0.24/L and drinks with ≥5 to <8 g sugar/100 mL (low tier) are taxed at £0.18/L. Drinks with <5 g sugar/100 mL (no levy) are not taxed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and relative differences in the volume of, and amount of sugar in, soft drinks categories, all soft drinks combined, alcohol, and confectionery purchased per household per week one year after implementation of the SDIL compared with trends before the announcement of the SDIL. RESULTS: In March 2019, compared with the counterfactual estimated from pre-announcement trends, purchased volume of drinks in the high levy tier decreased by 155 mL (95% confidence interval 240.5 to 69.5 mL) per household per week, equivalent to 44.3% (95% confidence interval 59.9% to 28.7%), and sugar purchased in these drinks decreased by 18.0 g (95% confidence interval 32.3 to 3.6 g), or 45.9% (68.8% to 22.9%). Purchases of low tier drinks decreased by 177.3 mL (225.3 to 129.3 mL) per household per week, or 85.9% (95.1% to 76.7%), with a 12.5 g (15.4 to 9.5 g) reduction in sugar in these drinks, equivalent to 86.2% (94.2% to 78.1%). Despite no overall change in volume of no levy drinks purchased, there was an increase in sugar purchased of 15.3 g (12.6 to 17.9 g) per household per week, equivalent to 166.4% (94.2% to 238.5%). When all soft drinks were combined, the volume of drinks purchased did not change, but sugar decreased by 29.5 g (55.8 to 3.1 g), or 9.8% (17.9% to 1.8%). Purchases of confectionery and alcoholic drinks did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with trends before the SDIL was announced, one year after implementation, the volume of soft drinks purchased did not change. The amount of sugar in those drinks was 30 g, or 10%, lower per household per week-equivalent to one 250 mL serving of a low tier drink per person per week. The SDIL might benefit public health without harming industry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN18042742.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
3.
J Nutr ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33693815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of legumes is promoted as part of a healthy diet in many countries but associations of total and types of legume consumption with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well established. Analyses across diverse populations are lacking despite the availability of unpublished legume consumption data in prospective cohort studies. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prospective associations of total and types of legume intake with the risk of incident T2D. METHODS: Meta-analyses of associations between total legume, pulse, and soy consumption and T2D were conducted using a federated approach without physical data-pooling. Prospective cohorts were included if legume exposure and T2D outcome data were available and the cohort investigators agreed to participate. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and CIs of associations using individual participant data including ≤42,473 incident cases among 807,785 adults without diabetes in 27 cohorts across the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, and Western Pacific. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine effect estimates and estimate heterogeneity. RESULTS: Median total legume intake ranged from 0-140 g/d across cohorts. We observed a weak positive association between total legume consumption and T2D (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04) per 20 g/d higher intake, with moderately high heterogeneity (I2 = 74%). Analysis by region showed no evidence of associations in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, and Western Pacific. The positive association in Europe (IRR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10, I2 = 82%) was mainly driven by studies from Germany, UK, and Sweden. No evidence of associations was observed for the consumption of pulses or soy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest no evidence of an association of legume intakes with T2D in several world regions. The positive association observed in some European studies warrants further investigation relating to overall dietary contexts in which legumes are consumed, including accompanying foods which may be positively associated with T2D.

4.
Am J Prev Med ; 60(3): e111-e121, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612170

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Around 23% of adults worldwide are insufficiently active. Wearable devices paired with virtual coaching software could increase physical activity. The effectiveness of 3 minimal contact interventions (paper-based physical activity diaries, activity trackers, and activity trackers coupled with virtual coaching) in increasing physical activity energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness were compared over 12 weeks among inactive adults. METHODS: This was an open label, parallel-group RCT. Inactive adults (aged ≥18 years, N=488) were randomized to no intervention (Control; n=121), paper-based diary (Diary; n=124), activity tracker (Activity Band; n=122), or activity tracker plus virtual coaching (Activity Band PLUS; n=121) groups. Coprimary outcomes included 12-week changes in physical activity energy expenditure and fitness (May 2012-January 2014). Analyses were conducted in 2019-2020. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups overall (physical activity energy expenditure: p=0.114, fitness: p=0.417). However, there was a greater increase in physical activity energy expenditure (4.21 kJ/kg/day, 95% CI=0.42, 8.00) in the Activity Band PLUS group than in the Diary group. There were also greater decreases in BMI and body fat percentage in the Activity Band PLUS group than in the Control group (BMI= -0.24 kg/m2, 95% CI= -0.45, -0.03; body fat= -0.48%, 95% CI= -0.88, -0.08) and in theActivity Band PLUS group than in the Diary group (BMI= -0.30 kg/m2, 95% CI= -0.50, -0.09; body fat= -0.57%, 95% CI= -0.97, -0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Coupling activity trackers with virtual coaching may facilitate increases in physical activity energy expenditure compared with a traditional paper‒based physical activity diary intervention and improve some secondary outcomes compared with a traditional paper‒based physical activity diary intervention or no intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov ISRCTN31844443.

