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1.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a life-threatening birth defect that often co-occurs with non-hernia-related anomalies (CDH+). While copy number variant (CNV) analysis is often employed as a diagnostic test for CDH+, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has not been universally adopted. METHODS: We analysed a clinical database of ~12 000 test results to determine the diagnostic yields of ES in CDH+ and to identify new phenotypic expansions. RESULTS: Among the 76 cases with an indication of CDH+, a molecular diagnosis was made in 28 cases for a diagnostic yield of 37% (28/76). A provisional diagnosis was made in seven other cases (9%; 7/76). Four individuals had a diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome caused by frameshift variants in KMT2D. Putatively deleterious variants in ALG12 and EP300 were each found in two individuals, supporting their role in CDH development. We also identified individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in FOXP1 and SMARCA4, and compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in BRCA2. The role of these genes in CDH development is supported by the expression of their mouse homologs in the developing diaphragm, their high CDH-specific pathogenicity scores generated using a previously validated algorithm for genome-scale knowledge synthesis and previously published case reports. CONCLUSION: We conclude that ES should be ordered in cases of CDH+ when a specific diagnosis is not suspected and CNV analyses are negative. Our results also provide evidence in favour of phenotypic expansions involving CDH for genes associated with ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Fanconi anaemia, Coffin-Siris syndrome and FOXP1-related disorders.

2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(12): e1008473, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315858

RESUMO

Changes in the composition of the microbiome over time are associated with myriad human illnesses. Unfortunately, the lack of analytic techniques has hindered researchers' ability to quantify the association between longitudinal microbial composition and time-to-event outcomes. Prior methodological work developed the joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data to incorporate time-dependent biomarker covariates into the hazard regression approach to disease outcomes. The original implementation of this joint modeling approach employed a linear mixed effects model to represent the time-dependent covariates. However, when the distribution of the time-dependent covariate is non-Gaussian, as is the case with microbial abundances, researchers require different statistical methodology. We present a joint modeling framework that uses a negative binomial mixed effects model to determine longitudinal taxon abundances. We incorporate these modeled microbial abundances into a hazard function with a parameterization that not only accounts for the proportional nature of microbiome data, but also generates biologically interpretable results. Herein we demonstrate the performance improvements of our approach over existing alternatives via simulation as well as a previously published longitudinal dataset studying the microbiome during pregnancy. The results demonstrate that our joint modeling framework for longitudinal microbiome count data provides a powerful methodology to uncover associations between changes in microbial abundances over time and the onset of disease. This method offers the potential to equip researchers with a deeper understanding of the associations between longitudinal microbial composition changes and disease outcomes. This new approach could potentially lead to new diagnostic biomarkers or inform clinical interventions to help prevent or treat disease.


Assuntos
Doença , Microbiota , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Gravidez , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Prevotella/patogenicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Software
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007504, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692749

