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1.
Brain ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512359

RESUMO

Aberrant self-assembly and toxicity of wild-type and mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has been widely examined in silico, in vitro, and in transgenic animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Detailed examination of the protein in disease-affected tissues from ALS patients, however, remains scarce. We employed histological, biochemical and analytical techniques to profile alterations to SOD1 protein deposition, subcellular localization, maturation and post-translational modification in post-mortem spinal cord tissues from ALS cases and controls. Tissues were dissected into ventral and dorsal spinal cord grey matter to assess the specificity of alterations within regions of motor neuron degeneration. We provide evidence of the mislocalization and accumulation of structurally-disordered, immature SOD1 protein conformers in spinal cord motor neurons of SOD1-linked and non-SOD1-linked familial ALS cases, and sporadic ALS cases, compared with control motor neurons. These changes were collectively associated with instability and mismetallation of enzymatically-active SOD1 dimers, as well as alterations to SOD1 post-translational modifications and molecular chaperones governing SOD1 maturation. Atypical changes to SOD1 protein were largely restricted to regions of neurodegeneration in ALS cases, and clearly differentiated all forms of ALS from controls. Substantial heterogeneity in the presence of these changes was also observed between ALS cases. Our data demonstrates that varying forms of SOD1 proteinopathy are a common feature of all forms of ALS, and support the presence of one or more convergent biochemical pathways leading to SOD1 proteinopathy in ALS. The majority of these alterations are specific to regions of neurodegeneration, and may therefore constitute valid targets for therapeutic development.

2.
NPJ Genom Med ; 7(1): 8, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35091648

RESUMO

There is a strong genetic contribution to Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk, with heritability estimates of up to 60%. Both Mendelian and small effect variants have been identified, but in common with other conditions, such variants only explain a little of the heritability. Genomic structural variation might account for some of this otherwise unexplained heritability. We therefore investigated association between structural variation in a set of 25 ALS genes, and ALS risk and phenotype. As expected, the repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was identified as associated with ALS. Two other ALS-associated structural variants were identified: inversion in the VCP gene and insertion in the ERBB4 gene. All three variants were associated both with increased risk of ALS and specific phenotypic patterns of disease expression. More than 70% of people with respiratory onset ALS harboured ERBB4 insertion compared with 25% of the general population, suggesting respiratory onset ALS may be a distinct genetic subtype.

3.
Circ Res ; 130(2): 166-180, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886679

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) is a severe congenital heart defect which affects approximately 1 in 4,000 live births. While there are several reports of D-TGA patients with rare variants in individual genes, the majority of D-TGA cases remain genetically elusive. Familial recurrence patterns and the observation that most cases with D-TGA are sporadic suggest a polygenic inheritance for the disorder, yet this remains unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the role of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in risk for D-TGA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a genome-wide association study in an international set of 1,237 patients with D-TGA and identified a genome-wide significant susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3, which was subsequently replicated in an independent case-control set (rs56219800, meta-analysis P=8.6x10-10, OR=0.69 per C allele). SNP-based heritability analysis showed that 25% of variance in susceptibility to D-TGA may be explained by common variants. A genome-wide polygenic risk score derived from the discovery set was significantly associated to D-TGA in the replication set (P=4x10-5). The genome-wide significant locus (3p14.3) co-localizes with a putative regulatory element that interacts with the promoter of WNT5A, which encodes the Wnt Family Member 5A protein known for its role in cardiac development in mice. We show that this element drives reporter gene activity in the developing heart of mice and zebrafish and is bound by the developmental transcription factor TBX20. We further demonstrate that TBX20 attenuates Wnt5a expression levels in the developing mouse heart. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides support for a polygenic architecture in D-TGA and identifies a susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p14.3 near WNT5A. Genomic and functional data support a causal role of WNT5A at the locus.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Herança Multifatorial , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/metabolismo , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/metabolismo , Proteína Wnt-5a/genética , Proteína Wnt-5a/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
4.
Brain Commun ; 3(4): fcab236, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708205

