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1.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255681

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder is a complex multifactorial condition with a so far poorly characterized underlying pathophysiology. Consequently, the available treatments are far from satisfactory as it is estimated that up to 30% of patients are resistant to conventional treatment. Recent comprehensive evidence has been accumulated which suggests that inflammation may be implied in the etiology of this disease. Here we investigated ketamine as an innovative treatment strategy due to its immune-modulating capacities. In a murine model of LPS-induced depressive-like behavior we demonstrated that a single dose of ketamine restores the LPS-induced depressive-like alterations. These behavioral effects are associated with i/ a reversal of anxiety and reduced self-care, ii/ a decrease in parenchymal cytokine production, iii/ a modulation of the microglial reactivity and iv/ a decrease in microglial quinolinic acid production that is correlated with plasmatic peripheral production. In a translational approach, we show that kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid ratio is a predictor of ketamine response in treatment-resistant depressed patients and that the reduction in quinolinic acid after a ketamine infusion is a predictor of the reduction in MADRS score. Our results suggest that microglia is a key therapeutic target and that quinolinic acid is a biomarker of ketamine response in major depressive disorder.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(2): 223-235, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701294

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reducing discomfort in the intensive care unit (ICU) should have a positive effect on long-term outcomes. This study assessed whether a tailored multicomponent program for discomfort reduction was effective in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 1 year in general ICU survivors. METHODS: This study is a prospective observational comparative effectiveness cohort study involving 30 ICUs. It was an extension of the IPREA3 study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a tailored multicomponent program to reduce discomfort in critically ill patients. The program included assessment of ICU-related self-perceived discomforts, immediate and monthly feedback to the healthcare team, and site-specific tailored interventions. The exposure was the implementation of this program. The eligible patients were exposed versus unexposed general adult ICU survivors. The prevalence of substantial PTSD symptoms at 1 year was assessed based on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: Of the 1537 ICU survivors included in the study, 475 unexposed patients and 344 exposed patients had follow-up data at 1 year: 57 (12.0%) and 21 (6.1%) presented with PTSD at 1 year, respectively (p = 0.004). Considering the clustering and after adjusting for age, gender, McCabe classification, and ICU-related self-perceived overall discomfort score, exposed patients were significantly less likely than unexposed patients to have substantial PTSD symptoms at 1 year (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a tailored multicomponent program in the ICU that has proved to be effective for reducing self-perceived discomfort in general adult ICU survivors also reduced the prevalence of substantial PTSD symptoms at 1 year. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02762409.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211184, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677080

RESUMO

Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) contributes to mortality and neurocognitive impairment of sepsis patients. Neurofilament (Nf) light (NfL) and heavy (NfH) chain levels as biomarkers for neuroaxonal injury were not evaluated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of patients with sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) before. We conducted a prospective, pilot observational study including 20 patients with septic shock and five patients without sepsis serving as controls. The assessment of SAE comprised a neuropsychiatric examination, electroencephalography (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and delirium screening methods including the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) and the intensive care delirium screening checklist (ICDSC). CSF Nf measurements in sepsis patients and longitudinal plasma Nf measurements in all participants were performed on days 1, 3 and 7 after study inclusion. Plasma NfL levels increased in sepsis patients over time (p = 0.0063) and remained stable in patients without sepsis. Plasma NfL values were significantly higher in patients with SAE (p = 0.011), significantly correlated with the severity of SAE represented by ICDSC values (R = 0.534, p = 0.022) and correlated with a poorer functional outcome after 100 days (R = -0.535, p = 0.0003). High levels of CSF Nf were measured in SAE patients. CSF NfL levels were higher in non-survivors (p = 0.012) compared with survivors and correlated with days until death (R = -0.932, p<0.0001) and functional outcome after 100 days (R = -0.749, p<0.0001). The present study showed for the first time that Nf levels provide complementary prognostic information in SAE patients indicating a higher chance of death and poorer functional/cognitive outcome in survivors.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 47(3): e227-e233, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute respiratory failure is a frequent complication of Guillain-Barré syndrome, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Adjuvant treatments are needed to improve the outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Since dysglycemia is a risk factor for development of axonal polyneuropathy in critically ill patients and since insulin therapy may be neuroprotective, we sought to explore the association between dysglycemia and neurologic status in Guillain-Barré syndrome patients. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Single-center study. INTERVENTIONS: All plasma levels of glycemia measured by enzymatic technique as well as capillary glycemia were collected in a cohort of mechanically ventilated Guillain-Barré syndrome patients. Insulin administration and dysglycemia were correlated to neurologic status at discharge defined by disability grade and arm grade. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis, disability grade and arm grade at ICU discharge were independently and inversely correlated with mean blood glucose. Disability grade and arm grade did not correlate with any other dysglycemic variables or with insulin administration or length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found that neurologic disability at ICU discharge correlated with dysglycemia in mechanically ventilated Guillain-Barré syndrome patients. These finding indicates that dysglycemia may delay motor recovery and impact the functional outcome of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Blood glucose control might be an adjuvant therapy for improving Guillain-Barré syndrome recovery.

