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1.
Dev Psychopathol ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896379

RESUMO

This study examined the long-term effects of a randomized controlled trial of the Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention initiated at age 2 on inhibitory control in middle childhood and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. We hypothesized that the FCU would promote higher inhibitory control in middle childhood relative to the control group, which in turn would be associated with lower internalizing and externalizing symptomology at age 14. Participants were 731 families, with half (n = 367) of the families assigned to the FCU intervention. Using an intent-to-treat design, results indicate that the FCU intervention was indirectly associated with both lower internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 14 via its effect on increased inhibitory control in middle childhood (i.e., ages 8.5-10.5). Findings highlight the potential for interventions initiated in toddlerhood to have long-term impacts on self-regulation processes, which can further reduce the risk for behavioral and emotional difficulties in adolescence.

2.
Prev Sci ; 21(2): 256-267, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902038

RESUMO

High-quality evidence about the costs of effective interventions for children can provide a foundation for fiscally responsible policy capable of achieving impact. This study estimated the costs to society of the Family Check-up, an evidence-based brief home-visiting intervention for high-risk families implemented in the Early Steps multisite efficacy trial. Intervention arm families in three sites were offered 4 consecutive years of intervention, when target children were ages 2 through 5. Data for estimating total, average, and marginal costs and family burden (means and standard deviations, 2015 USD, discounted at 3% per year) came from a detailed database that prospectively documented resource use at the family level and a supplemental interview with trial leaders. Secondary analyses evaluated differences in costs among higher and lower risk families using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results indicated annual average costs of $1066 per family (SD = $400), with time spent by families valued at an additional $84 (SD = $99) on average. Costs declined significantly from ages 2 through 5. Once training and oversight patterns were established, additional families could be served at half the cost, $501 (SD = $404). On the margin, higher risk families cost more, $583 (SD = $444) compared to $463 (SD = $380) for lower risk families, but prior analyses showed they also benefited more. Sensitivity analyses indicated potential for wage-related cost savings in real-world implementation compared to the university-based trial. This study illustrates the dynamics of Family Check-up resource use over time and across families differing in risk.

3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(1): 74-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152283

RESUMO

Social disorganization theory argues that disadvantaged neighborhoods will have less cohesion and control, and therefore will be less conducive to effective parental monitoring. This study aims to test these relationships using four waves of the Pitt Mother and Child Project (ages 11, 12, 15, and 17). The sample consists of 185 low-income males and their parents, 56.44% of whom identify as White, and 34.67% of whom identify African American. Crossed-lagged path models were estimated and the indirect effect of neighborhood disadvantage on parental monitoring through neighborhood cohesion and control was estimated. Separate models were estimated for parental and adolescent perceptions of parental monitoring. The results demonstrate a positive relationship between parental perception of neighborhood social cohesion and parental monitoring, and a negative relationship found between parental perceptions of neighborhood social control and parental monitoring in both models. The findings of this study suggests that neighborhoods may be an important target for interventions that are aiming to improve parental monitoring and ultimately adolescent outcomes.

4.
Prev Sci ; 21(1): 120-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432380

RESUMO

Past research on predictors of participation in early childhood parenting programs suggest that families experiencing higher levels of sociodemographic adversity (e.g., younger maternal age, single parenthood, lower income or education) are less likely to participate in parenting programs. This is significant, as it may indicate that those most in need of additional support are the least likely to receive it. Data from a randomized control trial (RCT) of Smart Beginnings, an integrated, tiered model for school readiness, were used to explore predictors of attendance in Video Interaction Project (VIP) through 6 months. VIP is a primary preventive intervention delivered in tandem with pediatric well-child visits, aimed at reducing income-based disparities in early child development through promotion of responsive parent-child interactions. Using Poisson distribution models (N = 403; treatment arm, n = 201), we find that demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychosocial variables are associated with program attendance but not always in the expected direction. While analyses show that first-time mothers have higher levels of program attendance as expected, we find that less-educated mothers and those with lower parenting self-efficacy have higher levels of attendance as well. The latter findings may imply that the VIP intervention is, by some indicators, effectively targeting families who are more challenging to engage and retain. Implications for pediatric-based interventions with population-level accessibility are discussed.