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that common variants found in genome-wide association studies increase risk of disease through gene regulation via expression Quantitative Trait Loci. Using multiple genome-wide methods, we examined if Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis through expression Quantitative Trait Loci, and whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci expression is consistent across people who had Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and those who did not. In combining public expression Quantitative Trait Loci data with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genome-wide association studies, we used Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization to confirm that SCFD1 was the only gene that was genome-wide significant in mediating Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis risk via expression Quantitative Trait Loci (Summary-data-based Mendelian Randomization beta = 0.20, standard error = 0.04, P-value = 4.29 × 10-6). Using post-mortem motor cortex, we tested whether expression Quantitative Trait Loci showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (n = 76) and controls (n = 25), genome-wide. Of 20 757 genes analysed, the two most significant expression Quantitative Trait Loci to show differential in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls involve two known Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis genes (SCFD1 and VCP). Cis-acting SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci downstream of the gene showed significant differences in expression between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and controls (top expression Quantitative Trait Loci beta = 0.34, standard error = 0.063, P-value = 4.54 × 10-7). These SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci also significantly modified Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis survival (number of samples = 4265, hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.17, P-value = 2.06 × 10-4) and act as an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot for a wider network of genes enriched for SCFD1 function and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis pathways. Using gene-set analyses, we found the genes that correlate with this trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci hotspot significantly increase risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (beta = 0.247, standard deviation = 0.017, P = 0.001) and schizophrenia (beta = 0.263, standard deviation = 0.008, P-value = 1.18 × 10-5), a disease that genetically correlates with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In summary, SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci are a major factor in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, not only influencing disease risk but are differentially expressed in post-mortem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. SCFD1 expression Quantitative Trait Loci show distinct expression profiles in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis that correlate with a wider network of genes that also confer risk of the disease and modify the disease's duration.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(2): 166-175, 2021 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378050

RESUMO

Transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is an RNA processing protein central to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Nuclear TDP-43 mislocalizes in patients to the cytoplasm, where it forms ubiquitin-positive inclusions in affected neurons and glia. Physiologically, cytoplasmic TDP-43 is associated with stress granules (SGs). Here, we explored TDP-43 cytoplasmic accumulation and stress granule formation following osmotic and oxidative stress. We show that sorbitol drives TDP-43 redistribution to the cytoplasm, while arsenite induces the recruitment of cytoplasmic TDP-43 to TIA-1 positive SGs. We demonstrate that inducing acute oxidative stress after TDP-43 cytoplasmic relocalization by osmotic shock induces poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, which triggers cellular toxicity. Recruitment of cytoplasmic TDP-43 to polyribosomes occurs in an SH-SY5Y cellular stress model and is observed in FTD brain lysate. Moreover, the processing body (P-body) marker DCP1a is detected in TDP-43 granules during recovery from stress. Overall, this study supports a central role for cytoplasmic TDP-43 in controlling protein translation in stressed cells.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Demência Frontotemporal , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Demência Frontotemporal/patologia , Humanos
6.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neurobiol Aging ; 106: 351.e1-351.e6, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272080

RESUMO

Loss of function (LoF) mutations in Optineurin can cause recessive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with some heterozygous LoF mutations associated with dominant ALS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the variable inheritance pattern associated with OPTN mutations have remained elusive. We identified that affected members of a consanguineous Middle Eastern ALS kindred possessed a novel homozygous p.S174X OPTN mutation. Analysis of these primary fibroblast lines from family members identified that the p.S174X mutation reduces OPTN mRNA expression in an allele-dependent fashion by nonsense mediated decay. Western blotting correlated a reduced expression in heterozygote carriers but a complete absence of OPTN protein in the homozygous carrier. This data suggests that the p.S174X truncation mutation causes recessive ALS through LoF. However, functional analysis detected a significant increase in mitophagy markers TOM20 and COXIV, and higher rates of mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in heterozygous carriers only. This suggests that heterozygous LoF OPTN mutations may not be causative in a Mendelian manner but may potentially behave as contributory ALS risk factors.