6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

7.
BMC Neurol ; 18(1): 145, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardinal symptoms of auto-immune myasthenia gravis are fatigue and weakness. Endurance events such as marathon running would seem incompatible with this chronic disease. Many patients stop sport altogether. There is limited literature of patients with auto-immune myasthenia gravis undergoing regular endurance exercise. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 36-year-old female who began long-distance running whilst experiencing initial symptoms of myasthenia gravis. She was diagnosed with auto-immune myasthenia gravis and whilst advised to stop all sport, her way of fighting and living with this chronic and unpredictable disease was to continue running to maintain a healthy body and mind. Despite suffering from ocular, bulbar and localized limb fatigability, she managed to complete multiple marathons and achieve disease stability with cholinesterase inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Marathon and half-marathon running lead to distinct changes in mediators of inflammation in an exercise-dose-dependent manner. Despite symptoms of weakness and fatigue in certain muscles in myasthenia gravis, physical exertion remains possible and may not worsen symptoms as demonstrated in this case and recent studies. The immunomodulatory role of exercise could be considered in this case however this hypothesis remains to be confirmed in future studies with quantitative data.


Assuntos
Miastenia Gravis/fisiopatologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 184, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a well-established tool for assessing brain function that is available at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU). This review aims to discuss the relevance of electroencephalographic reactivity (EEG-R) in patients with impaired consciousness and to describe the neurophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the term "EEG reactivity and coma" using the PubMed database. The search encompassed articles published from inception to March 2018 and produced 202 articles, of which 42 were deemed relevant, assessing the importance of EEG-R in relationship to outcomes in patients with impaired consciousness, and were therefore included in this review. RESULTS: Although definitions, characteristics and methods used to assess EEG-R are heterogeneous, several studies underline that a lack of EEG-R is associated with mortality and unfavorable outcome in patients with impaired consciousness. However, preserved EEG-R is linked to better odds of survival. Exploring EEG-R to nociceptive, auditory, and visual stimuli enables a noninvasive trimodal functional assessment of peripheral and central sensory ascending pathways that project to the brainstem, the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. A lack of EEG-R in patients with impaired consciousness may result from altered modulation of thalamocortical loop activity by afferent sensory input due to neural impairment. Assessing EEG-R is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and outcome prediction of severe brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. CONCLUSIONS: This review emphasizes that whatever the etiology, patients with impaired consciousness featuring a reactive electroencephalogram are more likely to have a favorable outcome, whereas those with a nonreactive electroencephalogram are prone to having an unfavorable outcome. EEG-R is therefore a valuable prognostic parameter and warrants a rigorous assessment. However, current assessment methods are heterogeneous, and no consensus exists. Standardization of stimulation and interpretation methods is needed.