5.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1605-1608, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718733
6.
Soc Dev ; 28(3): 725-742, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579353

RESUMO

The effect of parental depression on children's adjustment has been well documented, with exposure during early childhood particularly detrimental. Most studies that examine links between parental depression and child behavior are confounded methodologically because they focus on parents raising children who are genetically related to them. Another limitation of most prior research is a tendency to focus only on the effects of maternal depression while ignoring the influence of fathers' depression. The purpose of this study was to examine whether infants' exposure to both parents' depressive symptoms, and inherited risk from birth mother internalizing symptoms, was related to school age children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Study data come from a longitudinal adoption study of 561 adoptive parents, biological mothers, and adopted children. Adoptive fathers' depressive symptoms during infancy contributed independent variance to the prediction of children's internalizing symptoms and also moderated associations between adoptive mothers' depressive symptoms and child externalizing symptoms.

7.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(11): 1056-1067, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether initiating the Family Check-Up (FCU) during early childhood prevented a severe form of psychopathology in adolescence-co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems-and whether effects operated indirectly through early childhood maternal depression and parents' positive behavior support. METHOD: Participants were drawn from a randomized controlled trial of the FCU (50.2% FCU; 49.5% girls; 46.6% Caucasian, and 27.6% Black; 13.4% Hispanic/Latino). At Ages 2 and 3, mothers self-reported depression, and primary caregivers' (PCs') positive behavior support was coded by trained observers. PCs, alternate caregivers (ACs), and teachers reported on 14-year-olds' problem behaviors. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) identified problem behavior groups for each reporter, which were outcomes in multinomial logistic regressions (PC, n = 672; AC, n = 652; teacher, n = 667). RESULTS: LPAs identified a low-problem, internalizing-only, externalizing-only, and co-occurring-problem group for each reporter. For PC- and AC-reported outcomes, the FCU predicted a lower likelihood that adolescents belonged to the co-occurring group relative to the low-problem, externalizing-only (p < .05), and internalizing-only (p < .05 for PC, p < 0.10 for AC) groups; these effects operated through maternal depression (p < .05). For teacher-reported outcomes, the FCU predicted a lower likelihood that adolescents belonged to the co-occurring group relative to the low-problem, internalizing-only, and externalizing-only (p < 0.05) groups; effects operated through positive behavior support (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early delivery of the FCU indirectly prevented adolescents' co-occurring internalizing/externalizing problems in both home and school contexts by improving the quality of the early home environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Autorrelato
8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526412

RESUMO

The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents and adopted children (n = 561 adoptees). The original sample has been expanded to include siblings of the EGDS adoptees who were reared by the birth mother and assessed beginning at age 7 years (n = 217 biological children), and additional siblings in both the birth and adoptive family homes, recruited when the adoptees were 8-15 years old (n = 823). The overall study aims are to examine how family, peer and contextual processes affect child and adolescent adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Adoptive and birth parents were originally recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the USA following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing and occurred in 9 month's intervals until the adoptees turned 3 years of age, and in 1 to 2 year intervals thereafter through age 15. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, behavior problems, mental health, peer relations, executive functioning, school performance and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, health, context, substance use, parenting and marital relations; and the prenatal environment. Findings highlight the power of the adoption design to detect environmental influences on child development and provide evidence of complex interactions and correlations between genetic, prenatal environmental and postnatal environmental influences on a range of child outcomes. The study sample, procedures and an overview of findings are summarized and ongoing assessment activities are described.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 212, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477688

RESUMO

Previous approaches for creating polygenic risk scores (PRSs) do not explicitly consider the biological or developmental relevance of the genetic variants selected for inclusion. We applied gene set enrichment analysis to meta-GWAS data to create developmentally targeted, functionally informed PRSs. Using two developmentally matched meta-GWAS discovery samples, separate PRSs were formed, then examined in time-varying effect models of aggression in a second, longitudinal sample of children (n = 515, 49% female) in early childhood (2-5 years old), and middle childhood (7.5-10.5 years old). Functional PRSs were associated with aggression in both the early and middle childhood models.