Assuntos
Alelos , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11868, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088960

RESUMO

Genes encoding replication-dependent histones lack introns, and the mRNAs produced are a unique class of RNA polymerase II transcripts in eukaryotic cells that do not end in a polyadenylated tail. Mature mRNAs are thus formed by a single endonucleolytic cleavage that releases the pre-mRNA from the DNA and is the only processing event necessary. U7 snRNP is one of the key factors that determines the cleavage site within the 3'UTR of replication-dependent histone pre-mRNAs. We have previously showed that the FUS protein interacts with U7 snRNA/snRNP and regulates the expression of histone genes by stimulating transcription and 3' end maturation. Mutations in the FUS gene first identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) lead to the accumulation of the FUS protein in cytoplasmic inclusions. Here, we report that mutations in FUS lead to disruption of the transcriptional activity of FUS and mislocalization of U7 snRNA/snRNP in cytoplasmic aggregates in cellular models and primary neurons. As a consequence, decreased transcriptional efficiency and aberrant 3' end processing of histone pre-mRNAs were observed. This study highlights for the first time the deregulation of replication-dependent histone gene expression and its involvement in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U7/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neurociências , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , RNA Nuclear Pequeno/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Pequenas/genética
9.
Biomedicines ; 9(6)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070550

RESUMO

A hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation in the first intron of C9orf72 is the most common known genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Since the discovery in 2011, numerous pathogenic mechanisms, including both loss and gain of function, have been proposed. The body of work overall suggests that toxic gain of function arising from bidirectionally transcribed repeat RNA is likely to be the primary driver of disease. In this review, we outline the key pathogenic mechanisms that have been proposed to date and discuss some of the novel therapeutic approaches currently in development.

11.
Stem Cell Res ; 52: 102246, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610019

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, causing gradual paralysis, and resulting in death 3-5 years from diagnosis. ALS causative mutations have been identified in multiple genes, including Fused in sarcoma (FUS), and recently characterized Annexin A11 (ANXA11). We have derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from six ALS patient lymphoblastoid cell lines, three with mutations in FUS (Q519E, R521H, R522G), and three with mutations in ANXA11 (G38R, D40G, R235Q). These lines have been characterized and provide a novel resource for investigation into ALS pathology.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Anexinas/genética , Humanos , Neurônios Motores , Mutação/genética , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética
13.
Cell Rep ; 33(9): 108456, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264630

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. CAV1 and CAV2 organize membrane lipid rafts (MLRs) important for cell signaling and neuronal survival, and overexpression of CAV1 ameliorates ALS phenotypes in vivo. Genome-wide association studies localize a large proportion of ALS risk variants within the non-coding genome, but further characterization has been limited by lack of appropriate tools. By designing and applying a pipeline to identify pathogenic genetic variation within enhancer elements responsible for regulating gene expression, we identify disease-associated variation within CAV1/CAV2 enhancers, which replicate in an independent cohort. Discovered enhancer mutations reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression and disrupt MLRs in patient-derived cells, and CRISPR-Cas9 perturbation proximate to a patient mutation is sufficient to reduce CAV1/CAV2 expression in neurons. Additional enrichment of ALS-associated mutations within CAV1 exons positions CAV1 as an ALS risk gene. We propose CAV1/CAV2 overexpression as a personalized medicine target for ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Caveolina 1/genética , Animais , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genoma , Humanos
14.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa064, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954321

RESUMO

Increasingly, repeat expansions are being identified as part of the complex genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To date, several repeat expansions have been genetically associated with the disease: intronic repeat expansions in C9orf72, polyglutamine expansions in ATXN2 and polyalanine expansions in NIPA1. Together with previously published data, the identification of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient with a family history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, caused by polyglutamine expansions in ATXN1, suggested a similar disease association for the repeat expansion in ATXN1. We, therefore, performed a large-scale international study in 11 700 individuals, in which we showed a significant association between intermediate ATXN1 repeat expansions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (P = 3.33 × 10-7). Subsequent functional experiments have shown that ATXN1 reduces the nucleocytoplasmic ratio of TDP-43 and enhances amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotypes in Drosophila, further emphasizing the role of polyglutamine repeat expansions in the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(26): 15230-15241, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513711

