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1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 115, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315673

RESUMO

The expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of ALS accounting for ~ 40% familial cases and ~ 7% sporadic cases in the European population. In most people, the repeat length is 2, but in people with ALS, hundreds to thousands of repeats may be observed. A small proportion of people have an intermediate expansion, of the order of 20 to 30 repeats in size, and it remains unknown whether intermediate expansions confer risk of ALS in the same way that massive expansions do. We investigated the association of this intermediate repeat with ALS by performing a meta-analysis of four previously published studies and a new British/Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset of 1295 cases and 613 controls. The final dataset comprised 5071 cases and 3747 controls. Our meta-analysis showed association between ALS and intermediate C9orf72 repeats of 24 to 30 repeats in size (random-effects model OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.23-14.35, p-value = 0.02). Furthermore, we showed a different frequency of the repeat between the northern and southern European populations (Fisher's exact test p-value = 5 × 10- 3). Our findings provide evidence for the association between intermediate repeats and ALS (p-value = 2 × 10- 4) with direct relevance for research and clinical practice by showing that an expansion of 24 or more repeats should be considered pathogenic.

2.
Mov Disord ; 34(7): 1049-1059, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy is a neurodegenerative tauopathy manifesting clinically as a progressive akinetic-rigid syndrome. In this study, we sought to identify genetic variants influencing PSP susceptibility through a genome-wide association analysis of a cohort of well-characterized patients who had participated in the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes and Blood Brain Barrier in Parkinson Plus Syndromes studies. METHODS: We genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 283 PSP cases from the United Kingdom, Germany, and France and compared these with genotypes from 4472 controls. Copy number variants were identified from genotyping data. RESULTS: We observed associations on chromosome 17 within or close to the MAPT gene and explored the genetic architecture at this locus. We confirmed the previously reported association of rs1768208 in the MOBP gene (P = 3.29 × 10-13 ) and rs1411478 in STX6 (P = 3.45 × 10-10 ). The population-attributable risk from the MAPT, MOBP, and STX6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be 0.37, 0.26, and 0.08, respectively. In addition, we found 2 instances of copy number variants spanning the MAPT gene in patients with PSP. These copy number variants include tau but few other genes within the chromosome 17 haplotype region, providing additional support for the direct pathogenicity of MAPT in PSP. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should also be aware of MAPT duplication as a possible genetic cause of PSP, especially in patients presenting with young age at onset. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070736

RESUMO

A rare lysosomal disease resembling a mucopolysaccharidosis with unusual systemic features, including renal disease and platelet dysfunction, caused by the defect in a conserved region of the VPS33A gene on human chromosome 12q24.31, occurs in Yakuts-a nomadic Turkic ethnic group of Southern Siberia. VPS33A is a core component of the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) and the homotypic fusion and protein sorting (HOPS) complexes, which have essential functions in the endocytic pathway. Here we show that cultured fibroblasts from patients with this disorder have morphological changes: vacuolation with disordered endosomal/lysosomal compartments and-common to sphingolipid diseases-abnormal endocytic trafficking of lactosylceramide. Urine glycosaminoglycan studies revealed a pathological excess of sialylated conjugates as well as dermatan and heparan sulphate. Lipidomic screening showed elevated ß-D-galactosylsphingosine with unimpaired activity of cognate lysosomal hydrolases. The 3D crystal structure of human VPS33A predicts that replacement of arginine 498 by tryptophan will de-stabilize VPS33A folding. We observed that the missense mutation reduced the abundance of full-length VPS33A and other components of the HOPS and CORVET complexes. Treatment of HeLa cells stably expressing the mutant VPS33A with a proteasome inhibitor rescued the mutant protein from degradation. We propose that the disease is due to diminished intracellular abundance of intact VPS33A. Exposure of patient-derived fibroblasts to the clinically approved proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, or inhibition of glucosylceramide synthesis with eliglustat, partially corrected the impaired lactosylceramide trafficking defect and immediately suggest therapeutic avenues to explore in this fatal orphan disease.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931641