RESUMO

NGS studies have uncovered an ever-growing catalog of human variation while leaving an enormous gap between observed variation and experimental characterization of variant function. High-throughput screens powered by NGS have greatly increased the rate of variant functionalization, but the development of comprehensive statistical methods to analyze screen data has lagged. In the massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA), short barcodes are counted by sequencing DNA libraries transfected into cells and the cell's output RNA in order to simultaneously measure the shifts in transcription induced by thousands of genetic variants. These counts present many statistical challenges, including overdispersion, depth dependence, and uncertain DNA concentrations. So far, the statistical methods used have been rudimentary, employing transformations on count level data and disregarding experimental and technical structure while failing to quantify uncertainty in the statistical model. We have developed an extensive framework for the analysis of NGS functionalization screens available as an R package called malacoda (available from github.com/andrewGhazi/malacoda). Our software implements a probabilistic, fully Bayesian model of screen data. The model uses the negative binomial distribution with gamma priors to model sequencing counts while accounting for effects from input library preparation and sequencing depth. The method leverages the high-throughput nature of the assay to estimate the priors empirically. External annotations such as ENCODE data or DeepSea predictions can also be incorporated to obtain more informative priors-a transformative capability for data integration. The package also includes quality control and utility functions, including automated barcode counting and visualization methods. To validate our method, we analyzed several datasets using malacoda and alternative MPRA analysis methods. These data include experiments from the literature, simulated assays, and primary MPRA data. We also used luciferase assays to experimentally validate several hits from our primary data, as well as variants for which the various methods disagree and variants detectable only with the aid of external annotations.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Teorema de Bayes , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(2): 518-527.e8, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the airway microbiome in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma remains uncertain, particularly in the high-risk group of infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the relation of the nasal microbiota at bronchiolitis-related hospitalization and 3 later points to the risk of recurrent wheezing by age 3 years. METHODS: In 17 US centers researchers collected clinical data and nasal swabs from infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. Trained parents collected nasal swabs 3 weeks after hospitalization and, when healthy, during the summer and 1 year after hospitalization. We applied 16S rRNA gene sequencing to all nasal swabs. We used joint modeling to examine the relation of longitudinal nasal microbiota abundances to the risk of recurrent wheezing. RESULTS: Among 842 infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis, there was 88% follow-up at 3 years, and 31% had recurrent wheezing. The median age at enrollment was 3.2 months (interquartile range, 1.7-5.8 months). In joint modeling analyses adjusting for 16 covariates, including viral cause, a 10% increase in relative abundance of Moraxella or Streptococcus species 3 weeks after day 1 of hospitalization was associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.38 and 95% high-density interval [HDI] of 1.11-1.85 and HR of 1.76 and 95% HDI of 1.13-3.19, respectively). Increased Streptococcus species abundance the summer after hospitalization was also associated with a greater risk of recurrent wheezing (HR, 1.76; 95% HDI, 1.15-3.27). CONCLUSIONS: Enrichment of Moraxella or Streptococcus species after bronchiolitis hospitalization was associated with recurrent wheezing by age 3 years, possibly providing new avenues to ameliorate the long-term respiratory outcomes of infants with severe bronchiolitis.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/complicações , Moraxella , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Sons Respiratórios , Streptococcus , Bronquiolite/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1262-1273, 2019 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785788

RESUMO

It has long been appreciated that genetic analysis of fetal or trophoblast cells in maternal blood could revolutionize prenatal diagnosis. We implemented a protocol for single circulating trophoblast (SCT) testing using positive selection by magnetic-activated cell sorting and single-cell low-coverage whole-genome sequencing to detect fetal aneuploidies and copy-number variants (CNVs) at ∼1 Mb resolution. In 95 validation cases, we identified on average 0.20 putative trophoblasts/mL, of which 55% were of high quality and scorable for both aneuploidy and CNVs. We emphasize the importance of analyzing individual cells because some cells are apoptotic, in S-phase, or otherwise of poor quality. When two or more high-quality trophoblast cells were available for singleton pregnancies, there was complete concordance between all trophoblasts unless there was evidence of confined placental mosaicism. SCT results were highly concordant with available clinical data from chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis procedures. Although determining the exact sensitivity and specificity will require more data, this study further supports the potential for SCT testing to become a diagnostic prenatal test.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Marcadores Genéticos , Teste Pré-Natal não Invasivo/métodos , Placenta/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/citologia , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Adulto , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Placenta/citologia , Gravidez , Análise de Célula Única , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Genet ; 15(7): e1008287, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344026