5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 49, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characteristics of the built environment, such as neighbourhood fast-food outlet exposure, are increasingly recognised as risk factors for unhealthy diet and obesity. Obesity also has a genetic component, with common genetic variants explaining a substantial proportion of population-level obesity susceptibility. However, it is not known whether and to what extent associations between fast-food outlet exposure and body weight are modified by genetic predisposition to obesity. METHODS: We used data from the Fenland Study, a population-based sample of 12,435 UK adults (mean age 48.6 years). We derived a genetic risk score associated with BMI (BMI-GRS) from 96 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Neighbourhood fast-food exposure was defined as quartiles of counts of outlets around the home address. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the associations of each exposure, independently and in combination, with measured BMI, overweight and obesity, and investigated interactions. RESULTS: We found independent associations between BMI-GRS and risk of overweight (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.47) and obesity (RR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.55-1.93), and between fast-food outlet exposure and risk of obesity (highest vs lowest quartile RR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.21-2.05). There was no evidence of an interaction of fast-food outlet exposure and genetic risk on BMI (P = 0.09), risk of overweight (P = 0.51), or risk of obesity (P = 0.27). The combination of higher BMI-GRS and highest fast-food outlet exposure was associated with 2.70 (95% CI 1.99-3.66) times greater risk of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated independent associations of both genetic obesity risk and neighbourhood fast-food outlet exposure with adiposity. These important drivers of the obesity epidemic have to date been studied in isolation. Neighbourhood fast-food outlet exposure remains a potential target of policy intervention to prevent obesity and promote the public's health.

6.
Appetite ; 161: 105124, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482301

RESUMO

Appetitive traits influence food intake and weight gain throughout the life-course. Here, we investigated whether maternal attitudes to following healthy infant feeding guidelines could modify this association. Baseline data from 544 mother-infant formula-feeding dyads recruited to the Baby Milk Trial were included in this observational, cross-sectional analysis. Infant appetitive traits (food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness), maternal attitudes to following healthy infant feeding guidelines (self-efficacy, outcome-expectancy, intentions) and infant milk intakes were reported by mothers through questionnaires. Infant weight was measured using standard procedures. Associations between the maternal attitudes score or infant appetitive traits with infant milk intake and infant weight were evaluated in linear regression models adjusted for infant sex and age. To identify effect modification, the interaction term between the maternal attitudes score and infant appetitive trait was added to the model. Infants' mean age and weight were 2.3 months (SD = 0.9) and 5.5 kg (SD = 0.9), respectively. The mean daily infant milk intake reported by mothers was 895 ml/day (SD = 215). Higher maternal attitudes score was associated with lower infant milk intake (Beta = -68.4 ml/day/unit (95% CI: 96.6, -40.2)) and infant weight (Beta = -0.13 SD/unit (-0.25, -0.02)). The maternal attitudes score showed interactions with infant food responsiveness on infant milk intake (p = 0.049), and with infant satiety responsiveness on infant weight (p = 0.01). In both cases, a higher maternal attitudes score attenuated the associations between infant appetitive traits and those outcomes. This analysis provides evidence that positive maternal attitudes to following healthy infant feeding guidelines attenuate the effects of infant appetitive traits on infant milk intake and body weight.

