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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271557

RESUMO

Reactions between red phosphorus (Pred) and potassium ethoxide in various organic solvents under reflux convert this rather inert form of the element to soluble polyphosphides. The activation is hypothesized to proceed via a nucleophilic attack by ethoxide on the polymeric structure of Pred, leading to disproportionation of the latter, as judged from observation of P(OEt)3 in the reaction products. A range of solvents has been probed, revealing that different polyphosphide anions (P73-, P162-, P213-, and P5-) can be stabilized depending on the combination of the boiling point and dielectric constant (polarity) of the solvent. The effectiveness of activation also depends on the nature of nucleophile, with the rate of reaction between Pred and KOR increasing in the order t-Bu < n-Hex < Et < Me, which is in agreement with the increasing order of nucleophilic strength. Thiolates and amides were also examined as potential activators, but the reaction with these nucleophiles were substantially slower; nonetheless, all reactions between Pred and NaSR yielded exclusively P162- as a soluble polyphosphide product.

2.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(3): 1256-1262, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715065

RESUMO

Incorporation of a five-membered ring into a helicene framework disrupts aromatic conjugation and provides a site for selective deprotonation. The deprotonation creates an anionic cyclopentadienyl unit, switches on conjugation, leads to a >200 nm red-shift in the absorbance spectrum and injects a charge into a helical conjugated π-system without injecting a spin. Structural consequences of deprotonation were revealed via analysis of a monoanionic helicene co-crystallized with {K+ (18-crown-6)(THF)} and {Cs+ 2 (18-crown-6)3 }. UV/Vis-monitoring of these systems shows a time-dependent formation of mono- and dianionic species, and the latter was isolated and crystallographically characterized. The ability of the twisted helicene frame to delocalize the negative charge was probed as a perturbation of aromaticity using NICS scans. Relief of strain, avoidance of antiaromaticity, and increase in charge delocalization assist in the additional dehydrogenative ring closures that yield a new planarized decacyclic dianion.

3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(45): 17989-17994, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661269

RESUMO

The nitroxyl radical 1-methyl-2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (Me-AZADO) exhibits magnetic bistability arising from a radical/dimer interconversion. The transition from the rotationally disordered paramagnetic plastic crystal, Me-AZADO, to the ordered diamagnetic crystalline phase, (Me-AZADO)2, has been conclusively demonstrated by crystal structure determination from high-resolution powder diffraction data and by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The phase change is characterized by a wide thermal hysteresis with high sensitivity to even small applied pressures. The molecular dynamics of the phase transition from the plastic crystal to the conventional crystalline phase has been tracked by solid-state (1H and 13C) NMR and EPR spectroscopies.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(41): 16279-16287, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550144

RESUMO

A proton-transfer reaction between squaric acid (H2sq) and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (2,3-Me2pyz) results in crystallization of a new organic antiferroelectric (AFE), (2,3-Me2pyzH+)(Hsq-)·H2O (1), which possesses a layered structure. The structure of each layer can be described as partitioned into strips lined with methyl groups of the Me2pyzH+ cations and strips featuring extensive hydrogen bonding between the Hsq- anions and water molecules. Variable-temperature dielectric measurements and crystal structures determined through a combination of single-crystal X-ray and neutron diffraction reveal an AFE ordering at 104 K. The phase transition is driven by ordering of protons within the hydrogen-bonded strips. Considering the extent of proton transfer, the paraelectric (PE) state can be formulated as (2,3-Me2pyzH+)2(Hsq23-)(H5O2+), whereas the AFE phase can be described as (2,3-Me2pyzH+)(Hsq-)(H2O). The structural transition caused by the localization of protons results in the change in color from yellow in the PE state to colorless in the AFE state. The occurrence and mechanism of the AFE phase transition have been also confirmed by heat capacity measurements and variable-temperature infrared and Raman spectroscopy. This work demonstrates a potentially promising approach to the design of new electrically ordered materials by engineering molecule-based crystal structures in which hydrogen-bonding interactions are intentionally partitioned into quasi-one-dimensional regions.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 58(18): 11920-11926, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136155