10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1911-1921, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370912

RESUMO

Several research teams have previously traced patterns of emerging conduct problems (CP) from early or middle childhood. The current study expands on this previous literature by using a genetically-informed, experimental, and long-term longitudinal design to examine trajectories of early-emerging conduct problems and early childhood discriminators of such patterns from the toddler period to adolescence. The sample represents a cohort of 731 toddlers and diverse families recruited based on socioeconomic, child, and family risk, varying in urbanicity and assessed on nine occasions between ages 2 and 14. In addition to examining child, family, and community level discriminators of patterns of emerging conduct problems, we were able to account for genetic susceptibility using polygenic scores and the study's experimental design to determine whether random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) discriminated trajectory groups. In addition, in accord with differential susceptibility theory, we tested whether the effects of the FCU were stronger for those children with higher genetic susceptibility. Results augmented previous findings documenting the influence of child (inhibitory control [IC], gender) and family (harsh parenting, parental depression, and educational attainment) risk. In addition, children in the FCU were overrepresented in the persistent low versus persistent high CP group, but such direct effects were qualified by an interaction between the intervention and genetic susceptibility that was consistent with differential susceptibility. Implications are discussed for early identification and specifically, prevention efforts addressing early child and family risk.

11.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1887-1899, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370913

RESUMO

Building on prior work using Tom Dishion's Family Check-Up, the current article examined intervention effects on dysregulated irritability in early childhood. Dysregulated irritability, defined as reactive and intense response to frustration, and prolonged angry mood, is an ideal marker of neurodevelopmental vulnerability to later psychopathology because it is a transdiagnostic indicator of decrements in self-regulation that are measurable in the first years of life that have lifelong implications for health and disease. This study is perhaps the first randomized trial to examine the direct effects of an evidence- and family-based intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on irritability in early childhood and the effects of reductions in irritability on later risk of child internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Data from the geographically and sociodemographically diverse multisite Early Steps randomized prevention trial were used. Path modeling revealed intervention effects on irritability at age 4, which predicted lower externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 10.5. Results indicate that family-based programs initiated in early childhood can reduce early childhood irritability and later risk for psychopathology. This holds promise for earlier identification and prevention approaches that target transdiagnostic pathways. Implications for future basic and prevention research are discussed.

12.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(5): 1633-1647, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439063

RESUMO

To advance research from Dishion and others on associations between parenting and peer problems across childhood, we used a sample of 177 sibling pairs reared apart since birth (because of adoption of one of the siblings) to examine associations between parental hostility and children's peer problems when children were ages 7 and 9.5 years (n = 329 children). We extended conventional cross-lagged parent-peer models by incorporating child inhibitory control as an additional predictor and examining genetic contributions via birth mother psychopathology. Path models indicated a cross-lagged association from parental hostility to later peer problems. When child inhibitory control was included, birth mother internalizing symptoms were associated with poorer child inhibitory control, which was associated with more parental hostility and peer problems. The cross-lagged paths from parental hostility to peer problems were no longer significant in the full model. Multigroup analyses revealed that the path from birth mother internalizing symptoms to child inhibitory control was significantly higher for birth parent-reared children, indicating the possible contribution of passive gene-environment correlation to this association. Exploratory analyses suggested that each child's unique rearing context contributed to his or her inhibitory control and peer behavior. Implications for the development of evidence-based interventions are discussed.

13.
Clin Psychol Sci ; 7(3): 628-635, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275737

RESUMO

Psychopathy is a complex disorder comprised of harmful personality traits and impulsive-lifestyle and antisocial behaviors. Weakened functional connectivity between limbic and prefrontal brain regions is thought to underlie impaired sensitivity to others' emotions that contribute to the interpersonal and affective personality traits associated with psychopathy. We tested whether weakened functional connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) during the processing of fearful, angry, and neutral facial expressions, was prospectively related to psychopathic traits in early adulthood. The sample included 167 low-income, racially diverse, urban males who completed an fMRI scan at age 20 and questionnaire measures at ages 20 and 22. Weakened amygdala-vmPFC functional connectivity to fearful, but not neutral or angry, faces at age 20 was related to higher psychopathic traits at age 22.