RESUMO

CD36 is a platelet membrane glycoprotein whose engagement with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) results in platelet activation. The CD36 gene has been associated with platelet count, platelet volume, as well as lipid levels and CVD risk by genome-wide association studies. Platelet CD36 expression levels have been shown to be associated with both the platelet oxLDL response and an elevated risk of thrombo-embolism. Several genomic variants have been identified as associated with platelet CD36 levels, however none have been conclusively demonstrated to be causative. We screened 81 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with platelet CD36 expression by a Massively Parallel Reporter Assay (MPRA) and analyzed the results with a novel Bayesian statistical method. Ten eQTLs located 13kb to 55kb upstream of the CD36 transcriptional start site of transcript ENST00000309881 and 49kb to 92kb upstream of transcript ENST00000447544, demonstrated significant transcription shifts between their minor and major allele in the MPRA assay. Of these, rs2366739 and rs1194196, separated by only 20bp, were confirmed by luciferase assay to alter transcriptional regulation. In addition, electromobility shift assays demonstrated differential DNA:protein complex formation between the two alleles of this locus. Furthermore, deletion of the genomic locus by CRISPR/Cas9 in K562 and Meg-01 cells results in upregulation of CD36 transcription. These data indicate that we have identified a variant that regulates expression of CD36, which in turn affects platelet function. To assess the clinical relevance of our findings we used the PhenoScanner tool, which aggregates large scale GWAS findings; the results reinforce the clinical relevance of our variants and the utility of the MPRA assay. The study demonstrates a generalizable paradigm for functional testing of genetic variants to inform mechanistic studies, support patient management and develop precision therapies.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD36/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Células K562 , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Contagem de Plaquetas , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Análise em Microsséries/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/normas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries/normas , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/normas
8.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 25, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrachromosomal triplications (TRP) can contribute to disease etiology via gene dosage effects, gene disruption, position effects, or fusion gene formation. Recently, post-zygotic de novo triplications adjacent to copy-number neutral genomic intervals with runs of homozygosity (ROH) have been shown to result in uniparental isodisomy (UPD). The genomic structure of these complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) shows a consistent pattern of an inverted triplication flanked by duplications (DUP-TRP/INV-DUP) formed by an iterative DNA replisome template-switching mechanism during replicative repair of a single-ended, double-stranded DNA (seDNA), the ROH results from an interhomolog or nonsister chromatid template switch. It has been postulated that these CGRs may lead to genetic abnormalities in carriers due to dosage-sensitive genes mapping within the copy-number variant regions, homozygosity for alleles at a locus causing an autosomal recessive (AR) disease trait within the ROH region, or imprinting-associated diseases. METHODS: Here, we report a family wherein the affected subject carries a de novo 2.2-Mb TRP followed by 42.2 Mb of ROH and manifests clinical features overlapping with those observed in association with chromosome 14 maternal UPD (UPD(14)mat). UPD(14)mat can cause clinical phenotypic features enabling a diagnosis of Temple syndrome. This CGR was then molecularly characterized by high-density custom aCGH, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and methylation arrays, exome sequencing (ES), and the Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing technology. RESULTS: We confirmed the postulated DUP-TRP/INV-DUP structure by multiple orthogonal genomic technologies in the proband. The methylation status of known differentially methylated regions (DMRs) on chromosome 14 revealed that the subject shows the typical methylation pattern of UPD(14)mat. Consistent with these molecular findings, the clinical features overlap with those observed in Temple syndrome, including speech delay. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide experimental evidence that, in humans, triplication can lead to segmental UPD and imprinting disease. Importantly, genotype/phenotype analyses further reveal how a post-zygotically generated complex structural variant, resulting from a replication-based mutational mechanism, contributes to expanding the clinical phenotype of known genetic syndromes. Mechanistically, such events can distort transmission genetics resulting in homozygosity at a locus for which only one parent is a carrier as well as cause imprinting diseases.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14/genética , Impressão Genômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Replicação do DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cell ; 176(6): 1310-1324.e10, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827684

RESUMO

DNA rearrangements resulting in human genome structural variants (SVs) are caused by diverse mutational mechanisms. We used long- and short-read sequencing technologies to investigate end products of de novo chromosome 17p11.2 rearrangements and query the molecular mechanisms underlying both recurrent and non-recurrent events. Evidence for an increased rate of clustered single-nucleotide variant (SNV) mutation in cis with non-recurrent rearrangements was found. Indel and SNV formation are associated with both copy-number gains and losses of 17p11.2, occur up to ∼1 Mb away from the breakpoint junctions, and favor C > G transversion substitutions; results suggest that single-stranded DNA is formed during the genesis of the SV and provide compelling support for a microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (MMBIR) mechanism for SV formation. Our data show an additional mutational burden of MMBIR consisting of hypermutation confined to the locus and manifesting as SNVs and indels predominantly within genes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Mutação , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recombinação Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética
10.
Nat Med ; 25(4): 701-702, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787481

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, some cases that were presented in Fig. 3 should have been underlined but were not. The appropriate cases have now been underlined. The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of the article.