RESUMO

A synthetic strategy featuring dicyanometalates [M(CN)2]- (M = Ag, Au) as N-coordinating ditopic linkers connecting partially blocked FeII centers has been employed to produce heterometallic hexanuclear complexes, which exhibit spin-crossover (SCO) behavior at the FeII sites. The reaction between tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (tpma)-capped FeII ions and [Ag(CN)2]- proceeded with partial decomposition of the dicyanoargentate and led to the formation of {[Fe(tpma)]4(µ-CN)2[µ-Ag(CN)2]2}(ClO4)4·3H2O (1), in which both [Ag(CN)2]- and CN- act as bridging ligands, and the opposite [Ag(CN)2]- bridges are engaged in a pronounced argentophilic d10-d10 interaction. In an analogous synthesis, the more stable [Au(CN)2]- species remained intact and furnished the complex {[Fe(tpma)]2[µ-Au2(CN)4]2} (2), which features two FeII centers bridged by two [Au2(CN)4]2- dimers. The use of S,S'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-thioethane (bpte) as a mixed-donor, N2S2-coordinating capping ligand yielded {[Fe(bpte)]2[µ-Au2(CN)4]2} (3), with a structure analogous to that of 2. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that complexes 1-3 exhibit an onset of SCO above 350 K. Measurements above 400 K further confirmed the occurrence of a gradual spin-state conversion for complex 2.

6.
Chem Sci ; 10(9): 2796-2804, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997000

RESUMO

We report excellent electrocatalytic performance by AlFe2B2 in the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER). The inexpensive catalytic material, prepared simply by arc-melting followed by ball-milling, exhibits high stability and sustained catalytic performance under alkaline conditions. The overpotential value of 0.24 V observed at the current density of 10 mA cm-2 remained constant for at least 10 days. Electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy performed on the initial ball-milled material and on the material activated under electrocatalytic conditions suggest that the catalytic mechanism involves partial leaching of Al from the layered structure of AlFe2B2 and the formation of Fe3O4 nanoclusters on the exposed [Fe2B2] layers. Thus, the AlFe2B2 structure serves as a robust supporting material and, more importantly, as a pre-catalyst to the in situ formed active electrocatalytic sites. Comparative electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the electrocatalytic performance of the AlFe2B2-supported Fe3O4 nanoclusters substantially exceeds the results obtained with unsupported nanoparticles of Fe3O4, FeB, or such benchmark OER catalysts as IrO2 or RuO2. The excellent catalytic performance and long-term stability of this system suggests that AlFe2B2 can serve as a promising and inexpensive OER electrocatalyst.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 58(9): 5799-5806, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012574

RESUMO

A new ternary selenide, Na2Mn3Se4, was prepared by a stoichiometric reaction between Na2Se4 and metallic Mn at 923 K. Crystal structure determination revealed a new structure type, built of alternating layers of Na+ ions and [Mn3Se4]2- anionic slabs. Band structure calculations indicate that Na2Mn3Se4 is an indirect band gap semiconductor with Eg = 1.59 eV, although a direct band gap is only marginally larger, at 1.64 eV. The material shows antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering at 27 K, while the Weiss constant of ∼-400 K suggests much stronger nearest-neighbor AFM exchange between the Mn sites. This discrepancy is attributed to the strong spin frustration caused by a triangulated arrangement of the Mn sites in the [Mn3Se4]2- layer. The magnetic frustration leads to the stabilization of a complex AFM ordered structure with non-collinear arrangement of the Mn magnetic moments, as established from neutron diffraction data.

8.
Chemistry ; 25(23): 5865-5869, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714648

RESUMO

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to elucidate changes in the electronic structure caused by the pressure-induced structural collapse in EuCo2 P2 . The spectral changes observed at the L3 -edge of Eu and K-edges of Co and P suggest electron density redistribution, which contradicts the formal charges calculated from the commonly used Zintl-Klemm concept. Quantum-chemical calculations show that, despite the increase in the oxidation state of Eu and the formation of a weak P-P bond in the high-pressure phase, the electron transfer from the Eu 4f orbitals to the hybridized 5d and 6s states causes strengthening of the Eu-P and P-P bonds. These changes explain the increased electron density on P atoms, deduced from the P K-edge XAS spectra. This work shows that the formal electron counting schemes do not provide an adequate description of changes associated with phase transitions in metallic systems with substantial mixing of the electronic states.