RESUMO

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons resulting in progressive paralysis and death, typically within 3-5 years. Although the heritability of ALS is about 60%, only about 11% is explained by common gene variants, suggesting that other forms of genetic variation are important. Telomeres maintain DNA integrity during cellular replication and shorten naturally with age. Gender and age are risk factors for ALS and also associated with telomere length. We therefore investigated telomere length in ALS. Methods: We estimated telomere length by applying a bioinformatics analysis to whole genome sequence data of leukocyte-derived DNA from people with ALS and age and gender-matched matched controls in a UK population. We tested the association of telomere length with ALS and ALS survival. Results: There were 1241 people with ALS and 335 controls. The median age for ALS was 62.5 years and for controls, 60.1 years, with a male-female ratio of 62:38. Accounting for age and sex, there was a 9% increase of telomere length in ALS compared to matched controls. Those with longer telomeres had a 16% increase in median survival. Of nine SNPs associated with telomere length, two were also associated with ALS: rs8105767 near the ZNF208 gene (p = 1.29 × 10-4) and rs6772228 (p = 0.001), which is in an intron for the PXK gene. Conclusions: Longer telomeres in leukocyte-derived DNA are associated with ALS, and with increased survival in those with ALS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835568

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, MND) is a neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motor neurons resulting in death from neuromuscular respiratory failure, typically within two years of first symptoms. Genetic factors are an important cause of ALS, with variants in more than 25 genes having strong evidence, and weaker evidence available for variants in more than 120 genes. With the increasing availability of next-generation sequencing data, non-specialists, including health care professionals and patients, are obtaining their genomic information without a corresponding ability to analyze and interpret it. Furthermore, the relevance of novel or existing variants in ALS genes is not always apparent. Here we present ALSgeneScanner, a tool that is easy to install and use, able to provide an automatic, detailed, annotated report, on a list of ALS genes from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data in a few hours and whole exome sequence data in about 1 h on a readily available mid-range computer. This will be of value to non-specialists and aid in the interpretation of the relevance of novel and existing variants identified in DNA sequencing data.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons with a median survival of 2 years. Familial ALS has a younger age of onset than apparently sporadic ALS. We sought to determine whether this younger age of onset is a result of ascertainment bias or has a genetic basis. METHODS: Samples from people with ALS were sequenced for 13 ALS genes. To determine the effect of genetic variation, age of onset was compared in people with sporadic ALS carrying a pathogenic gene variant and those who do not; to determine the effect of family history, we compared those with genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS. RESULTS: There were 941 people with a diagnosis of ALS, 100 with familial ALS. Of 841 with apparently sporadic ALS, 95 carried a pathogenic gene variant. The mean age of onset in familial ALS was 5.3 years younger than for apparently sporadic ALS (p=6.0×10-5, 95% CI 2.8 to 7.8 years). The mean age of onset of genetic sporadic ALS was 2.9 years younger than non-genetic sporadic ALS (p=0.011, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.2 years). There was no difference between the mean age of onset in genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS (p=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: People with familial ALS have an age of onset about 5 years younger than those with apparently sporadic ALS, and we have shown that this is a result of Mendelian gene variants lowering the age of onset, rather than ascertainment bias.

7.
Mol Neurodegener ; 13(1): 41, 2018 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease for which the genetic contribution is incompletely understood. METHODS: We conducted a joint analysis of 5,523,934 imputed SNPs in two newly-genotyped progressive supranuclear palsy cohorts, primarily derived from two clinical trials (Allon davunetide and NNIPPS riluzole trials in PSP) and a previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS), in total comprising 1646 cases and 10,662 controls of European ancestry. RESULTS: We identified 5 associated loci at a genome-wide significance threshold P < 5 × 10- 8, including replication of 3 loci from previous studies and 2 novel loci at 6p21.1 and 12p12.1 (near RUNX2 and SLCO1A2, respectively). At the 17q21.31 locus, stepwise regression analysis confirmed the presence of multiple independent loci (localized near MAPT and KANSL1). An additional 4 loci were highly suggestive of association (P < 1 × 10- 6). We analyzed the genetic correlation with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, and found that PSP had shared polygenic heritability with Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: In total, we identified 6 additional significant or suggestive SNP associations with PSP, and discovered genetic overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases. These findings clarify the pathogenesis and genetic architecture of PSP.

