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1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 115, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315673

RESUMO

The expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of ALS accounting for ~ 40% familial cases and ~ 7% sporadic cases in the European population. In most people, the repeat length is 2, but in people with ALS, hundreds to thousands of repeats may be observed. A small proportion of people have an intermediate expansion, of the order of 20 to 30 repeats in size, and it remains unknown whether intermediate expansions confer risk of ALS in the same way that massive expansions do. We investigated the association of this intermediate repeat with ALS by performing a meta-analysis of four previously published studies and a new British/Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset of 1295 cases and 613 controls. The final dataset comprised 5071 cases and 3747 controls. Our meta-analysis showed association between ALS and intermediate C9orf72 repeats of 24 to 30 repeats in size (random-effects model OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.23-14.35, p-value = 0.02). Furthermore, we showed a different frequency of the repeat between the northern and southern European populations (Fisher's exact test p-value = 5 × 10- 3). Our findings provide evidence for the association between intermediate repeats and ALS (p-value = 2 × 10- 4) with direct relevance for research and clinical practice by showing that an expansion of 24 or more repeats should be considered pathogenic.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931641

RESUMO

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons resulting in progressive paralysis and death, typically within 3-5 years. Although the heritability of ALS is about 60%, only about 11% is explained by common gene variants, suggesting that other forms of genetic variation are important. Telomeres maintain DNA integrity during cellular replication and shorten naturally with age. Gender and age are risk factors for ALS and also associated with telomere length. We therefore investigated telomere length in ALS. Methods: We estimated telomere length by applying a bioinformatics analysis to whole genome sequence data of leukocyte-derived DNA from people with ALS and age and gender-matched matched controls in a UK population. We tested the association of telomere length with ALS and ALS survival. Results: There were 1241 people with ALS and 335 controls. The median age for ALS was 62.5 years and for controls, 60.1 years, with a male-female ratio of 62:38. Accounting for age and sex, there was a 9% increase of telomere length in ALS compared to matched controls. Those with longer telomeres had a 16% increase in median survival. Of nine SNPs associated with telomere length, two were also associated with ALS: rs8105767 near the ZNF208 gene (p = 1.29 × 10-4) and rs6772228 (p = 0.001), which is in an intron for the PXK gene. Conclusions: Longer telomeres in leukocyte-derived DNA are associated with ALS, and with increased survival in those with ALS.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961394

RESUMO

Objective: To model the effects of demographic change under various scenarios of possible future treatment developments in ALS. Methods: Patients diagnosed with ALS at the King's College Hospital Motor Nerve Clinic between 2004 and 2017, and living within the London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham (LSL), were included as incident cases. We also ascertained incident cases from the Canterbury region over the same period. Future incidence of ALS was estimated by applying the calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates to the UK population projections from 2020 to 2116. The number of prevalent cases for each future year was estimated based on an established method. Assuming constant incidence, we modelled four possible future prevalence scenarios by altering the median disease duration for varying subsets of the population, to represent the impact of new treatments. Results: The total number of people newly diagnosed with ALS per year in the UK is projected to rise from a baseline of 1415 UK cases in 2010 to 1701 in 2020 and 2635 in 2116. Overall prevalence of ALS was predicted to increase from 8.58 per 100,000 persons in 2020 to 9.67 per 100,000 persons in 2116. Halting disease progression in patients with C9orf72 mutations would yield the greatest impact of the modelled treatment scenarios, increasing prevalence in the year 2066 from a baseline of 9.50 per 100,000 persons to 15.68 per 100,000 persons. Conclusions: Future developments in treatment would combine with the effects of demographic change to result in more people living longer with ALS.

4.
Elife ; 82019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747709

RESUMO

Mutations in coding and non-coding regions of FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The latter mutations may exert toxicity by increasing FUS accumulation. We show here that broad expression within the nervous system of wild-type or either of two ALS-linked mutants of human FUS in mice produces progressive motor phenotypes accompanied by characteristic ALS-like pathology. FUS levels are autoregulated by a mechanism in which human FUS downregulates endogenous FUS at mRNA and protein levels. Increasing wild-type human FUS expression achieved by saturating this autoregulatory mechanism produces a rapidly progressive phenotype and dose-dependent lethality. Transcriptome analysis reveals mis-regulation of genes that are largely not observed upon FUS reduction. Likely mechanisms for FUS neurotoxicity include autophagy inhibition and defective RNA metabolism. Thus, our results reveal that overriding FUS autoregulation will trigger gain-of-function toxicity via altered autophagy-lysosome pathway and RNA metabolism function, highlighting a role for protein and RNA dyshomeostasis in FUS-mediated toxicity.