9.
Chem Sci ; 10(2): 524-534, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746095

RESUMO

Design of heterotrimetallic molecules, especially those containing at least two different metals with close atomic numbers, radii, and the same coordination number/environment is a challenging task. This quest is greatly facilitated by having a heterobimetallic parent molecule that features multiple metal sites with only some of those displaying substitutional flexibility. Recently, a unique heterobimetallic complex LiMn2(thd)5 (thd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) has been introduced as a single-source precursor for the preparation of a popular spinel cathode material, LiMn2O4. Theoretical calculations convincingly predict that in the above trinuclear molecule only one of the Mn sites is sufficiently flexible to be substituted with another 3d transition metal. Following those predictions, two heterotrimetallic complexes, LiMn2-x Co x (thd)5 (x = 1 (1a) and 0.5 (1b)), that represent full and partial substitution, respectively, of Co for Mn in the parent molecule, have been synthesized. X-ray structural elucidation clearly showed that only one transition metal position in the trinuclear molecule contains Co, while the other site remains fully occupied by Mn. A number of techniques have been employed for deciphering the structure and composition of heterotrimetallic compounds. Synchrotron resonant diffraction experiments unambiguously assigned 3d transition metal positions as well as provided a precise "site-specific Mn/Co elemental analysis" in a single crystal, even in an extremely difficult case of severely disordered structure formed by the superposition of two enantiomers. DART mass spectrometry and magnetic measurements clearly confirmed the presence of heterotrimetallic species LiMnCo(thd)5 rather than a statistical mixture of two heterobimetallic LiMn2(thd)5 and LiCo2(thd)5 molecules. Heterometallic precursors 1a and 1b were found to exhibit a clean decomposition yielding phase-pure LiMnCoO4 and LiMn1.5Co0.5O4 spinels, respectively, at the relatively low temperature of 400 °C. The latter oxide represents an important "5V spinel" cathode material for the lithium ion batteries. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed a homogeneous distribution of transition metals in quaternary oxides obtained by pyrolysis of single-source precursors.

10.
Dalton Trans ; 47(34): 11736-11738, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124703
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(32): 10158-10168, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29874459

RESUMO

We demonstrate the application of deep neural networks as a machine-learning tool for the analysis of a large collection of crystallographic data contained in the crystal structure repositories. Using input data in the form of multiperspective atomic fingerprints, which describe coordination topology around unique crystallographic sites, we show that the neural-network model can be trained to effectively distinguish chemical elements based on the topology of their crystallographic environment. The model also identifies structurally similar atomic sites in the entire data set of ∼50000 crystal structures, essentially uncovering trends that reflect the periodic table of elements. The trained model was used to analyze templates derived from the known crystal structures in order to predict the likelihood of forming new compounds that could be generated by placing elements into these structural templates in a combinatorial fashion. Statistical analysis of predictive performance of the neural-network model, which was applied to a test set of structures never seen by the model during training, indicates its ability to predict known elemental compositions with a high likelihood of success. In ∼30% of cases, the known compositions were found among the top 10 most likely candidates proposed by the model. These results suggest that the approach developed in this work can be used to effectively guide the synthetic efforts in the discovery of new materials, especially in the case of systems composed of three or more chemical elements.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 57(9): 5183-5193, 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668269

RESUMO

Homoleptic complexes [Fe(L n)]X2 (L1 = 1,1'-(α,α'- o-xylyl)-2,2'-biimidazole, L2 = 1,1'-(α,α'-3,4-dibromo- o-xylyl)-2,2'-biimidazole, L3 = 1,1'-(α,α'-2,5-dimethoxy- o-xylyl)-2,2'-biimidazole; X = BF4- or ClO4-) were synthesized by direct reactions of the Fe(II) precursor salts and bidentate ligands L1, L2, or L3. All mononuclear complexes undergo gradual temperature-driven spin-crossover (SCO) between the high-spin (HS, S = 2) and low-spin (LS, S = 0) states. Complexes with ligands L1 and L2 synthesized in methanol exhibit complete SCO with the midpoint of the LS↔HS conversion varying from 233 to 313 K, while complexes with ligand L3, crystallized from an ethanol/dichloromethane mixture, exhibit incomplete SCO with the residual HS/LS ratio of ∼1:4 for [Fe(L3)3](BF4)2 and ∼1:1 for [Fe(L3)3](ClO4)2. Complexes with L1 can also be recrystallized from ethanol/dichloromethane, in which case they exhibit very gradual and incomplete SCO, similar to those of the complexes with L3. The differences in magnetic behavior have been traced back to peculiarities of molecular packing observed in the corresponding crystal structures. Density-functional theoretical calculations provide justification to the SCO behavior of these complexes, as compared to the HS-only behavior observed for the parent [Fe(bim)3]2+ complex with nonalkylated 2,2'-biimidazole (bim).