8.
Neurology ; 89(18): 1915-1922, 2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether genetic subgroups in recent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) trials responded to treatment with lithium carbonate, but that the treatment effect was lost in a large cohort of nonresponders. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from 3 randomized trials investigating the efficacy of lithium carbonate. We matched clinical data with data regarding the UNC13A and C9orf72 genotype. Our primary outcome was survival at 12 months. On an exploratory basis, we assessed whether the effect of lithium depended on the genotype. RESULTS: Clinical data were available for 518 of the 606 participants. Overall, treatment with lithium carbonate did not improve 12-month survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-1.4; p = 0.96). Both the UNC13A and C9orf72 genotype were independent predictors of survival (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3; p = 0.006 and HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.2; p = 0.032, respectively). The effect of lithium was different for UNC13A carriers (p = 0.027), but not for C9orf72 carriers (p = 0.22). The 12-month survival probability for UNC13A carriers treated with lithium carbonate improved from 40.1% (95% CI 23.2-69.1) to 69.7% (95% CI 50.4-96.3). CONCLUSIONS: This study incorporated genetic data into past ALS trials to determine treatment effects in a genetic post hoc analysis. Our results suggest that we should reorient our strategies toward finding treatments for ALS, start focusing on genotype-targeted treatments, and standardize genotyping in order to optimize randomization and analysis for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Farmacogenética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteína C9orf72 , Genótipo , Carbonato de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas/genética
9.
Genome Res ; 27(11): 1895-1903, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28887402

RESUMO

Identifying large expansions of short tandem repeats (STRs), such as those that cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fragile X syndrome, is challenging for short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data. A solution to this problem is an important step toward integrating WGS into precision medicine. We developed a software tool called ExpansionHunter that, using PCR-free WGS short-read data, can genotype repeats at the locus of interest, even if the expanded repeat is larger than the read length. We applied our algorithm to WGS data from 3001 ALS patients who have been tested for the presence of the C9orf72 repeat expansion with repeat-primed PCR (RP-PCR). Compared against this truth data, ExpansionHunter correctly classified all (212/212, 95% CI [0.98, 1.00]) of the expanded samples as either expansions (208) or potential expansions (4). Additionally, 99.9% (2786/2789, 95% CI [0.997, 1.00]) of the wild-type samples were correctly classified as wild type by this method with the remaining three samples identified as possible expansions. We further applied our algorithm to a set of 152 samples in which every sample had one of eight different pathogenic repeat expansions, including those associated with fragile X syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, and Huntington's disease, and correctly flagged all but one of the known repeat expansions. Thus, ExpansionHunter can be used to accurately detect known pathogenic repeat expansions and provides researchers with a tool that can be used to identify new pathogenic repeat expansions.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Algoritmos , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Software
10.
Brain ; 140(6): 1611-1618, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28430856

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons. About 25 genes have been verified as relevant to the disease process, with rare and common variation implicated. We used next generation sequencing and repeat sizing to comprehensively assay genetic variation in a panel of known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genes in 1126 patient samples and 613 controls. About 10% of patients were predicted to carry a pathological expansion of the C9orf72 gene. We found an increased burden of rare variants in patients within the untranslated regions of known disease-causing genes, driven by SOD1, TARDBP, FUS, VCP, OPTN and UBQLN2. We found 11 patients (1%) carried more than one pathogenic variant (P = 0.001) consistent with an oligogenic basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These findings show that the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is complex and that variation in the regulatory regions of associated genes may be important in disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Variação Genética , Herança Multifatorial , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neurobiol Aging ; 51: 178.e1-178.e9, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017481

RESUMO

We investigated a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the ATXN2 gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Two new case-control studies, a British dataset of 1474 ALS cases and 567 controls, and a Dutch dataset of 1328 ALS cases and 691 controls were analyzed. In addition, to increase power, we systematically searched PubMed for case-control studies published after 1 August 2010 that investigated the association between ATXN2 intermediate repeats and ALS. We conducted a meta-analysis of the new and existing studies for the relative risks of ATXN2 intermediate repeat alleles of between 24 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats and ALS. There was an overall increased risk of ALS for those carrying intermediate sized trinucleotide repeat alleles (odds ratio 3.06 [95% confidence interval 2.37-3.94]; p = 6 × 10-18), with an exponential relationship between repeat length and ALS risk for alleles of 29-32 repeats (R2 = 0.91, p = 0.0002). No relationship was seen for repeat length and age of onset or survival. In contrast to trinucleotide repeat diseases, intermediate ATXN2 trinucleotide repeat expansion in ALS does not predict age of onset but does predict disease risk.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Ataxina-2/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco
12.
Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener ; 17(7-8): 593-599, 2016 Oct - Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27584932