5.
Cell Rep ; 26(9): 2298-2306.e5, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811981

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective neuroprotective therapy. Known genetic variants impair pathways, including RNA processing, axonal transport, and protein homeostasis. We report ALS-causing mutations within the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase GLT8D1. Exome sequencing in an autosomal-dominant ALS pedigree identified p.R92C mutations in GLT8D1, which co-segregate with disease. Sequencing of local and international cohorts demonstrated significant ALS association in the same exon, including additional rare deleterious mutations in conserved amino acids. Mutations are associated with the substrate binding site, and both R92C and G78W changes impair GLT8D1 enzyme activity. Mutated GLT8D1 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity and induces motor deficits in zebrafish consistent with ALS. Relative toxicity of mutations in model systems mirrors clinical severity. In conclusion, we have linked ALS pathophysiology to inherited mutations that diminish the activity of a glycosyltransferase enzyme.

6.
J Cell Sci ; 132(5)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745340

RESUMO

The GGGGCC (G4C2) repeat expansion mutation in the C9ORF72 gene is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Transcription of the repeat and formation of nuclear RNA foci, which sequester specific RNA-binding proteins, is one of the possible pathological mechanisms. Here, we show that (G4C2) n repeat RNA predominantly associates with essential paraspeckle proteins SFPQ, NONO, RBM14, FUS and hnRNPH and colocalizes with known paraspeckle-associated RNA hLinc-p21. As formation of paraspeckles in motor neurons has been associated with early phases of ALS, we investigated the extent of similarity between paraspeckles and (G4C2) n RNA foci. Overexpression of (G4C2)72 RNA results in their increased number and colocalization with SFPQ-stained nuclear bodies. These paraspeckle-like (G4C2)72 RNA foci form independently of the known paraspeckle scaffold, the long non-coding RNA NEAT1 Moreover, the knockdown of SFPQ protein in C9ORF72 expansion mutation-positive fibroblasts significantly reduces the number of (G4C2) n RNA foci. In conclusion, (G4C2) n RNA foci have characteristics of paraspeckles, which suggests that both RNA foci and paraspeckles play roles in FTD and ALS, and implies approaches for regulation of their formation.

7.
Neurobiol Aging ; 73: 229.e5-229.e9, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348461

RESUMO

Analysis of 226 exome-sequenced UK cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia identified 2 individuals who harbored a P497H and P506S UBQLN2 mutation, respectively (n = 0.9%). The P506S index case presented with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia at the age of 54 years then progressed to ALS surviving 3 years. Three sons presented with (1) slowly progressive pure spastic paraplegia with an onset at 25 years and (2) ALS with disease onset of 25 years and survival of 2 years, and (3) ALS presenting symptoms at the age of 26 years, respectively. Analysis of postmortem tissue from the index case revealed frequent neuronal cytoplasmic UBQLN2-positive inclusions in the dentate gyrus and TDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the frontal and temporal cortex and granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of published UBQLN2 mutations demonstrated that only proline-rich domain mutations contribute to a significantly earlier age of onset in male patients (p = 0.0026).

8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342764

RESUMO

NIPA1 (nonimprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 1) mutations are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia type 6, a neurodegenerative disease that phenotypically overlaps to some extent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previously, a genomewide screen for copy number variants found an association with rare deletions in NIPA1 and ALS, and subsequent genetic analyses revealed that long (or expanded) polyalanine repeats in NIPA1 convey increased ALS susceptibility. We set out to perform a large-scale replication study to further investigate the role of NIPA1 polyalanine expansions with ALS, in which we characterized NIPA1 repeat size in an independent international cohort of 3955 patients with ALS and 2276 unaffected controls and combined our results with previous reports. Meta-analysis on a total of 6245 patients with ALS and 5051 controls showed an overall increased risk of ALS in those with expanded (>8) GCG repeat length (odds ratio = 1.50, p = 3.8×10-5). Together with previous reports, these findings provide evidence for an association of an expanded polyalanine repeat in NIPA1 and ALS.