11.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(5): 716-725, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731491

RESUMO

Megakaryopoiesis produces specialized haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow that give rise to megakaryocytes which ultimately produce platelets. Defects in megakaryopoiesis can result in altered platelet counts and physiology, leading to dysfunctional haemostasis and thrombosis. Additionally, dysregulated megakaryopoiesis is also associated with myeloid pathologies. Transcription factors play critical roles in cell differentiation by regulating the temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression which ultimately decide cell fate. Several transcription factors have been described as regulating megakaryopoiesis including myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C); however, the genes regulated by MEF2C that influence megakaryopoiesis have not been reported. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and Gene Ontology data we identified five candidate genes that are bound by MEF2C and regulate megakaryopoiesis: MOV10, AGO3, HDAC1, RBBP5 and WASF2. To study expression of these genes, we silenced MEF2C gene expression in the Meg01 megakaryocytic cell line and in induced pluripotent stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9 editing. We also knocked down MEF2C expression in cord blood-derived haematopoietic stem cells by siRNA. We found that absent or reduced MEF2C expression resulted in defects in megakaryocytic differentiation and reduced levels of the candidate target genes. Luciferase assays confirmed that genomic sequences within the target genes are regulated by MEF2C levels. Finally, we demonstrate that small deletions linked to a platelet count-associated single nucleotide polymorphism alter transcriptional activity, suggesting a mechanism by which genetic variation in MEF2C alters platelet production. These data help elucidate the mechanism behind MEF2C regulation of megakaryopoiesis and genetic variation driving platelet production.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Megacariócitos/fisiologia , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , Trombopoese/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
12.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 439-447, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692697

RESUMO

Current non-invasive prenatal screening is targeted toward the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus1,2. However, screening for many dominant monogenic disorders associated with de novo mutations is not available, despite their relatively high incidence3. Here we report on the development and validation of, and early clinical experience with, a new approach for non-invasive prenatal sequencing for a panel of causative genes for frequent dominant monogenic diseases. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from maternal plasma was barcoded, enriched, and then analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for targeted regions. Low-level fetal variants were identified by a statistical analysis adjusted for NGS read count and fetal fraction. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were confirmed by a secondary amplicon-based test on cfDNA. Clinical tests were performed on 422 pregnancies with or without abnormal ultrasound findings or family history. Follow-up studies on cases with available outcome results confirmed 20 true-positive, 127 true-negative, zero false-positive, and zero-false negative results. The initial clinical study demonstrated that this non-invasive test can provide valuable molecular information for the detection of a wide spectrum of dominant monogenic diseases, complementing current screening for aneuploidies or carrier screening for recessive disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Acondroplasia/diagnóstico , Acondroplasia/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cornélia de Lange/genética , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hidropisia Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Linfangioma Cístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfangioma Cístico/genética , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Displasia Tanatofórica/diagnóstico , Displasia Tanatofórica/genética , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4720, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420638

RESUMO

This Article contains an error in Figure 2. In panel a, the second lane of the western blot should have been labelled 'siNT'. A correct version of Figure 2a appears in the Author Correction associated with this Article; the error has not been fixed in the original Article.

14.
J Pediatr Genet ; 7(4): 164-173, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430034

RESUMO

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 and is characterized by dysmorphic facies, congenital heart defects, intellectual/developmental disability, and increased risk for congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In this report, we describe a stillborn girl with WHS and a large CDH. A literature review revealed 15 cases of WHS with CDH, which overlap a 2.3-Mb CDH critical region. We applied a machine-learning algorithm that integrates large-scale genomic knowledge to genes within the 4p16.3 CDH critical region and identified FGFRL1 , CTBP1 , NSD2 , FGFR3 , CPLX1 , MAEA , CTBP1-AS2 , and ZNF141 as genes whose haploinsufficiency may contribute to the development of CDH.

15.
Bioinformatics ; 34(15): 2682-2683, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052913

RESUMO

Motivation: Genetic reporter assays are a convenient, relatively inexpensive method for studying the regulation of gene expression. Massively Parallel Reporter Assays (MPRA) are high-throughput functionalization assays that interrogate the transcriptional activity of many genetic variants at once using a library of synthetic barcoded constructs. Despite growing interest in this area, there are few computational tools to design and execute MPRA studies. Results: We designed an online web-tool and R package that allows for interactive MPRA experimental design encompassing both power analysis and design of constructs. Our tool is tuned using data from real MPRA studies. Users can adjust experimental parameters to examine the predicted effect on assay power as well as upload VCFs for automated construct sequence generation. Availability and implementation: The MPRA Design Tools web application is available here: https://andrewghazi.shinyapps.io/designmpra/, https://github.com/andrewGhazi/designMPRA and https://github.com/andrewGhazi/mpradesigntools. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Técnicas Genéticas , Software , Bioensaio/métodos
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 171-187, 2018 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032986