RESUMO

Our objective was to identify whether rare genetic variation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) candidate survival genes modifies ALS survival. Candidate genes were selected based on evidence for modifying ALS survival. Each tail of the extreme 1.5% of survival was selected from the UK MND DNA Bank and all samples available underwent whole genome sequencing. A replication set from the Netherlands was used for validation. Sequences of candidate survival genes were extracted and variants passing quality control with a minor allele frequency ≤0.05 were selected for association testing. Analysis was by burden testing using SKAT. Candidate survival genes UNC13A, KIFAP3, and EPHA4 were tested for association in a UK sample comprising 25 short survivors and 25 long survivors. Results showed that only SNVs in UNC13A were associated with survival (p = 6.57 × 10-3). SNV rs10419420:G > A was found exclusively in long survivors (3/25) and rs4808092:G > A exclusively in short survivors (4/25). These findings were not replicated in a Dutch sample. In conclusion, population specific rare variants of UNC13A may modulate survival in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor EphA4/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Nat Genet ; 48(9): 1037-42, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455347

RESUMO

To identify genetic factors contributing to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted whole-exome analyses of 1,022 index familial ALS (FALS) cases and 7,315 controls. In a new screening strategy, we performed gene-burden analyses trained with established ALS genes and identified a significant association between loss-of-function (LOF) NEK1 variants and FALS risk. Independently, autozygosity mapping for an isolated community in the Netherlands identified a NEK1 p.Arg261His variant as a candidate risk factor. Replication analyses of sporadic ALS (SALS) cases and independent control cohorts confirmed significant disease association for both p.Arg261His (10,589 samples analyzed) and NEK1 LOF variants (3,362 samples analyzed). In total, we observed NEK1 risk variants in nearly 3% of ALS cases. NEK1 has been linked to several cellular functions, including cilia formation, DNA-damage response, microtubule stability, neuronal morphology and axonal polarity. Our results provide new and important insights into ALS etiopathogenesis and genetic etiology.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Quinase 1 Relacionada a NIMA/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Exoma/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
14.
Nat Genet ; 48(9): 1043-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455348

RESUMO

To elucidate the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and find associated loci, we assembled a custom imputation reference panel from whole-genome-sequenced patients with ALS and matched controls (n = 1,861). Through imputation and mixed-model association analysis in 12,577 cases and 23,475 controls, combined with 2,579 cases and 2,767 controls in an independent replication cohort, we fine-mapped a new risk locus on chromosome 21 and identified C21orf2 as a gene associated with ALS risk. In addition, we identified MOBP and SCFD1 as new associated risk loci. We established evidence of ALS being a complex genetic trait with a polygenic architecture. Furthermore, we estimated the SNP-based heritability at 8.5%, with a distinct and important role for low-frequency variants (frequency 1-10%). This study motivates the interrogation of larger samples with full genome coverage to identify rare causal variants that underpin ALS risk.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas da Mielina/genética , Proteínas/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
15.
JAMA Neurol ; 73(7): 812-20, 2016 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244217