14.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 44(9): 1009-1018, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test relations between exposure to poverty, in the forms of family income and neighborhood deprivation, during three developmental stages, and children's body mass index (BMI) in early adolescence. METHODS: Data came from a longitudinal sample of racially diverse, urban, low-income boys. Interactions between family income to needs and census-derived neighborhood deprivation at three developmental stages-early childhood (18 and 24 months), preschool-to-school entry (3.5 and 6 years), and school-age (8 and 10 years)-were tested in relation to BMI at age 11. RESULTS: There was a significant interaction whereby higher income predicted lower BMI only in the context of low levels of neighborhood deprivation in early childhood. In high-deprivation neighborhoods, higher income was associated with risk for overweight/obesity in early adolescence. This pattern was found to be specific to income and neighborhood deprivation measured in early childhood. CONCLUSIONS: Findings have implications for policy relevant to obesity prevention. More research on associations between early exposure to poverty and later risk for obesity on low-income samples is warranted, as the relationship is likely complex and influenced by many different factors, including the family and neighborhood food environments and child health behaviors.

15.
Neuroimage Clin ; 23: 101836, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077985

RESUMO

Antisocial behavior (AB), including violence, criminality, and substance abuse, is often linked to deficits in emotion processing, reward-related learning, and inhibitory control, as well as their associated neural networks. To better understand these deficits, the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB can be examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white matter microstructure. Prior studies have identified differences in white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), primarily within offender samples. However, few studies have looked beyond the UF or determined whether these relationships are present dimensionally across the range of AB and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. In the current study, we examined associations between AB and white matter microstructure from major fiber tracts, including the UF. Further, we explored whether these associations were specific to individuals high on CU traits. Within a relatively large community sample of young adult men from low-income, urban families (N = 178), we found no direct relations between dimensional, self-report measures of either AB or CU traits and white matter microstructure. However, we found significant associations between AB and white matter microstructure of several tracts only for those with high co-occurring levels of CU traits. In general, these associations did not differ according to race, socioeconomic status, or comorbid psychiatric symptoms. The current results suggest a unique neural profile of severe AB in combination with CU traits, characterized by widespread differences in white matter microstructure, which differs from either AB or CU traits in isolation and is not specific to hypothesized tracts (i.e., the UF).

16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 60(12): 1269-1277, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety in parents is associated with anxiety in offspring, although little is known about the mechanisms underpinning these intergenerational associations. We conducted the first genetically sensitive study to simultaneously examine the effects of mother, father and child anxiety symptoms on each other over time. METHOD: Adoptive parent and child symptoms were measured at child ages 6, 7 and 8 years from 305 families involved in the Early Growth and Development Study, using a prospective adoption design. Children were adopted at birth to nonrelatives, and composite data on internalising problems within birth families were used as a proxy measure of offspring inherited risk for anxiety. Structural equation models were fitted to the data to examine prospective associations between adoptive mother, father and child symptoms, whilst accounting for individuals' symptom stability over time. RESULTS: Child anxiety symptoms at age 7 predicted adoptive mothers' anxiety symptoms at age 8. No mother-to-child or child-to-father effects were observed. These results were consistent in sensitivity analyses using only paternal offspring reports and using a second measure of child anxiety symptoms. Fathers' anxiety symptoms at child age 6 prospectively predicted child symptoms, but only when paternal offspring reports were included in the model. Composite data on birth family internalising problems were not associated with child anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Results show environmentally mediated associations between parent and child anxiety symptoms. Results support developmental theories suggesting that child anxiety symptoms can exert influence on caregivers, and mothers and fathers may play unique roles during the development of child symptoms. Further research is needed on the role of genetic transmission associated with anxiety symptoms in biologically related families. In the meantime, researchers and clinicians should strive to include fathers in assessments and consider the effects of child symptoms on caregivers.