9.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 5(2): 241-249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29865089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several retrospective case series have suggested rituximab (RTX) might improve patients with refractory Myasthenia Gravis (MG). OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate prospectively the efficacy of RTX on muscle function in refractory generalized anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) MG patients. METHODS: Enrolled patients received 1 g of RTX at day 0, day 14, and 6-month follow-up (M6). The primary endpoint was improvement of muscle function at 12-month (M12) based on myasthenic muscle score (MMS). Secondary endpoints were an improvement of the MG Foundation of America Postintervention Status (MGFA-PIS), respiratory forced vital capacity, occurrences of acute MG exacerbation and requirement of associated immunosuppressants and immunomodulatory agents. RESULTS: Twelve patients were enrolled, and 11 completed the study. Only a single patient presented an improvement of at least 20 points on MMS at M12, although 2 patients displayed an increase of at least 18 points at M12. MGFA-PIS had improved in 55% of patients by M12. The clinical improvement was not associated with a reduction of immunosuppressant burden. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide data on the effect of RTX in patients with severe, refractory anti-AChR Abs generalized MG. Even though primary outcome was only reached in a single patient at M12, a beneficial effect of RTX on muscle function was seen in half of the patients at M12 and persisted in a third of patients at M18.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Miastenia Gravis/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Miastenia Gravis/imunologia , Miastenia Gravis/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Colinérgicos/imunologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Neuroinflammation ; 15(1): 28, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia function is essential to maintain the brain homeostasis. Evidence shows that aged microglia are primed and show exaggerated response to acute inflammatory challenge. Systemic inflammation signals to the brain inducing changes that impact cognitive function. However, the mechanisms involved in age-related cognitive decline associated to episodic systemic inflammation are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify neuropathological features associated to age-related cognitive decline in a mouse model of episodic systemic inflammation. METHODS: Young and aged Swiss mice were injected with low doses of LPS once a week for 6 weeks to induce episodic systemic inflammation. Sickness behavior, inflammatory markers, and neuroinflammation were assessed in different phases of systemic inflammation in young and aged mice. Behavior was evaluated long term after episodic systemic inflammation by open field, forced swimming, object recognition, and water maze tests. RESULTS: Episodic systemic inflammation induced systemic inflammation and sickness behavior mainly in aged mice. Systemic inflammation induced depressive-like behavior in both young and aged mice. Memory and learning were significantly affected in aged mice that presented lower exploratory activity and deficits in episodic and spatial memories, compared to aged controls and to young after episodic systemic inflammation. Systemic inflammation induced acute microglia activation in young mice that returned to base levels long term after episodic systemic inflammation. Aged mice presented dystrophic microglia in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex at basal level and did not change morphology in the acute response to SI. Regardless of their dystrophic microglia, aged mice produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1ß and IL-6) as well as pro-resolution (IL-10 and IL-4) cytokines in the brain. Also, higher levels of Nox2 expression, oxidized proteins and lower antioxidant defenses were found in the aged brains compared to the young after episodic systemic inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that aged mice have increased susceptibility to episodic systemic inflammation. Aged mice that showed cognitive impairments also presented higher oxidative stress and abnormal production of cytokines in their brains. These results indicate that a neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related cognitive impairments.

12.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(6): 698-699, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29360405
13.
Trials ; 19(1): 49, 2018 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29347991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research exploring the effects of physical exercise in auto-immune myasthenia gravis (MG) is scarce. The few existing studies present methodological shortcomings limiting the conclusions and generalisability of results. It is hypothesised that exercise could have positive physical, psychological as well as immunomodulatory effects and may be a beneficial addition to current pharmacological management of this chronic disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits on perceived quality of life (QOL) and physical fitness of a home-based physical exercise program compared to usual care, for patients with stabilised, generalised auto-immune MG. METHODS: MGEX is a multi-centre, interventional, randomised, single-blind, two-arm parallel group, controlled trial. Forty-two patients will be recruited, aged 18-70 years. Following a three-month observation period, patients will be randomised into a control or experimental group. The experimental group will undertake a 40-min home-based physical exercise program using a rowing machine, three times a week for three months, as an add-on to usual care. The control group will receive usual care with no additional treatment. All patients will be followed up for a further three months. The primary outcome is the mean change in MGQOL-15-F score between three and six months (i.e. pre-intervention and immediately post-intervention periods). The MGQOL-15-F is an MG-specific patient-reported QOL questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include the evaluation of deficits and functional limitations via MG-specific clinical scores (Myasthenia Muscle Score and MG-Activities of Daily Living scale), muscle force and fatigue, respiratory function, free-living physical activity as well as evaluations of anxiety, depression, self-esteem and overall QOL with the WHO-QOL BREF questionnaire. Exercise workload will be assessed as well as multiple safety measures (ECG, biological markers, medication type and dosage and any disease exacerbation or crisis). DISCUSSION: This is the largest randomised controlled trial to date evaluating the benefits and tolerance of physical exercise in this patient population. The comprehensive evaluations using standardised outcome measures should provide much awaited information for both patients and the scientific community. This study is ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02066519 . Registered on 13 January 2014.