13.
Acc Chem Res ; 51(2): 230-239, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303552

RESUMO

Rare-earth cobalt pnictides, RCo2Pn2 (Pn = P, As), belong to the ThCr2Si2 structure type, which is ubiquitous among intermetallic compounds. The structural and magnetic properties of simple ternary RCo2P2 phosphides, which combine partially delocalized (itinerant) 3d magnetic moments of cobalt and localized 4f magnetic moments of lanthanides, were investigated extensively in 1980-1990s, predominantly by the Jeitschko group. Those studies established that LaCo2P2 shows ferromagnetic (FM) ordering of Co moments, while the other members of the series, with R = Ce, Pr, Nd, or Sm, exhibit antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering in both R and Co magnetic sublattices. This observation also correlated with the larger separation between the [Co2P2] layers in the crystal structure of LaCo2P2 as compared to the decreased interlayer distances in the other structures of the RCo2P2 series. Our work over the past decade has focused on unraveling the rich magnetic behavior that can be observed in these systems when internal chemical and external physical factors are used to perturb their crystal and electronic structures. We began our foray into these materials by demonstrating that the preservation of FM ordering of Co 3d moments in the mixed La1-xR'xCo2P2 phases also forces the R 4f moments to adopt FM arrangement, although antiparallel to the Co moments. As an example, in La0.75Pr0.25Co2P2 such mutual influence of the 3d and 4f moments leads to a cascade of magnetic phase transitions. All these changes were traced back to the modification of the crystal structure and, consequently, the electronic band structure of these materials. The substitution of smaller R3+ ions for the La3+ ions leads to structural compression along the tetragonal c axis, perpendicular to the [Co2P2] layers, and an increase in the Co-Co distances within the layer. This structural effect is translated into more localized Co magnetic moments, stronger magnetic exchange between Co sites, and higher ordering temperatures. A more dramatic change in properties is observed in EuCo2Pn2, which exhibit AFM ordering of the localized 4f moments of Eu2+ ions and only paramagnetic behavior in the Co sublattice. Under applied pressure, these compounds undergo structural collapse, which causes a dramatic decrease in the separation between the [Co2Pn2] layers, an increase in the oxidation state of Eu, and magnetic ordering of Co moments. We further demonstrated that similar effects can be stimulated by chemical compression, which is achieved by doping Eu into the more constrained lattice sites, for example, in PrCo2P2 or CaCo2As2. In both cases, the induced mixed valence of Eu results in the change from AFM to FM ordering in the Co sublattice. A series of solid solutions Ca1-xEuxCo2As2 shows a fascinating evolution of magnetic behavior from AFM ordering of Co 3d moments to simultaneous FM ordering of Co 3d and Eu 4f moments to AFM ordering of Eu 4f moments as one proceeds from CaCo2As2 to EuCo2As2. Importantly, all these changes in magnetic properties are well justified by the analysis of electronic density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population, providing the understanding of how chemical factors can be leveraged, in general, to modify properties of itinerant magnets.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(4): 1021-1024, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215786

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization is reported of (C9 NH20 )2 SnBr4 , a novel organic metal halide hybrid with a zero-dimensional (0D) structure, in which individual seesaw-shaped tin (II) bromide anions (SnBr42- ) are co-crystallized with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium cations (C9 NH20+ ). Upon photoexcitation, the bulk crystals exhibit a highly efficient broadband deep-red emission peaked at 695 nm, with a large Stokes shift of 332 nm and a high quantum efficiency of around 46 %. The unique photophysical properties of this hybrid material are attributed to two major factors: 1) the 0D structure allowing the bulk crystals to exhibit the intrinsic properties of individual SnBr42- species, and 2) the seesaw structure enabling a pronounced excited state structural deformation as confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 56(18): 11096-11103, 2017 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853865

RESUMO

Heteroleptic complexes [Fe(bpte)(bim)]X2 and [Fe(bpte)(xbim)]X2 (bpte = S,S'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-thioethane, bim = 2,2'-biimidazole, xbim = 1,1'-(α,α'-o-xylyl)-2,2'-biimidazole, X = ClO4-, BF4-, OTf-) were prepared by reacting the corresponding Fe(II) salts with a 1:1 mixture of the ligands. All mononuclear complexes exhibit temperature-induced spin crossover (SCO) with the onset above room temperature. The SCO is rather gradual, due to low cooperativity of interactions between the cationic complexes, as revealed by crystal structure analyses. These complexes expand the range of the recently discovered Fe(II) SCO materials with {N4S2} coordination environment.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(18): 6437-6447, 2017 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402639