7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 171: 108625, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333204

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) and investigate characteristics associated with higher diagnoses, building on previous meta-analyses and exploring heterogeneity. METHODS: Systematic literature review of studies published up to October 2019. We included studies reporting progression to T2DM ≥6 months after pregnancy, if diagnostic methods were reported and ≥50 women with GDM participated. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression of absolute and relative T2DM risk. PROSPERO ID: CRD42017080299. RESULTS: In 129 included studies, the percentage diagnosed with T2DM was 12% (95% confidence interval 8-16%) higher for each additional year after pregnancy, with a third developing diabetes within 15 years. Development was 18% (5-34%) higher per unit BMI at follow-up, and 57% (39-70%) lower in White European populations compared to others (adjusted for ethnicity and follow-up). Women with GDM had a relative risk of T2DM of 8.3 (6.5-10.6). 17.0% (15.1-19.0%) developed T2DM overall, although heterogeneity between studies was substantial (I2 99.3%), and remained high after accounting for various study-level characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Percentage developing T2DM after GDM is highly variable. These findings highlight the need for sustained follow-up after GDM through screening, and interventions to reduce modifiable risk factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term weight loss may lead to remission of type 2 diabetes but the effect of maintained weight loss on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. We quantified the associations between changes in weight 5 years following diabetes diagnosis, and incident CVD events and mortality up to 10 years after diagnosis. METHODS: Observational analysis of the ADDITION-Europe trial of 2,730 adults with screen-detected type 2 diabetes from the UK, Denmark, and the Netherlands. We defined weight change based on the maintenance at 5-years of weight loss achieved in the year after diabetes diagnosis, and as 5-year overall change in weight. Incident CVD events (n=229) and all-cause mortality (n=225) from years 5-10 follow-up were ascertained from medical records. FINDINGS: Gaining >2% weight in the year after diabetes diagnosis was associated with higher hazard of all-cause mortality vs maintaining weight [Hazard Ratio(HR)(95%CI): 3.18(1.30-7.82)]. Losing ≥5% weight 1 year after diagnosis was also associated with mortality, whether or not weight loss was maintained at 5 years [2.47(0.99-6.21) and 2.72(1.17-6.30), respectively]. Losing ≥10% weight over 5 years was associated with mortality among those with BMI<30kg/m2 [4.62(1.87-11.42)]. Associations with CVD incidence were inconclusive. INTERPRETATION: Both weight loss and weight gain after screen-detected diabetes diagnosis were associated with higher mortality, but not CVD events, particularly among participants without obesity. The clinical implications of weight loss following diabetes diagnosis are likely to depend on its magnitude and timing, and may differ by BMI status. Personalisation of weight loss advice and support may be warranted. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Islet autoimmunity is associated with diabetes incidence. We investigated whether there was an interaction between dietary fish intake or plasma phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration with the 65-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) antibody positivity on the risk of developing adult-onset diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 11,247 incident cases of adult-onset diabetes and 14,288 noncases from the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study conducted in eight European countries. Baseline plasma samples were analyzed for GAD65 antibodies and phospholipid n-3 PUFAs. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes in relation to GAD65 antibody status and tertiles of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA or fish intake were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Additive (proportion attributable to interaction [AP]) and multiplicative interactions between GAD65 antibody positivity (≥65 units/mL) and low fish/n-3 PUFA were assessed. RESULTS: The hazard of diabetes in antibody-positive individuals with low intake of total and fatty fish, respectively, was significantly elevated (HR 2.52 [95% CI 1.76-3.63] and 2.48 [1.79-3.45]) compared with people who were GAD65 antibody negative and had high fish intake, with evidence of additive (AP 0.44 [95% CI 0.16-0.72] and 0.48 [0.24-0.72]) and multiplicative (P = 0.0465 and 0.0103) interactions. Individuals with high GAD65 antibody levels (≥167.5 units/mL) and low total plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs had a more than fourfold higher hazard of diabetes (HR 4.26 [2.70-6.72]) and an AP of 0.46 (0.12-0.80) compared with antibody-negative individuals with high n-3 PUFAs. CONCLUSIONS: High fish intake or relative plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA concentrations may partially counteract the increased diabetes risk conferred by GAD65 antibody positivity.

10.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 393, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188205

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global public health challenge. Whilst the advent of genome-wide association studies has identified >400 genetic variants associated with T2D, our understanding of its biological mechanisms and translational insights is still limited. The EPIC-InterAct project, centred in 8 countries in the European Prospective Investigations into Cancer and Nutrition study, is one of the largest prospective studies of T2D. Established as a nested case-cohort study to investigate the interplay between genetic and lifestyle behavioural factors on the risk of T2D, a total of 12,403 individuals were identified as incident T2D cases, and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals was selected from a larger cohort of 340,234 participants with a follow-up time of 3.99 million person-years. We describe the results from a genome-wide association analysis between more than 8.9 million SNPs and T2D risk among 22,326 individuals (9,978 cases and 12,348 non-cases) from the EPIC-InterAct study. The summary statistics to be shared provide a valuable resource to facilitate further investigations into the genetics of T2D.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