14.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, 2018 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. DISCUSSION: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Crit Care ; 21(1): 262, 2017 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain homeostasis deteriorates in sepsis, giving rise to a mostly reversible sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE). Some survivors experience chronic cognitive dysfunction thought to be caused by permanent brain injury. In this study, we investigated neuroaxonal pathology in sepsis. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal, prospective translational study involving (1) experimental sepsis in an animal model; (2) postmortem studies of brain from patients with sepsis; and (3) a prospective, longitudinal human sepsis cohort study at university laboratory and intensive care units (ICUs). Thirteen ICU patients with septic shock, five ICU patients who died as a result of sepsis, fourteen fluid-resuscitated Wistar rats with fecal peritonitis, eleven sham-operated rats, and three human and four rat control subjects were included. Immunohistologic and protein biomarker analysis were performed on rat brain tissue at baseline and 24, 48, and 72 h after sepsis induction and in sham-treated rats. Immunohistochemistry was performed on human brain tissue from sepsis nonsurvivors and in control patients without sepsis. The clinical diagnostics of SAE comprised longitudinal clinical data collection and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalographic assessments. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (version 9.4; SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Because of non-Gaussian distribution, the nonparametric Wilcoxon test general linear models and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS: In postmortem rat and human brain samples, neurofilament phosphoform, ß-amyloid precursor protein, ß-tubulin, and H&E stains distinguished scattered ischemic lesions from diffuse neuroaxonal injury in septic animals, which were absent in controls. These two patterns of neuroaxonal damage were consistently found in septic but not control human postmortem brains. In experimental sepsis, the time from sepsis onset correlated with tissue neurofilament levels (R = 0.53, p = 0.045) but not glial fibrillary acidic protein. Of 13 patients with sepsis who had clinical features of SAE, MRI detected diffuse axonal injury in 9 and ischemia in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic and diffuse neuroaxonal injury to the brain in experimental sepsis, human postmortem brains, and in vivo MRI suggest these two distinct lesion types to be relevant. Future studies should be focused on body fluid biomarkers to detect and monitor brain injury in sepsis. The relationship of neurofilament levels with time from sepsis onset may be of prognostic value. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02442986 . Registered on May 13, 2015.


Assuntos
Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/patologia , Encefalopatia Associada a Sepse/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/análise , Animais , Autopsia/métodos , Biomarcadores/análise , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/microbiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar/anatomia & histologia , Tubulina (Proteína)/análise
16.
BMJ Open ; 7(9): e018035, 2017 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28947465

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and severe prolonged disability. Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is a critical risk factor of bad outcomes after TBI. Continuous infusion of hyperosmolar therapy has been proposed for the prevention and the treatment of ICH. Whether an early administration of continuous hyperosmolar therapy improves long-term outcomes of patients with TBI is uncertain. The aim of the COBI study (number clinicaltrial.gov 03143751, pre-results stage) is to assess the efficiency and the safety of continuous hyperosmolar therapy in patients with TBI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The COBI (COntinuous hyperosmolar therapy in traumatic Brain-Injured patients) trial is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, open-label, two-arms study with blinded adjudication of primary outcome. Three hundred and seventy patients hospitalised in intensive care unit with a TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale ≤12 and abnormal brain CT scan) are randomised in the first 24 hours following trauma to standard care or continuous hyperosmolar therapy (20% NaCl) plus standard care. Continuous hyperosmolar therapy is maintained for at least 48 hours in the treatment group and continued for as long as is necessary to prevent ICH. The primary outcome is the score on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale at 6 months. The treatment effect is estimated with ordinal logistic regression adjusted for prespecified prognostic factors and expressed as a common OR. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The COBI trial protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Paris Ile de France VIII and will be carried out according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the Good Clinical Practice guidelines. The results of this study will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences and publication in peer-reviewed journals. The COBI trial is the first randomised controlled trial powered to investigate whether continuous hyperosmolar therapy in patients with TBI improve long-term recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Trial registration number is NCT03143751.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Protocolos Clínicos , Cuidados Críticos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hipertensão Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Intracraniana/etiologia , Concentração Osmolar , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego
17.
Crit Care Med ; 45(11): e1111-e1122, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge and use of the Assessment, prevention, and management of pain; spontaneous awakening and breathing trials; Choice of analgesia and sedation; Delirium assessment; Early mobility and exercise; and Family engagement and empowerment (ABCDEF) bundle to implement the Pain, Agitation, Delirium guidelines. DESIGN: Worldwide online survey. SETTING: Intensive care. INTERVENTION: A cross-sectional online survey using the Delphi method was administered to intensivists worldwide, to assess the knowledge and use of all aspects of the ABCDEF bundle. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 1,521 respondents from 47 countries, 57% had implemented the ABCDEF bundle, with varying degrees of compliance across continents. Most of the respondents (83%) used a scale to evaluate pain. Spontaneous awakening trials and spontaneous breathing trials are performed in 66% and 67% of the responder ICUs, respectively. Sedation scale was used in 89% of ICUs. Delirium monitoring was implemented in 70% of ICUs, but only 42% used a validated delirium tool. Likewise, early mobilization was "prescribed" by most, but 69% had no mobility team and 79% used no formal mobility scale. Only 36% of the respondents assessed ICU-acquired weakness. Family members were actively involved in 67% of ICUs; however, only 33% used dedicated staff to support families and only 35% reported that their unit was open 24 hr/d for family visits. CONCLUSIONS: The current implementation of the ABCDEF bundle varies across individual components and regions. We identified specific targets for quality improvement and adoption of the ABCDEF bundle. Our data reflect a significant but incomplete shift toward patient- and family-centered ICU care in accordance with the Pain, Agitation, Delirium guidelines.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimento , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/terapia , Deambulação Precoce/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Humanos , Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Respiração
18.
Intensive Care Med ; 43(9): 1329-1339, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612089