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with a poor prognosis and a median survival of 3 years. However, a significant proportion of patients survive more than 10 years from symptom onset. OBJECTIVE: To identify gene variants influencing survival in ALS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyzed survival in data sets from several European countries and the United States that were collected by the Italian Consortium for the Genetics of ALS and the International Consortium on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Genetics. The study population included 4256 patients with ALS (3125 [73.4%] deceased) with genotype data extended to 7 174 392 variants by imputation analysis. Samples of DNA were collected from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2009, and analyzed from March 1, 2014, to February 28, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Cox proportional hazards regression under an additive model with adjustment for age at onset, sex, and the first 4 principal components of ancestry, followed by meta-analysis, were used to analyze data. Survival distributions for the most associated genetic variants were assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: Among the 4256 patients included in the analysis (2589 male [60.8%] and 1667 female [39.2%]; mean [SD] age at onset, 59 [12] years), the following 2 novel loci were significantly associated with ALS survival: at 10q23 (rs139550538; P = 1.87 × 10-9) and in the CAMTA1 gene at 1p36 (rs2412208, P = 3.53 × 10-8). At locus 10q23, the adjusted hazard ratio for patients with the rs139550538 AA or AT genotype was 1.61 (95% CI, 1.38-1.89; P = 1.87 × 10-9), corresponding to an 8-month reduction in survival compared with TT carriers. For rs2412208 CAMTA1, the adjusted hazard ratio for patients with the GG or GT genotype was 1.17 (95% CI, 1.11-1.24; P = 3.53 × 10-8), corresponding to a 4-month reduction in survival compared with TT carriers. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This GWAS robustly identified 2 loci at genome-wide levels of significance that influence survival in patients with ALS. Because ALS is a rare disease and prevention is not feasible, treatment that modifies survival is the most realistic strategy. Therefore, identification of modifier genes that might influence ALS survival could improve the understanding of the biology of the disease and suggest biological targets for pharmaceutical intervention. In addition, genetic risk scores for survival could be used as an adjunct to clinical trials to account for the genetic contribution to survival.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transativadores/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
16.
PLoS Med ; 13(6): e1001976, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with immune, cardiometabolic, and psychiatric traits and diseases. Yet it is inconclusive whether these associations are causal. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using two genetic risk scores (GRSs) as instrumental variables (IVs). The first GRS consisted of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene (GRSCRP), and the second consisted of 18 SNPs that were significantly associated with CRP levels in the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date (GRSGWAS). To optimize power, we used summary statistics from GWAS consortia and tested the association of these two GRSs with 32 complex somatic and psychiatric outcomes, with up to 123,865 participants per outcome from populations of European ancestry. We performed heterogeneity tests to disentangle the pleiotropic effect of IVs. A Bonferroni-corrected significance level of less than 0.0016 was considered statistically significant. An observed p-value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered nominally significant evidence for a potential causal association, yet to be confirmed. The strengths (F-statistics) of the IVs were 31.92-3,761.29 and 82.32-9,403.21 for GRSCRP and GRSGWAS, respectively. CRP GRSGWAS showed a statistically significant protective relationship of a 10% genetically elevated CRP level with the risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR] 0.86 [95% CI 0.79-0.94]; p < 0.001). We validated this finding with individual-level genotype data from the schizophrenia GWAS (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.94-0.98]; p < 1.72 × 10-6). Further, we found that a standardized CRP polygenic risk score (CRPPRS) at p-value thresholds of 1 × 10-4, 0.001, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 using individual-level data also showed a protective effect (OR < 1.00) against schizophrenia; the first CRPPRS (built of SNPs with p < 1 × 10-4) showed a statistically significant (p < 2.45 × 10-4) protective effect with an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99). The CRP GRSGWAS showed that a 10% increase in genetically determined CRP level was significantly associated with coronary artery disease (OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.84-0.94]; p < 2.4 × 10-5) and was nominally associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (OR 0.85 [95% CI 0.74-0.98]; p < 0.03), Crohn disease (OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70-0.94]; p < 0.005), psoriatic arthritis (OR 1.36 [95% CI 1.00-1.84]; p < 0.049), knee osteoarthritis (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]; p < 0.04), and bipolar disorder (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.05-1.40]; p < 0.007) and with an increase of 0.72 (95% CI 0.11-1.34; p < 0.02) mm Hg in systolic blood pressure, 0.45 (95% CI 0.06-0.84; p < 0.02) mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure, 0.01 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI 0.003-0.02; p < 0.005) in estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine, 0.01 g/dl (95% CI 0.0004-0.02; p < 0.04) in serum albumin level, and 0.03 g/dl (95% CI 0.008-0.05; p < 0.009) in serum protein level. However, after adjustment for heterogeneity, neither GRS showed a significant effect of CRP level (at p < 0.0016) on any of these outcomes, including coronary artery disease, nor on the other 20 complex outcomes studied. Our study has two potential limitations: the limited variance explained by our genetic instruments modeling CRP levels in blood and the unobserved bias introduced by the use of summary statistics in our MR analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Genetically elevated CRP levels showed a significant potentially protective causal relationship with risk of schizophrenia. We observed nominal evidence at an observed p < 0.05 using either GRSCRP or GRSGWAS-with persistence after correction for heterogeneity-for a causal relationship of elevated CRP levels with psoriatic osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, knee osteoarthritis, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum albumin, and bipolar disorder. These associations remain yet to be confirmed. We cannot verify any causal effect of CRP level on any of the other common somatic and neuropsychiatric outcomes investigated in the present study. This implies that interventions that lower CRP level are unlikely to result in decreased risk for the majority of common complex outcomes.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/genética , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Alzheimers Dement ; 11(12): 1407-1416, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25936935