RESUMO

We propose a simple method for predicting the spin state of homoleptic complexes of the Fe(II) d6 ion with chelating diimine ligands. The approach is based on the analysis of a single metric parameter within a free (noncoordinated) ligand: the interatomic separation between the N-donor metal-binding sites. An extensive analysis of existing complexes allows the determination of critical N···N distances that dictate the regions of stability for the high-spin and low-spin complexes, as well as the intermediate range in which the magnetic bistability (spin crossover) can be observed. The prediction has been tested on several complexes that demonstrate the validity of our method.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 45(34): 13576-89, 2016 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27510847

RESUMO

Unique dependence on the nature of metal salt and reaction conditions for coordination assembly reactions of varying architecture and nuclearity have been identified in V-shaped [Co3L4] and planar disc-like [Co7L6] compounds: [CoL2(µ-L)2(µ-OH2)2(CF3CO2)2] (1) and [Co(µ-L)6(µ-OMe)6]Cl2 (2) (HL = 2-{(3-ethoxypropylimino)methyl}-6-methoxyphenol). At room temperature varying reaction conditions, cobalt-ligand ratios and use of different bases allowed unique types of coordination self-assembly. The synthetic marvel lies in the nature of aggregation with respect to the two unrelated cores in 1 and 2. Complex 1 assumes a V-shaped arrangement bound to L(-), water and a trifluoroacetate anion, while 2 grows around a central Co(II) ion surrounded by a {Co} hexagon bound to methoxide and L(-). Magnetic measurements revealed that the intermetallic interactions are antiferromagnetic in nature in the case of complex 1 and ferromagnetic in the case of 2 involving high spin cobalt(ii) ions with stabilization of the high-spin ground state in the latter case. In MeCN solutions complexes 1 and 2 showed catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBCH2) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) in air. The kinetic study in MeCN revealed that with respect to the catalytic turnover number (kcat) 2 is more effective than 1 for oxidation of 3,5-DTBCH2.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/síntese química , Catecol Oxidase/química , Cobalto/química , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Magnetismo , Benzoquinonas/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Catálise , Catecóis/química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução
18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(39): 12054-8, 2016 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535022

RESUMO

A new approach to fused helicenes is reported, where varied substituents are readily incorporated in the extended aromatic frame. From the alkynyl precursor, the final helical compounds are obtained under mild conditions in a two-step process, in which the final C-C bond is formed via a photochemical cyclization/ dehydroiodination sequence. The distortion of the π-system from planarity leads to unusual packing in the solid state. Computational analysis reveals that substituent incorporation perturbs geometries and electronic structures of these nonplanar aromatics.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 55(12): 5904-13, 2016 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280361

RESUMO

Reactions of Fe(II) precursors with the tetradentate ligand S,S'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-thioethane (bpte) and monodentate NCE(-) coligands afforded mononuclear complexes [Fe(bpte)(NCE)2] (1, E = S; 2, E = Se; 3, E = BH3) that exhibit temperature-induced spin crossover (SCO). As the ligand field strength increases from NCS(-) to NCSe(-) to NCBH3(-), the SCO shifts to higher temperatures. Complex 1 exhibits only a partial (15%) conversion from the high-spin (HS) to the low-spin (LS) state, with an onset around 100 K. Complex 3 exhibits a complete SCO with T1/2 = 243 K. While the γ-2 polymorph also shows the complete SCO with T1/2 = 192 K, the α-2 polymorph exhibits a two-step SCO with the first step leading to a 50% HS → LS conversion with T1/2 = 120 K and the second step proceeding incompletely in the 80-50 K range. The amount of residual HS fraction of α-2 that remains below 60 K depends on the cooling rate. Fast flash-cooling allows trapping of as much as 45% of the HS fraction, while slow cooling leads to a 14% residual HS fraction. The slowly cooled sample of α-2 was subjected to irradiation in the magnetometer cavity resulting in a light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) effect. As demonstrated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, an HS fraction of up to 85% could be achieved by irradiation at 4.2 K.

20.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(12): 3904-8, 2016 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928980

RESUMO

Soluble polyphosphide anions were successfully generated in a number of organic solvents by the reaction between shelf-stable red phosphorus and potassium ethoxide. The species were identified by (31)P NMR spectroscopy in solution and by X-ray crystal-structure determination of (Bu4N)2P16 in the solid state. The reaction was scaled up to gram quantities by using a flow-chemistry process.

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