9.
Neuron ; 100(4): 816-830.e7, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344044

RESUMO

Through the generation of humanized FUS mice expressing full-length human FUS, we identify that when expressed at near endogenous murine FUS levels, both wild-type and ALS-causing and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)-causing mutations complement the essential function(s) of murine FUS. Replacement of murine FUS with mutant, but not wild-type, human FUS causes stress-mediated induction of chaperones, decreased expression of ion channels and transporters essential for synaptic function, and reduced synaptic activity without loss of nuclear FUS or its cytoplasmic aggregation. Most strikingly, accumulation of mutant human FUS is shown to activate an integrated stress response and to inhibit local, intra-axonal protein synthesis in hippocampal neurons and sciatic nerves. Collectively, our evidence demonstrates that human ALS/FTD-linked mutations in FUS induce a gain of toxicity that includes stress-mediated suppression in intra-axonal translation, synaptic dysfunction, and progressive age-dependent motor and cognitive disease without cytoplasmic aggregation, altered nuclear localization, or aberrant splicing of FUS-bound pre-mRNAs. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons with a median survival of 2 years. Familial ALS has a younger age of onset than apparently sporadic ALS. We sought to determine whether this younger age of onset is a result of ascertainment bias or has a genetic basis. METHODS: Samples from people with ALS were sequenced for 13 ALS genes. To determine the effect of genetic variation, age of onset was compared in people with sporadic ALS carrying a pathogenic gene variant and those who do not; to determine the effect of family history, we compared those with genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS. RESULTS: There were 941 people with a diagnosis of ALS, 100 with familial ALS. Of 841 with apparently sporadic ALS, 95 carried a pathogenic gene variant. The mean age of onset in familial ALS was 5.3 years younger than for apparently sporadic ALS (p=6.0×10-5, 95% CI 2.8 to 7.8 years). The mean age of onset of genetic sporadic ALS was 2.9 years younger than non-genetic sporadic ALS (p=0.011, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.2 years). There was no difference between the mean age of onset in genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS (p=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: People with familial ALS have an age of onset about 5 years younger than those with apparently sporadic ALS, and we have shown that this is a result of Mendelian gene variants lowering the age of onset, rather than ascertainment bias.

11.
Brain ; 141(10): 2908-2924, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239641

RESUMO

Accumulation and aggregation of TDP-43 is a major pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. TDP-43 inclusions also characterize patients with GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 that causes the most common genetic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD). Functional studies in cell and animal models have identified pathogenic mechanisms including repeat-induced RNA toxicity and accumulation of G4C2-derived dipeptide-repeat proteins. The role of TDP-43 dysfunction in C9ALS/FTD, however, remains elusive. We found G4C2-derived dipeptide-repeat protein but not G4C2-RNA accumulation caused TDP-43 proteinopathy that triggered onset and progression of disease in Drosophila models of C9ALS/FTD. Timing and extent of TDP-43 dysfunction was dependent on levels and identity of dipeptide-repeat proteins produced, with poly-GR causing early and poly-GA/poly-GP causing late onset of disease. Accumulating cytosolic, but not insoluble aggregated TDP-43 caused karyopherin-α2/4 (KPNA2/4) pathology, increased levels of dipeptide-repeat proteins and enhanced G4C2-related toxicity. Comparable KPNA4 pathology was observed in both sporadic frontotemporal dementia and C9ALS/FTD patient brains characterized by its nuclear depletion and cytosolic accumulation, irrespective of TDP-43 or dipeptide-repeat protein aggregates. These findings identify a vicious feedback cycle for dipeptide-repeat protein-mediated TDP-43 and subsequent KPNA pathology, which becomes self-sufficient of the initiating trigger and causes C9-related neurodegeneration.