RESUMO

A rare variant in TREM2 (p.R47H, rs75932628) was recently reported to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and, subsequently, other neurodegenerative diseases, i.e. frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we comprehensively assessed TREM2 rs75932628 for association with these diseases in a total of 19,940 previously untyped subjects of European descent. These data were combined with those from 28 published data sets by meta-analysis. Furthermore, we tested whether rs75932628 shows association with amyloid beta (Aß42) and total-tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 828 individuals with AD or mild cognitive impairment. Our data show that rs75932628 is highly significantly associated with the risk of AD across 24,086 AD cases and 148,993 controls of European descent (odds ratio or OR = 2.71, P = 4.67 × 10(-25)). No consistent evidence for association was found between this marker and the risk of FTLD (OR = 2.24, P = .0113 across 2673 cases/9283 controls), PD (OR = 1.36, P = .0767 across 8311 cases/79,938 controls) and ALS (OR = 1.41, P = .198 across 5544 cases/7072 controls). Furthermore, carriers of the rs75932628 risk allele showed significantly increased levels of CSF-total-tau (P = .0110) but not Aß42 suggesting that TREM2's role in AD may involve tau dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 36(3): 1600.e5-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25588603

RESUMO

The future of genetic diagnostics will see a move toward massively parallel next-generation sequencing of a patient's DNA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the diseases that would benefit from this prospect. Exploring this idea, we designed a screening panel to sequence 25 ALS-linked genes and examined samples from 95 patients with both familial and sporadic ALS. Forty-three rare polymorphisms were detected in this cohort. A third of these have already been reported with respect to ALS, leaving 28 novel variants all open for further investigation. This study highlights the potential benefits of next-generation sequencing as a reliable, cost and time efficient, diagnostic, and research tool for ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Ann Neurol ; 76(1): 120-33, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24931836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Substantial clinical, pathological, and genetic overlap exists between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). TDP-43 inclusions have been found in both ALS and FTD cases (FTD-TDP). Recently, a repeat expansion in C9orf72 was identified as the causal variant in a proportion of ALS and FTD cases. We sought to identify additional evidence for a common genetic basis for the spectrum of ALS-FTD. METHODS: We used published genome-wide association studies data for 4,377 ALS patients and 13,017 controls, and 435 pathology-proven FTD-TDP cases and 1,414 controls for genotype imputation. Data were analyzed in a joint meta-analysis, by replicating topmost associated hits of one disease in the other, and by using a conservative rank products analysis, allocating equal weight to ALS and FTD-TDP sample sizes. RESULTS: Meta-analysis identified 19 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C9orf72 on chromosome 9p21.2 (lowest p = 2.6 × 10(-12) ) and 1 SNP in UNC13A on chromosome 19p13.11 (p = 1.0 × 10(-11) ) as shared susceptibility loci for ALS and FTD-TDP. Conditioning on the 9p21.2 genotype increased statistical significance at UNC13A. A third signal, on chromosome 8q24.13 at the SPG8 locus coding for strumpellin (p = 3.91 × 10(-7) ) was replicated in an independent cohort of 4,056 ALS patients and 3,958 controls (p = 0.026; combined analysis p = 1.01 × 10(-7) ). INTERPRETATION: We identified common genetic variants in C9orf72, but in addition in UNC13A that are shared between ALS and FTD. UNC13A provides a novel link between ALS and FTD-TDP, and identifies changes in neurotransmitter release and synaptic function as a converging mechanism in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTD-TDP.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas/genética , Proteína C9orf72 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Expansão das Repetições de DNA/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/tendências , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Neurobiol Aging ; 35(10): 2420.e13-4, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24838185

RESUMO

Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a multifactorial disease of environmental and genetic origin. In a previous large multicenter genome wide study, common genetic variation in the Kinesin-Associated Protein 3 (KIFAP3) gene (rs1541160) was reported to have a significant effect on survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. However, this could not be replicated in 3 smaller independent cohorts. We conducted a large multicenter multivariate survival analysis (n = 2362) on the effect of genetic variation in rs1541160. The previously reported beneficial genotype did not show a significant improvement in survival in this patient group.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sobrevida
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