RESUMO

Premature termination codon (PTC)-bearing transcripts are often degraded by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) resulting in loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. However, not all PTCs result in LoF mutations, i.e., some such transcripts escape NMD and are translated to truncated peptide products that result in disease due to gain-of-function (GoF) effects. Since the location of the PTC is a major factor determining transcript fate, we hypothesized that depletion of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) within the gene region predicted to escape NMD in control databases could provide a rank for genic susceptibility for disease through GoF versus LoF. We developed an NMD escape intolerance score to rank genes based on the depletion of PTVs that would render them able to escape NMD using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) control databases, which was further used to screen the Baylor-Center for Mendelian Genomics disease database. This analysis revealed 1,996 genes significantly depleted for PTVs that are predicted to escape from NMD, i.e., PTVesc; further studies provided evidence that revealed a subset as candidate genes underlying Mendelian phenotypes. Importantly, these genes have characteristically low pLI scores, which can cause them to be overlooked as candidates for dominant diseases. Collectively, we demonstrate that this NMD escape intolerance score is an effective and efficient tool for gene discovery in Mendelian diseases due to production of truncated or altered proteins. More importantly, we provide a complementary analytical tool to aid identification of genes associated with dominant traits through a mechanism distinct from LoF.


Assuntos
Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Mutação/genética , Alelos , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Humanos , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Fenótipo
17.
Genome Res ; 28(8): 1228-1242, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907612

RESUMO

Alu elements, the short interspersed element numbering more than 1 million copies per human genome, can mediate the formation of copy number variants (CNVs) between substrate pairs. These Alu/Alu-mediated rearrangements (AAMRs) can result in pathogenic variants that cause diseases. To investigate the impact of AAMR on gene variation and human health, we first characterized Alus that are involved in mediating CNVs (CNV-Alus) and observed that these Alus tend to be evolutionarily younger. We then computationally generated, with the assistance of a supercomputer, a test data set consisting of 78 million Alu pairs and predicted ∼18% of them are potentially susceptible to AAMR. We further determined the relative risk of AAMR in 12,074 OMIM genes using the count of predicted CNV-Alu pairs and experimentally validated the predictions with 89 samples selected by correlating predicted hotspots with a database of CNVs identified by clinical chromosomal microarrays (CMAs) on the genomes of approximately 54,000 subjects. We fine-mapped 47 duplications, 40 deletions, and two complex rearrangements and examined a total of 52 breakpoint junctions of simple CNVs. Overall, 94% of the candidate breakpoints were at least partially Alu mediated. We successfully predicted all (100%) of Alu pairs that mediated deletions (n = 21) and achieved an 87% positive predictive value overall when including AAMR-generated deletions and duplications. We provided a tool, AluAluCNVpredictor, for assessing AAMR hotspots and their role in human disease. These results demonstrate the utility of our predictive model and provide insights into the genomic features and molecular mechanisms underlying AAMR.


Assuntos
Elementos Alu/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Deleção de Sequência
18.
Nat Med ; 24(4): 505-511, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29578538

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer diagnosed in more than 200,000 women each year and is recalcitrant to targeted therapies. Although TNBCs harbor multiple hyperactive receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), RTK inhibitors have been largely ineffective in TNBC patients thus far. We developed a broadly effective therapeutic strategy for TNBC that is based on combined inhibition of receptors that share the negative regulator PTPN12. Previously, we and others identified the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN12 as a tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated in TNBC. PTPN12 restrains several RTKs, suggesting that PTPN12 deficiency leads to aberrant activation of multiple RTKs and a co-dependency on these receptors. This in turn leads to the therapeutic hypothesis that PTPN12-deficient TNBCs may be responsive to combined RTK inhibition. However, the repertoire of RTKs that are restrained by PTPN12 in human cells has not been systematically explored. By methodically identifying the suite of RTK substrates (MET, PDGFRß, EGFR, and others) inhibited by PTPN12, we rationalized a combination RTK-inhibitor therapy that induced potent tumor regression across heterogeneous models of TNBC. Orthogonal approaches revealed that PTPN12 was recruited to and inhibited these receptors after ligand stimulation, thereby serving as a feedback mechanism to limit receptor signaling. Cancer-associated mutation of PTPN12 or reduced PTPN12 protein levels diminished this feedback mechanism, leading to aberrant activity of these receptors. Restoring PTPN12 protein levels restrained signaling from RTKs, including PDGFRß and MET, and impaired TNBC survival. In contrast with single agents, combined inhibitors targeting the PDGFRß and MET receptors induced the apoptosis in TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy resulted in tumor regressions in chemo-refractory patient-derived TNBC models. Notably, response correlated with PTPN12 deficiency, suggesting that impaired receptor feedback may establish a combined addiction to these proto-oncogenic receptors. Taken together, our data provide a rationale for combining RTK inhibitors in TNBC and other malignancies that lack receptor-activating mutations.