12.
Neurology ; 91(15): e1370-e1380, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the relationship between disease stage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), as measured with the King's Clinical Staging System, and cognitive and behavioral change, measured with the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). METHODS: A large multicenter observational cohort of 161 cross-sectional patients with ALS and 80 healthy matched controls were recruited across 3 research sites (Dublin, Edinburgh, and London). Participants were administered the ECAS and categorized into independent groups based on their King's clinical disease stage at time of testing. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between patients and controls on all subtests of the ECAS except for visuospatial functioning. A significant cross-sectional effect was observed across disease stages for ALS-specific functions (executive, language, letter fluency) and ECAS total score but not for ALS-nonspecific functions (memory, visuospatial). Rates of ALS-specific impairment and behavioral change were also related to disease stage. The relationship between cognitive function and disease stage may be due to letter fluency impairment, whereas higher rates of all behavioral domains were seen in later King's stage. The presence of bulbar signs, but not site of onset, was significantly related to ALS-specific, ECAS total, and behavioral scores. CONCLUSION: ALS-specific cognitive deficits and behavioral impairment are more frequent with more severe disease stage. By end-stage disease, only a small percentage of patients are free of neuropsychological impairment. The presence of bulbar symptoms exaggerates the differences observed between disease stages. These findings suggest that cognitive and behavioral change should be incorporated into ALS diagnostic criteria and should be included in future staging systems.

13.
Neurobiol Aging ; 71: 266.e1-266.e10, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033073

RESUMO

Mutations in TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Some TBK1 variants are nonsense and are predicted to cause disease through haploinsufficiency; however, many other mutations are missense with unknown functional effects. We exome sequenced 699 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and identified 16 TBK1 novel or extremely rare protein-changing variants. We characterized a subset of these: p.G217R, p.R357X, and p.C471Y. Here, we show that the p.R357X and p.G217R both abolish the ability of TBK1 to phosphorylate 2 of its kinase targets, IRF3 and optineurin, and to undergo phosphorylation. They both inhibit binding to optineurin and the p.G217R, within the TBK1 kinase domain, reduces homodimerization, essential for TBK1 activation and function. Finally, we show that the proportion of TBK1 that is active (phosphorylated) is reduced in 5 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients harboring heterozygous missense or in-frame deletion TBK1 mutations. We conclude that missense mutations in functional domains of TBK1 impair the binding and phosphorylation of its normal targets, implicating a common loss of function mechanism, analogous to truncation mutations.

14.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(5): 423-433, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29598923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive, fatal motor neuron disease with a variable natural history. There are no accurate models that predict the disease course and outcomes, which complicates risk assessment and counselling for individual patients, stratification of patients for trials, and timing of interventions. We therefore aimed to develop and validate a model for predicting a composite survival endpoint for individual patients with ALS. METHODS: We obtained data for patients from 14 specialised ALS centres (each one designated as a cohort) in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, and the UK. All patients were diagnosed in the centres after excluding other diagnoses and classified according to revised El Escorial criteria. We assessed 16 patient characteristics as potential predictors of a composite survival outcome (time between onset of symptoms and non-invasive ventilation for more than 23 h per day, tracheostomy, or death) and applied backward elimination with bootstrapping in the largest population-based dataset for predictor selection. Data were gathered on the day of diagnosis or as soon as possible thereafter. Predictors that were selected in more than 70% of the bootstrap resamples were used to develop a multivariable Royston-Parmar model for predicting the composite survival outcome in individual patients. We assessed the generalisability of the model by estimating heterogeneity of predictive accuracy across external populations (ie, populations not used to develop the model) using internal-external cross-validation, and quantified the discrimination using the concordance (c) statistic (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve) and calibration using a calibration slope. FINDINGS: Data were collected between Jan 1, 1992, and Sept 22, 2016 (the largest data-set included data from 1936 patients). The median follow-up time was 97·5 months (IQR 52·9-168·5). Eight candidate predictors entered the prediction model: bulbar versus non-bulbar onset (univariable hazard ratio [HR] 1·71, 95% CI 1·63-1·79), age at onset (1·03, 1·03-1·03), definite versus probable or possible ALS (1·47, 1·39-1·55), diagnostic delay (0·52, 0·51-0·53), forced vital capacity (HR 0·99, 0·99-0·99), progression rate (6·33, 5·92-6·76), frontotemporal dementia (1·34, 1·20-1·50), and presence of a C9orf72 repeat expansion (1·45, 1·31-1·61), all p<0·0001. The c statistic for external predictive accuracy of the model was 0·78 (95% CI 0·77-0·80; 95% prediction interval [PI] 0·74-0·82) and the calibration slope was 1·01 (95% CI 0·95-1·07; 95% PI 0·83-1·18). The model was used to define five groups with distinct median predicted (SE) and observed (SE) times in months from symptom onset to the composite survival outcome: very short 17·7 (0·20), 16·5 (0·23); short 25·3 (0·06), 25·2 (0·35); intermediate 32·2 (0·09), 32·8 (0·46); long 43·7 (0·21), 44·6 (0·74); and very long 91·0 (1·84), 85·6 (1·96). INTERPRETATION: We have developed an externally validated model to predict survival without tracheostomy and non-invasive ventilation for more than 23 h per day in European patients with ALS. This model could be applied to individualised patient management, counselling, and future trial design, but to maximise the benefit and prevent harm it is intended to be used by medical doctors only. FUNDING: Netherlands ALS Foundation.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 347, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29367641