17.
Dev Psychol ; 55(6): 1164-1181, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843708

RESUMO

This study examines interactions of heritable influences, prenatal substance use, and postnatal parental warmth and hostility on the development of conduct problems in middle childhood for boys and girls. Participants are 561 linked families, collected in 2 cohorts, including birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children. Heritable influences on internalizing and externalizing (including substance use) problems were derived from birth mothers' and fathers' symptoms, diagnoses, and age of onset from diagnostic interviews, and the proportion of first-degree relatives with the same type of problems. Smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and alcohol use during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively from birth mothers at 5 months postpartum. Earlier externalizing problems and parental warmth and hostility and were assessed at 1 assessment prior to the outcome (Cohort II: 4.5 years; Cohort I: 7 years). Conduct problems were symptoms from a diagnostic interview assessed at age 6 (Cohort II) or 8 (Cohort I). Findings from regression analyses suggest that (a) SDP plays an important role for the development of conduct problems, (b) some relatively well-accepted effects (e.g., parental hostility) were less important when simultaneously considering multiple factors influencing the development of conduct problems, and (c) main effects of genetic risk and SDP, and interactions among genetic risk and postnatal warmth, SDP and postnatal warmth, and genetic risk, SDP, and postnatal hostility for conduct problems were important for boys' but not girls' conduct problems. Replication is needed, but the current results provide preliminary but empirically grounded hypotheses for future research testing complex developmental models of conduct problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Alcoolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(4): 645-652, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine associations between sleep duration, BMI, and cortisol levels across childhood. METHODS: Participants included 361 children adopted domestically in the United States. Random-intercept cross-lagged panel models tested for between-person and bidirectional within-person associations of sleep duration, BMI, and morning and evening cortisol at age 4.5 to 9 years. RESULTS: Sleep duration and BMI were stable during childhood, inversely associated at the between-person level, and unrelated to morning or evening cortisol. BMI at age 6 years predicted longer sleep duration and lower evening cortisol at age 7 years, and lower morning cortisol at age 7 years predicted higher BMI at age 9 years within individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The association between sleep and BMI is more likely a stable between-person phenomenon rather than a unidirectional association that develops within individuals over time.

19.
Dev Psychol ; 55(6): 1182-1190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816723

RESUMO

A plethora of studies with parents and children who are biologically related has shown that the family environment plays an important role in child development. However, scientists have long known that a rigorous examination of environmental effects requires research designs that go beyond studies of genetically linked family members. Harnessing the principles of sibling comparison and animal cross-fostering designs, we introduce a novel approach: the siblings-reared-apart design. Supplementing the traditional adoption design of adopted child and adoptive parents with a sample of the adopted children's birth parents who raised their biological child(ren) at home (i.e., biological siblings of adoptees), this design provides opportunities to evaluate the role of specific rearing environments. In this proof of concept approach, we tested whether rearing environments differed between adoptive and birth families. Using data from 118 sets of adoption-linked families, each consisting of an adoptive family and the adoptee's birth family, both of whom are raising at least a child in each home, we found that compared with families in the birth homes, (a) adoptive families had higher household incomes and maternal educational attainment; (b) adoptive mothers displayed more guiding parenting, less harsh parenting, and less maternal depression; and (c) socioeconomic differences between the two homes did not account for the behavioral differences in mothers. We discuss the potential of the sibling-reared-apart design to advance developmental science. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adoção , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Pais/psicologia , Irmãos , Adulto , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 48(1): 16-28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702355

RESUMO

Assessment of fidelity that is effective, efficient, and differentiates from usual practices is critical for effectively implementing evidence-based programs for families. This quasi-experiemntal study sought to determine whether observational ratings of fidelity to the Family Check-Up (FCU) could differentiate between levels of clinician training in the model, and from services as usual, and whether rating segments of sessions could be equivalent to rating complete sessions. Coders rated 75 videotaped sessions-complete and 20-min segments-for fidelity, using a valid and reliable rating system across three groups: (a) highly trained in FCU with universal, routine monitoring; (b) minimally trained in FCU with optional, variable monitoring; and (c) services as usual with no training in the FCU. We hypothesized that certain dimensions of fidelity would differ by training, whereas others would not. The results indicated that, as expected, one dimension of fidelity to the FCU, Conceptually accurate to the FCU, was reliably different between the groups (χ2 = 44.63, p < .001). The differences observed were in the expected direction, showing higher scores for therapists with more training. The rating magnitude of session segments largely did not differ from those of complete session ratings; however, interrater reliabilities were low for the segments. Although observational ratings were shown to be sensitive to the degree of training in the FCU on a unique and theoretically critical dimension, observational coding of complete sessions is resource intensive and limits scalability. Additional work is needed to reduce the burden of assessing fidelity to family-centered programs.

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