Assuntos
Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 12/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Crizotinibe/farmacologia , Crizotinibe/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 12/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sunitinibe/farmacologia , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/enzimologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Epilepsia Open ; 3(1): 81-85, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588991

RESUMO

Advance in the exome-wide sequencing analysis contributes to identifying hundreds of genes that are associated with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and neurodevelopmental disorders. On the basis of massive sequencing data, functional interactions among different genes are suggested to explain the common molecular pathway underlying the pathogenic process of these disorders. However, the relevance of such interactions with the phenotypic severity or variety in an affected individual remains elusive. In this report, we present a 45-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy, and severe developmental delay. Whole-exome sequencing identified de novo pathogenic mutations in NF1 and the Schaaf-Yang syndrome-associated gene, MAGEL2. Literature-curated interaction data predicted that NF1 and MAGEL2 proteins were closely connected in this network via their common interacting proteins. Direct conversion of fibroblasts into neurons in vitro showed that neuronal cells from 9 patients with NF1 expressed significantly lower levels of MAGEL2 (54%, p = 0.0047) than those from healthy individuals. These data provide the first evidence that pathogenic mutations of NF1 deregulate the expression of other neurodevelopmental disease-associated genes. De novo mutations in multiple genes may lead to severe developmental phenotypes through their cumulative effects or synergistic interactions.

20.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 2, 2018 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The airway microbiome is a subject of great interest for the study of respiratory disease. Anterior nare samples are more accessible than samples from deeper within the nasopharynx. However, the correlation between the microbiota found in the anterior nares and the microbiota found within the nasopharynx is unknown. We assessed the anterior nares and nasopharyngeal microbiota to determine (1) the relation of the microbiota from these two upper airway sites and (2) if associations were maintained between the microbiota from these two sites and two bronchiolitis severity outcomes. RESULTS: Among 815 infants hospitalized at 17 US centers for bronchiolitis with optimal 16S rRNA gene sequence reads from both nasal swab and nasopharyngeal aspirate samples, there were strong intra-individual correlations in the microbial communities between the two sample types, especially relating to Haemophilus and Moraxella genera. By contrast, we found a high abundance of Staphylococcus genus in the nasal swabs-a pattern not found in the nasopharyngeal samples and not informative when predicting the dominant nasopharyngeal genera. While these disparities may have been due to sample processing differences (i.e., nasal swabs were mailed at ambient temperature to emulate processing of future parent collected swabs while nasopharyngeal aspirates were mailed on dry ice), a previously reported association between Haemophilus-dominant nasopharyngeal microbiota and the increased severity of bronchiolitis was replicated utilizing the nasal swab microbiota and the same outcome measures: intensive care use (adjusted OR 6.43; 95% CI 2.25-20.51; P < 0.001) and hospital length-of-stay (adjusted OR 4.31; 95% CI, 1.73-11.11; P = 0.002). Additionally, Moraxella-dominant nasopharyngeal microbiota was previously identified as protective against intensive care use, a result that was replicated when analyzing the nasal swab microbiota (adjusted OR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.11-0.64; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: While the microbiota of the anterior nares and the nasopharynx are distinct, there is considerable overlap between the bacterial community compositions from these two anatomic sites. Despite processing differences between the samples, these results indicate that microbiota severity associations from the nasopharynx are recapitulated in the anterior nares, suggesting that nasal swab samples not only are effective sample types, but also can be used to detect microbial risk markers.


Assuntos
Bronquiolite/microbiologia , Cavidade Nasal/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Microbiota , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética
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