RESUMO

Mutations in C9ORF72 are the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, through a combination of RNA-Seq and electrophysiological studies on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived motor neurons (MNs), we show that increased expression of GluA1 AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit occurs in MNs with C9ORF72 mutations that leads to increased Ca2+-permeable AMPAR expression and results in enhanced selective MN vulnerability to excitotoxicity. These deficits are not found in iPSC-derived cortical neurons and are abolished by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated correction of the C9ORF72 repeat expansion in MNs. We also demonstrate that MN-specific dysregulation of AMPAR expression is also present in C9ORF72 patient post-mortem material. We therefore present multiple lines of evidence for the specific upregulation of GluA1 subunits in human mutant C9ORF72 MNs that could lead to a potential pathogenic excitotoxic mechanism in ALS.


Assuntos
Proteína C9orf72/genética , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Cálcio/metabolismo , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Marcação de Genes , Humanos , Receptores de AMPA/genética , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(3): 463-474, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194538

RESUMO

FUS (fused in sarcoma) mislocalization and cytoplasmic aggregation are hallmark pathologies in FUS-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Many of the mechanistic hypotheses have focused on a loss of nuclear function in the FUS-opathies, implicating dysregulated RNA transcription and splicing in driving neurodegeneration. Recent studies describe an additional somato-dendritic localization for FUS in the cerebral cortex implying a regulatory role in mRNA transport and local translation at the synapse. Here, we report that FUS is also abundant at the pre-synaptic terminal of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), suggesting an important function for this protein at peripheral synapses. We have previously reported dose and age-dependent motor neuron degeneration in transgenic mice overexpressing human wild-type FUS, resulting in a motor phenotype detected by ∼28 days and death by ∼100 days. Now, we report the earliest structural events using electron microscopy and quantitative immunohistochemistry. Mitochondrial abnormalities in the pre-synaptic motor nerve terminals are detected at postnatal day 6, which are more pronounced at P15 and accompanied by a loss of synaptic vesicles and synaptophysin protein coupled with NMJs of a smaller size at a time when there is no detectable motor neuron loss. These changes occur in the presence of abundant FUS and support a peripheral toxic gain of function. This appearance is typical of a 'dying-back' axonopathy, with the earliest manifestation being mitochondrial disruption. These findings support our hypothesis that FUS has an important function at the NMJ, and challenge the 'loss of nuclear function' hypothesis for disease pathogenesis in the FUS-opathies.

17.
Neurology ; 89(18): 1915-1922, 2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether genetic subgroups in recent amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) trials responded to treatment with lithium carbonate, but that the treatment effect was lost in a large cohort of nonresponders. METHODS: Individual participant data were obtained from 3 randomized trials investigating the efficacy of lithium carbonate. We matched clinical data with data regarding the UNC13A and C9orf72 genotype. Our primary outcome was survival at 12 months. On an exploratory basis, we assessed whether the effect of lithium depended on the genotype. RESULTS: Clinical data were available for 518 of the 606 participants. Overall, treatment with lithium carbonate did not improve 12-month survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7-1.4; p = 0.96). Both the UNC13A and C9orf72 genotype were independent predictors of survival (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3; p = 0.006 and HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.2; p = 0.032, respectively). The effect of lithium was different for UNC13A carriers (p = 0.027), but not for C9orf72 carriers (p = 0.22). The 12-month survival probability for UNC13A carriers treated with lithium carbonate improved from 40.1% (95% CI 23.2-69.1) to 69.7% (95% CI 50.4-96.3). CONCLUSIONS: This study incorporated genetic data into past ALS trials to determine treatment effects in a genetic post hoc analysis. Our results suggest that we should reorient our strategies toward finding treatments for ALS, start focusing on genotype-targeted treatments, and standardize genotyping in order to optimize randomization and analysis for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Farmacogenética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteína C9orf72 , Genótipo , Carbonato de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Proteínas/genética
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(24): 4765-4777, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973350