RESUMO

Delirium, a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity. This last decade has witnessed an exponential growth in delirium research in hospitalized patients, including those critically ill, and this research has highlighted that delirium needs to be better understood mechanistically to help foster research that will ultimately lead to its prevention and treatment. In this invited, evidence-based paper, a multinational and interprofessional group of clinicians and researchers from within the fields of critical care medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, anesthesiology, geriatrics, surgery, neurology, nursing, pharmacy, and the neurosciences sought to address five questions: (1) What is the current standard of care in managing ICU delirium? (2) What have been the major recent advances in delirium research and care? (3) What are the common delirium beliefs that have been challenged by recent trials? (4) What are the remaining areas of uncertainty in delirium research? (5) What are some of the top study areas/trials to be done in the next 10 years? Herein, we briefly review the epidemiology of delirium, the current best practices for management of critically ill patients at risk for delirium or experiencing delirium, identify recent advances in our understanding of delirium as well as gaps in knowledge, and discuss research opportunities and barriers to implementation, with the goal of promoting an integrated research agenda.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Delírio/etiologia , Delírio/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Fatores Etários , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Estado Terminal/psicologia , Sedação Profunda/efeitos adversos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/mortalidade , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Ann Intensive Care ; 7(1): 63, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatosensory (SSEP) and brainstem auditory (BAEP) evoked potentials are neurophysiological tools which, respectively, explore the intracranial conduction time (ICCT) and the intrapontine conduction time (IPCT). The prognostic values of prolonged cerebral conduction times in deeply sedated patients have never been assessed. Sedated patients are at risk of developing new neurological complications, undetected. In this prospective observational bi-center pilot study, we investigated whether early impairment of SSEP's ICCT and/or BAEP's IPCT could predict in-ICU mortality or altered mental status (AMS), in deeply sedated critically ill patients. METHODS: SSEP by stimulation of the median nerve and BAEP were assessed in critically ill patients receiving deep sedation on day 3 following ICU admission. Deep sedation was defined by a Richmond Assessment sedation Scale (RASS) <-3. Mean left- and right-side ICCT and IPCT were measured for each patient. Primary and secondary outcomes were, respectively, in-ICU mortality and AMS defined as the occurrence of delirium and/or delayed awakening after discontinuation of sedation. RESULTS: Eighty-six patients were studied of which 49 (57%) were non-brain-injured and 37 (43%) were brain-injured. Impaired ICCT was a predictor of in-ICU mortality after adjustment on the global Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA) [OR (95% CI) = 2.69 (1.05-6.85); p = 0.039] and on the non-neurological SOFA components [2.67 (1.05-6.81); p = 0.040]. IPCT was more frequently delayed in the subgroup of patients who developed post-sedation AMS (24%) compared those without AMS (0%). However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.053). Impairment rates of ICCT and IPCT were not found to be significantly different between non-brain- and brain-injured subgroups of patients. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients receiving deep sedation, early ICCT impairment was associated with mortality. Somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials may be useful early warning indicators of brain dysfunction as well as prognostic markers in deeply sedated critically ill patients.

20.
Pituitary ; 20(5): 515-521, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Recent studies have reported that sepsis survivors show impaired central nervous system functions. The osmoregulation in this post-sepsis condition has not been well investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT), and water intake induced by osmotic challenge in survivor rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Five days after CLP surgery, the survivor and naive animals were stimulated with an osmotic challenge consisting of hypertonic saline administration. Thirty minutes later, blood and brain were collected for determination of osmolality, nitrite, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, AVP and OT levels and c-fos expression analysis of hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei (SON), respectively. In another set of sepsis survivor animals, water intake was measured for 240 min after the osmotic stimulus. RESULTS: High levels of nitrite and IL-1ß, but not IL-6, were found in the plasma of sepsis survivors and this long-term systemic inflammation was not altered by the osmotic challenge. Moreover, the AVP and OT secretion (but not the osmolality) and c-fos expression in SON were significantly attenuated in CLP survivor animals. Additionally, there was no alteration in the water intake response induced by osmotic challenge in the sepsis survivor group. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the inflammatory components mediated a persistent impairment in the component of the osmoregulatory reflex affecting the secretion of neurohypophyseal hormones in sepsis survivor animals.


Assuntos
Sepse/sangue , Animais , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Nitritos/sangue , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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