12.
PLoS Med ; 17(11): e1003269, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is positively associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The World Health Organization recommends that member states implement effective taxes on SSBs to reduce consumption. The United Kingdom Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) is a two-tiered tax, announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018. Drinks with ≥8 g of sugar per 100 ml (higher levy tier) are taxed at £0.24 per litre, drinks with ≥5 to <8 g of sugar per 100 ml (lower levy tier) are taxed at £0.18 per litre, and drinks with <5 g sugar per 100 ml (no levy) are not taxed. Milk-based drinks, pure fruit juices, drinks sold as powder, and drinks with >1.2% alcohol by volume are exempt. We aimed to determine if the announcement of the SDIL was associated with anticipatory changes in purchases of soft drinks prior to implementation of the SDIL in April 2018. We explored differences in the volume of and amount of sugar in household purchases of drinks in each levy tier at 2 years post announcement. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used controlled interrupted time series to compare observed changes associated with the announcement of the SDIL to the counterfactual scenario of no announcement. We used data from Kantar Worldpanel, a commercial household purchasing panel with approximately 30,000 British members that includes linked nutritional data on purchases. We conducted separate analyses for drinks liable for the SDIL in the higher, lower, and no-levy tiers controlling with household purchase volumes of toiletries. At 2 years post announcement, there was no difference in volume of or sugar from purchases of higher-levy-tier drinks compared to the counterfactual of no announcement. In contrast, a reversal of the existing upward trend in volume (ml) of and amount of sugar (g) in purchases of lower-levy-tier drinks was seen. These changes led to a -96.1 ml (95% confidence interval [CI] -144.2 to -48.0) reduction in volume and -6.4 g (95% CI -9.8 to -3.1) reduction in sugar purchased in these drinks per household per week. There was a reversal of the existing downward trend in the amount of sugar in household purchases of the no-levy drinks but no change in volume purchased. At 2 years post announcement, these changes led to a 6.1 g (95% CI 3.9-8.2) increase in sugar purchased in these drinks per household per week. There was no evidence that volume of or amount of sugar in purchases of all drinks combined was different from the counterfactual. This is an observational study, and changes other than the SDIL may have been responsible for the results reported. Purchases consumed outside of the home were not accounted for. CONCLUSIONS: The announcement of the UK SDIL was associated with reductions in volume and sugar purchased in lower-levy-tier drinks before implementation. These were offset by increases in sugar purchased from no-levy drinks. These findings may reflect reformulation of drinks from the lower levy to no-levy tier with removal of some but not all sugar, alongside changes in consumer attitudes and beliefs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN18042742.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103062, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from animal models and observational epidemiology points to a role for chronic inflammation, in which interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a key player, in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unknown whether IL-6 mediated inflammation is implicated in the pathophysiology of T2D. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies to investigate associations between IL-6 levels and incident T2D including 5,421 cases and 31,562 non-cases. We also estimated the association of a loss-of-function missense variant (Asp358Ala) in the IL-6 receptor gene (IL6R), previously shown to mimic the effects of IL-6R inhibition, in a large trans-ethnic meta-analysis of six T2D case-control studies including 260,614 cases and 1,350,640 controls. FINDINGS: In a meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies, higher levels of IL-6 (per log pg/mL) were significantly associated with a higher risk of incident T2D (1·24 95% CI, 1·17, 1·32; P = 1 × 10-12). In a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of 260,614 cases and 1,350,640 controls, the IL6R Asp358Ala missense variant was associated with lower odds of T2D (OR, 0·98; 95% CI, 0·97, 0·99; P = 2 × 10-7). This association was not due to diagnostic misclassification and was consistent across ethnic groups. IL-6 levels mediated up to 5% of the association between higher body mass index and T2D. INTERPRETATION: Large-scale human prospective and genetic data provide evidence that IL-6 mediated inflammation is implicated in the etiology of T2D but suggest that the impact of this pathway on disease risk in the general population is likely to be small. FUNDING: The EPICNorfolk study has received funding from the Medical Research Council (MRC) (MR/N003284/1, MC-UU_12015/1 and MC_PC_13048) and Cancer Research UK (C864/A14136). The Fenland Study is funded by the MRC (MC_UU_12015/1 and MC_PC_13046).