RESUMO

Mutations in UBQLN2 cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and other neurodegenerations. However, the mechanism by which the UBQLN2 mutations cause disease remains unclear. Alterations in proteins involved in autophagy are prominent in neuronal tissue of human ALS UBQLN2 patients and in a transgenic P497S UBQLN2 mouse model of ALS/FTD, suggesting a pathogenic link. Here, we show UBQLN2 functions in autophagy and that ALS/FTD mutant proteins compromise this function. Inactivation of UBQLN2 expression in HeLa cells reduced autophagic flux and autophagosome acidification. The defect in acidification was rescued by reexpression of wild type (WT) UBQLN2 but not by any of the five different UBQLN2 ALS/FTD mutants tested. Proteomic analysis and immunoblot studies revealed P497S mutant mice and UBQLN2 knockout HeLa and NSC34 cells have reduced expression of ATP6v1g1, a critical subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) pump. Knockout of UBQLN2 expression in HeLa cells decreased turnover of ATP6v1g1, while overexpression of WT UBQLN2 increased biogenesis of ATP6v1g1 compared with P497S mutant UBQLN2 protein. In vitro interaction studies showed that ATP6v1g1 binds more strongly to WT UBQLN2 than to ALS/FTD mutant UBQLN2 proteins. Intriguingly, overexpression of ATP6v1g1 in UBQLN2 knockout HeLa cells increased autophagosome acidification, suggesting a therapeutic approach to overcome the acidification defect. Taken together, our findings suggest that UBQLN2 mutations drive pathogenesis through a dominant-negative loss-of-function mechanism in autophagy and that UBQLN2 functions as an important regulator of the expression and stability of ATP6v1g1. These findings may have important implications for devising therapies to treat UBQLN2-linked ALS/FTD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Autofagia/genética , Demência/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Demência/metabolismo , Demência/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/genética , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore novel, real-world biotelemetry disease progression markers in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to compare with clinical gold-standard measures. Methods: This was an exploratory, non-controlled, non-drug 2-phase study comprising a variable length Pilot Phase (n = 5) and a 48-week Core study Phase (n = 25; NCT02447952). Patients with mild or moderate ALS wore biotelemetry sensors for ∼3 days/month at home, measuring physical activity, heart rate variability (HRV), and speech over 48 weeks. These measures were assessed longitudinally in relation to ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) score and forced vital capacity (FVC); assessed by telephone [monthly] and clinic visits [every 12 weeks]). Results: Pilot Phase data supported progression into the Core Phase, where a decline in physical activity from baseline followed ALS progression as measured by ALSFRS-R and FVC. Four endpoints showed moderate or strong between-patient correlations with ALSFRS-R total and gross motor domain scores (defined as a correlation coefficient of ≥0.5 or >0.7, respectively): average daytime active; percentage of daytime active; total daytime activity score; total 24-hour activity score. Moderate correlations were observed between speech endpoints and ALSFRS-R bulbar domain scores; HRV data quality was insufficient for reliable assessment. The sensor was generally well tolerated; 6/25 patients reported mostly mild or moderate intensity skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder adverse events. Conclusions: Biotelemetry measures of physical activity in this Pilot Study tracked ALS progression over time, highlighting their potential as endpoints for future clinical trials. A larger, formally powered study is required to further support activity endpoints as novel disease progression markers.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Fala , Capacidade Vital
17.
Circulation ; 142(4): 324-338, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare genetic disorder and a major preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in the young. A causal rare genetic variant with large effect size is identified in up to 80% of probands (genotype positive) and cascade family screening shows incomplete penetrance of genetic variants. Furthermore, a proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for LQTS remain genetically elusive despite genetic testing of established genes (genotype negative). These observations raise the possibility that common genetic variants with small effect size contribute to the clinical picture of LQTS. This study aimed to characterize and quantify the contribution of common genetic variation to LQTS disease susceptibility. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies followed by transethnic meta-analysis in 1656 unrelated patients with LQTS of European or Japanese ancestry and 9890 controls to identify susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms. We estimated the common variant heritability of LQTS and tested the genetic correlation between LQTS susceptibility and other cardiac traits. Furthermore, we tested the aggregate effect of the 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population using a polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Genome-wide association analysis identified 3 loci associated with LQTS at genome-wide statistical significance (P<5×10-8) near NOS1AP, KCNQ1, and KLF12, and 1 missense variant in KCNE1(p.Asp85Asn) at the suggestive threshold (P<10-6). Heritability analyses showed that ≈15% of variance in overall LQTS susceptibility was attributable to common genetic variation (h2SNP 0.148; standard error 0.019). LQTS susceptibility showed a strong genome-wide genetic correlation with the QT-interval in the general population (rg=0.40; P=3.2×10-3). The polygenic risk score comprising common variants previously associated with the QT-interval in the general population was greater in LQTS cases compared with controls (P<10-13), and it is notable that, among patients with LQTS, this polygenic risk score was greater in patients who were genotype negative compared with those who were genotype positive (P<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: This work establishes an important role for common genetic variation in susceptibility to LQTS. We demonstrate overlap between genetic control of the QT-interval in the general population and genetic factors contributing to LQTS susceptibility. Using polygenic risk score analyses aggregating common genetic variants that modulate the QT-interval in the general population, we provide evidence for a polygenic architecture in genotype negative LQTS.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrocardiografia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/mortalidade , Síndrome do QT Longo/terapia , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
19.
Brain ; 143(3): 783-799, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185393