RESUMO

An intronic GGGGCC (G4C2) hexanucleotide repeat expansion inC9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD). Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation of G4C2 RNA can result in five different dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR: poly GA, poly GP, poly GR, poly PA, and poly PR), which aggregate into neuronal cytoplasmic and nuclear inclusions in affected patients, however their contribution to disease pathogenesis remains controversial. We show that among the DPR proteins, expression of poly GA in a cell culture model activates programmed cell death and TDP-43 cleavage in a dose-dependent manner. Dual expression of poly GA together with other DPRs revealed that poly GP and poly PA are sequestered by poly GA, whereas poly GR and poly PR are rarely co-localised with poly GA. Dual expression of poly GA and poly PA ameliorated poly GA toxicity by inhibiting poly GA aggregation both in vitro and in vivo in the chick embryonic spinal cord. Expression of alternative codon-derived DPRs in chick embryonic spinal cord confirmed in vitro data, revealing that each of the dipeptides caused toxicity, with poly GA being the most toxic. Further, in vivo expression of G4C2 repeats of varying length caused apoptotic cell death, but failed to generate DPRs. Together, these data demonstrate that C9-related toxicity can be mediated by either RNA or DPRs. Moreover, our findings provide evidence that poly GA is a key mediator of cytotoxicity and that cross-talk between DPR proteins likely modifies their pathogenic status in C9ALS/FTD.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/fisiologia , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Expansão das Repetições de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/genética , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Corpos de Inclusão Intranuclear/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos
19.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 11: 195, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744202

RESUMO

A large GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the first intron or promoter region of the C9orf72 gene is the most common genetic cause of familial and sporadic Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating degenerative disease of motor neurons, and of Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), the second most common form of presenile dementia after Alzheimer's disease. C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD is a multifaceted disease both in terms of its clinical presentation and the misregulated cellular pathways contributing to disease progression. Among the numerous pathways misregulated in C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD, altered RNA processing has consistently appeared at the forefront of C9orf72 research. This includes bidirectional transcription of the repeat sequence, accumulation of repeat RNA into nuclear foci sequestering specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and translation of RNA repeats into dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) by repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN)-initiated translation. Over the past few years the true extent of RNA misprocessing in C9orf72-associated ALS/FTD has begun to emerge and disruptions have been identified in almost all aspects of the life of an RNA molecule, including release from RNA polymerase II, translation in the cytoplasm and degradation. Furthermore, several alterations have been identified in the processing of the C9orf72 RNA itself, in terms of its transcription, splicing and localization. This review article aims to consolidate our current knowledge on the consequence of the C9orf72 repeat expansion on RNA processing and draws attention to the mechanisms by which several aspects of C9orf72 molecular pathology converge to perturb every stage of RNA metabolism.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Care for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has altered at King's College Hospital over the last 20 years. The clinic has been a multidisciplinary, specialist, tertiary referral centre since 1995 with a large team with integrated palliative and respiratory care since 2006. We hypothesised that these changes would improve survival. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, patients diagnosed with El Escorial definite, probable and possible ALS between 1995-1998 and 2008-2011 were followed up. The primary outcome measure was a chi-square test for the proportion of each cohort surviving. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox multivariate regression were secondary analyses. RESULTS: There was low reporting of some interventions. Five hundred and forty-seven people were included. Survival between the cohorts was significantly different (p = 0.022) with a higher proportion surviving during 2008-2011. Survival time was 21.6 (95% CI 19.2-24.0) months in the 2008-2011 cohort compared to 19.2 years (15.6-21.6) in the 1995-1998 cohort (log rank p = 0.018). Four hundred and ninety-three cases were included in the Cox regression. Diagnostic cohort was a significant predictor variable (HR 0.79 (0.64-0.97) p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that integrated specialist clinics with multidisciplinary input improve survival in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/enfermagem , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
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