14.
Obes Rev ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103340

RESUMO

There is good evidence that behavioural weight management interventions improve physical health; however, the impact on mental health remains unclear. We evaluated the impact of behavioural weight management interventions on mental health-related outcomes in adults with overweight or obesity at intervention-end and 12 months from baseline. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs of adult behavioural weight loss interventions reporting affect, anxiety, binge eating, body image, depression, emotional eating, quality of life, self-esteem and stress. We searched seven databases from inception to 7 May 2019 and included 43 articles reporting 42 RCTs. Eighteen studies were deemed to be at high risk of bias. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses, stratified analyses and meta-regression using Stata. Interventions generated greater improvements than comparators for depression, mental health-related quality of life and self-efficacy at intervention-end and 12 months from baseline. There was no difference between groups for anxiety, overall quality of life, self-esteem or stress at intervention-end. There was insufficient evidence to assess the impact on anxiety, binge eating, body image, emotional eating, affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem or stress at intervention-end and/or 12 months from baseline. Although evidence suggests that interventions benefit some aspects of mental health, high-quality, transparently reported RCTs measuring a range of mental health outcomes over longer durations are required to strengthen the evidence base.

15.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003394, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research suggested a differential association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) metabolites with type 2 diabetes (T2D), with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D3 inversely associated with T2D, but the epimeric form (C3-epi-25(OH)D3) positively associated with T2D. Whether or not these observational associations are causal remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the potential causality of these associations using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for total 25(OH)D (N = 120,618), 25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562), and C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (N = 40,562) in participants of European descent (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition [EPIC]-InterAct study, EPIC-Norfolk study, EPIC-CVD study, Ely study, and the SUNLIGHT consortium). We identified genetic variants for MR analysis to investigate the causal association of the 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D (including 80,983 T2D cases and 842,909 non-cases). We also estimated the observational association of 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D by performing random effects meta-analysis of results from previous studies and results from the EPIC-InterAct study. We identified 10 genetic loci associated with total 25(OH)D, 7 loci associated with 25(OH)D3 and 3 loci associated with C3-epi-25(OH)D3. Based on the meta-analysis of observational studies, each 1-standard deviation (SD) higher level of 25(OH)D was associated with a 20% lower risk of T2D (relative risk [RR]: 0.80; 95% CI 0.77, 0.84; p < 0.001), but a genetically predicted 1-SD increase in 25(OH)D was not significantly associated with T2D (odds ratio [OR]: 0.96; 95% CI 0.89, 1.03; p = 0.23); this result was consistent across sensitivity analyses. In EPIC-InterAct, 25(OH)D3 (per 1-SD) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.81; 95% CI 0.77, 0.86; p < 0.001), while C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (above versus below lower limit of quantification) was positively associated with T2D (RR: 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22; p = 0.006), but neither 25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.97; 95% CI 0.93, 1.01; p = 0.14) nor C3-epi-25(OH)D3 (OR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.93, 1.04; p = 0.53) was causally associated with T2D risk in the MR analysis. Main limitations include the lack of a non-linear MR analysis and of the generalisability of the current findings from European populations to other populations of different ethnicities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found discordant associations of biochemically measured and genetically predicted differences in blood 25(OH)D with T2D risk. The findings based on MR analysis in a large sample of European ancestry do not support a causal association of total 25(OH)D or 25(OH)D metabolites with T2D and argue against the use of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of T2D.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2660-2667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.

17.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1385-1391, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807930