RESUMO

Frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are clinically and pathologically overlapping disorders with shared genetic causes. We previously identified a disease locus on chromosome 16p12.1-q12.2 with genome-wide significant linkage in a large European Australian family with autosomal dominant inheritance of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and no mutation in known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or dementia genes. Here we demonstrate the segregation of a novel missense variant in CYLD (c.2155A>G, p.M719V) within the linkage region as the genetic cause of disease in this family. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue from two CYLD p.M719V mutation carriers showed widespread glial CYLD immunoreactivity. Primary mouse neurons transfected with CYLDM719V exhibited increased cytoplasmic localization of TDP-43 and shortened axons. CYLD encodes a lysine 63 deubiquitinase and CYLD cutaneous syndrome, a skin tumour disorder, is caused by mutations that lead to reduced deubiquitinase activity. In contrast with CYLD cutaneous syndrome-causative mutations, CYLDM719V exhibited significantly increased lysine 63 deubiquitinase activity relative to the wild-type enzyme (paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test P = 0.005). Overexpression of CYLDM719V in HEK293 cells led to more potent inhibition of the cell signalling molecule NF-κB and impairment of autophagosome fusion to lysosomes, a key process in autophagy. Although CYLD mutations appear to be rare, CYLD's interaction with at least three other proteins encoded by frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genes (TBK1, OPTN and SQSTM1) suggests that it may play a central role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. Mutations in several frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis genes, including TBK1, OPTN and SQSTM1, result in a loss of autophagy function. We show here that increased CYLD activity also reduces autophagy function, highlighting the importance of autophagy regulation in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD/genética , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD/fisiologia , Demência Frontotemporal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/fisiologia , Axônios/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Enzima Desubiquitinante CYLD/metabolismo , Enzimas Desubiquitinantes/metabolismo , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Cultura Primária de Células , Transfecção
20.
Glia ; 68(5): 1046-1064, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841614

RESUMO

Mutations in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Accumulating evidence implicates astrocytes as important non-cell autonomous contributors to ALS pathogenesis, although the potential deleterious effects of astrocytes on the function of motor neurons remains to be determined in a completely humanized model of C9orf72-mediated ALS. Here, we use a human iPSC-based model to study the cell autonomous and non-autonomous consequences of mutant C9orf72 expression by astrocytes. We show that mutant astrocytes both recapitulate key aspects of C9orf72-related ALS pathology and, upon co-culture, cause motor neurons to undergo a progressive loss of action potential output due to decreases in the magnitude of voltage-activated Na+ and K+ currents. Importantly, CRISPR/Cas-9 mediated excision of the C9orf72 repeat expansion reverses these phenotypes, confirming that the C9orf72 mutation is responsible for both cell-autonomous astrocyte pathology and non-cell autonomous motor neuron pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Proteína C9orf72/genética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Astrócitos/patologia , Proteína C9orf72/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Mutação
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