RESUMO

Use of wearable devices that monitor physical activity is projected to increase more than fivefold per half-decade1. We investigated how device-based physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and different intensity profiles were associated with all-cause mortality. We used a network harmonization approach to map dominant-wrist acceleration to PAEE in 96,476 UK Biobank participants (mean age 62 years, 56% female). We also calculated the fraction of PAEE accumulated from moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Over the median 3.1-year follow-up period (302,526 person-years), 732 deaths were recorded. Higher PAEE was associated with a lower hazard of all-cause mortality for a constant fraction of MVPA (for example, 21% (95% confidence interval 4-35%) lower hazard for 20 versus 15 kJ kg-1 d-1 PAEE with 10% from MVPA). Similarly, a higher MVPA fraction was associated with a lower hazard when PAEE remained constant (for example, 30% (8-47%) lower hazard when 20% versus 10% of a fixed 15 kJ kg-1 d-1 PAEE volume was from MVPA). Our results show that higher volumes of PAEE are associated with reduced mortality rates, and achieving the same volume through higher-intensity activity is associated with greater reductions than through lower-intensity activity. The linkage of device-measured activity to energy expenditure creates a framework for using wearables for personalized prevention.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Mortalidade , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica
18.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003210, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of adolescents globally meet recommended levels of physical activity, and not meeting these recommended levels is associated with social disadvantage and rising disease risk. The determinants of physical activity in adolescents are multilevel and poorly understood, but the school's social environment likely plays an important role. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a school-based programme (GoActive) to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Non-fee-paying, co-educational schools including Year 9 students in the UK counties of Cambridgeshire and Essex were eligible for inclusion. Within participating schools (n = 16), all Year 9 students were eligible and invited to participate. Participants were 2,862 13- to 14-year-olds (84% of eligible students). After baseline assessment, schools were computer-randomised, stratified by school-level pupil premium funding (below/above county-specific median) and county (control: 8 schools, 1,319 participants, mean [SD] participants per school n = 165 [62]; intervention: 8 schools, 1,543 participants, n = 193 [43]). Measurement staff were blinded to allocation. The iteratively developed, feasibility-tested 12-week intervention, aligned with self-determination theory, trained older adolescent mentors and in-class peer-leaders to encourage classes to conduct 2 new weekly activities. Students and classes gained points and rewards for engaging in any activity in or out of school. The primary outcome was average daily minutes of accelerometer-assessed MVPA at 10-month follow-up; a mixed-methods process evaluation evaluated implementation. Of 2,862 recruited participants (52.1% male), 2,167 (76%) attended 10-month follow-up measurements; we analysed the primary outcome for 1,874 participants (65.5%). At 10 months, there was a mean (SD) decrease in MVPA of 8.3 (19.3) minutes in the control group and 10.4 (22.7) minutes in the intervention group (baseline-adjusted difference [95% confidence interval] -1.91 minutes [-5.53 to 1.70], p = 0.316). The programme cost £13 per student compared with control; it was not cost-effective. Overall, 62.9% of students and 87.3% of mentors reported that GoActive was fun. Teachers and mentors commented that their roles in programme delivery were unclear. Implementation fidelity was low. The main methodological limitation of this study was the relatively affluent and ethnically homogeneous sample. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that a rigorously developed school-based intervention was no more effective than standard school practice at preventing declines in adolescent physical activity. Interdisciplinary research is required to understand educational-setting-specific implementation challenges. School leaders and authorities should be realistic about expectations of the effect of school-based physical activity promotion strategies implemented at scale. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN31583496.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reino Unido
19.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618385

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the impact of open-group behavioural weight-management programmes on the risk of diabetes among those with a body mass index (BMI) of ≥28 kg/m2 and those with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH). METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data from the WRAP trial, in which participants (N = 1267; aged ≥18 years, BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 ) were randomized to brief intervention (BI; self-help booklet), a weight-management programme (WW; formerly Weight Watchers) for 12 weeks, or WW for 52 weeks. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the effect of intervention group on the risk of hyperglycaemia and diabetes at 12 months in all participants with glycaemic status at both time points (N = 480; 38%) and those with NDH at baseline (N = 387; 31%). We used mixed effects models and linear fixed effects models to examine the effect of intervention group on body weight and HbA1c at 12 months in people with NDH. RESULTS: There was a 61% relative reduction in the risk of NDH at the 12-month follow-up (12 weeks vs. BI: relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.39 [95% CI 0.18, 0.87], P = .021; 52 weeks vs. BI: RRR = 0.38 [95% CI 0.17, 0.86], P = .020). For intervention effects on the risk of diabetes, confidence intervals were wide and overlapped 1 [12 weeks vs. BI: RRR = 0.49 [95% CI 0.12, 1.96], P = .312; 52 weeks vs. BI: RRR = 0.40 [95% CI 0.10, 1.63], P = .199). Participants with hyperglycaemia at baseline in the weight-management programme were more probable to have normoglycaemia at the 12-month follow-up [12-week programme vs. BI: RRR = 3.57 [95% CI 1.24, 10.29], P = .019; 52-week programme vs. BI: RRR = 4.14 [95% CI 1.42, 12.12], P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Open-group behavioural weight-management programmes can help to prevent the development of NDH in people with overweight and obesity and to normalize glycaemia in people with NDH.

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