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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 720205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504497

RESUMO

Patients with the monogenic immune dysregulatory syndrome autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), which is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, uniformly carry neutralizing autoantibodies directed against type-I interferons (IFNs) and many develop autoimmune pneumonitis, both of which place them at high risk for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. Bamlanivimab and etesevimab are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and block entry of SARS-CoV-2 in host cells. The use of bamlanivimab and etesevimab early during infection was associated with reduced COVID-19-associated hospitalization and death in patients at high risk for progressing to severe disease, which led the US Food and Drug Administration to issue an emergency use authorization for their administration in non-hypoxemic, non-hospitalized high-risk patients. However, the safety and efficacy of these mAbs has not been evaluated in APECED patients. We enrolled two siblings with APECED on an IRB-approved protocol (NCT01386437) and admitted them prophylactically at the NIH Clinical Center for evaluation of mild-to-moderate COVID-19. We assessed the safety and clinical effects of early treatment with bamlanivimab and etesevimab. The administration of bamlanivimab and etesevimab was well tolerated and was associated with amelioration of COVID-19 symptoms and prevention of invasive ventilatory support, admission to the intensive care, and death in both patients without affecting the production of antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2. If given early in the course of COVID-19 infection, bamlanivimab and etesevimab may be beneficial in APECED and other high-risk patients with neutralizing autoantibodies directed against type-I IFNs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Interferons/imunologia , Masculino , Mutação , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/complicações , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/genética , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
2.
Sci Immunol ; 6(62)2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413139

RESUMO

Circulating autoantibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing high concentrations (10 ng/mL, in plasma diluted 1 to 10) of IFN-α and/or -ω are found in about 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, but not in subjects with asymptomatic infections. We detect auto-Abs neutralizing 100-fold lower, more physiological, concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω (100 pg/mL, in 1/10 dilutions of plasma) in 13.6% of 3,595 patients with critical COVID-19, including 21% of 374 patients > 80 years, and 6.5% of 522 patients with severe COVID-19. These antibodies are also detected in 18% of the 1,124 deceased patients (aged 20 days-99 years; mean: 70 years). Moreover, another 1.3% of patients with critical COVID-19 and 0.9% of the deceased patients have auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-ß. We also show, in a sample of 34,159 uninfected subjects from the general population, that auto-Abs neutralizing high concentrations of IFN-α and/or -ω are present in 0.18% of individuals between 18 and 69 years, 1.1% between 70 and 79 years, and 3.4% >80 years. Moreover, the proportion of subjects carrying auto-Abs neutralizing lower concentrations is greater in a subsample of 10,778 uninfected individuals: 1% of individuals <70 years, 2.3% between 70 and 80 years, and 6.3% >80 years. By contrast, auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-ß do not become more frequent with age. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs predate SARS-CoV-2 infection and sharply increase in prevalence after the age of 70 years. They account for about 20% of both critical COVID-19 cases in the over-80s, and total fatal COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 99(9): 917-921, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309902

RESUMO

Type-I interferons (IFNs) mediate antiviral activity and have emerged as important immune mediators during coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Several lines of evidence suggest that impaired type-I IFN signaling may predispose to severe COVID-19. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to illness severity remain unclear. In this study, our goal was to gain insight into how type-I IFNs influence outcomes in patients with COVID-19. To achieve this goal, we compared clinical outcomes between 26 patients with neutralizing type-I IFN autoantibodies (AAbs) and 192 patients without AAbs who were hospitalized for COVID-19 at three Italian hospitals. The presence of circulating AAbs to type-I IFNs was associated with an increased risk of admission to the intensive care unit and a delayed time to viral clearance. However, survival was not adversely affected by the presence of type-I IFN AAbs. Our findings provide further support for the role of type-I IFN AAbs in impairing host antiviral defense and promoting the development of critical COVID-19 pneumonia in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-infected individuals.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19 , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália
4.
J Exp Med ; 218(7)2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890986

RESUMO

Patients with biallelic loss-of-function variants of AIRE suffer from autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) and produce a broad range of autoantibodies (auto-Abs), including circulating auto-Abs neutralizing most type I interferons (IFNs). These auto-Abs were recently reported to account for at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in the general population. We report 22 APS-1 patients from 21 kindreds in seven countries, aged between 8 and 48 yr and infected with SARS-CoV-2 since February 2020. The 21 patients tested had auto-Abs neutralizing IFN-α subtypes and/or IFN-ω; one had anti-IFN-ß and another anti-IFN-ε, but none had anti-IFN-κ. Strikingly, 19 patients (86%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, including 15 (68%) admitted to an intensive care unit, 11 (50%) who required mechanical ventilation, and four (18%) who died. Ambulatory disease in three patients (14%) was possibly accounted for by prior or early specific interventions. Preexisting auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFNs in APS-1 patients confer a very high risk of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia at any age.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(2): 641-650, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33551039

RESUMO

Maturation of the adaptive immune response is typically thought to improve outcome to virus infections. However, long-standing observations of natural infections with old viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and newer observations of emerging viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 responsible for COVID-19 suggest that immune immaturity may be beneficial for outcome. Mechanistic studies and studies of patients with inborn errors of immunity have revealed that immune dysregulation reflecting inappropriate antibody and T-cell responses plays a crucial role in causing bystander inflammation and more severe disease. Further evidence supports a role for innate immunity in normally regulating adaptive immune responses. Thus, changes in immune responses that normally occur with age may help explain an apparent protective role of immune immaturity during virus infections.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
6.
JCI Insight ; 6(1)2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232303

RESUMO

Immune and inflammatory responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contribute to disease severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the utility of specific immune-based biomarkers to predict clinical outcome remains elusive. Here, we analyzed levels of 66 soluble biomarkers in 175 Italian patients with COVID-19 ranging from mild/moderate to critical severity and assessed type I IFN-, type II IFN-, and NF-κB-dependent whole-blood transcriptional signatures. A broad inflammatory signature was observed, implicating activation of various immune and nonhematopoietic cell subsets. Discordance between IFN-α2a protein and IFNA2 transcript levels in blood suggests that type I IFNs during COVID-19 may be primarily produced by tissue-resident cells. Multivariable analysis of patients' first samples revealed 12 biomarkers (CCL2, IL-15, soluble ST2 [sST2], NGAL, sTNFRSF1A, ferritin, IL-6, S100A9, MMP-9, IL-2, sVEGFR1, IL-10) that when increased were independently associated with mortality. Multivariate analyses of longitudinal biomarker trajectories identified 8 of the aforementioned biomarkers (IL-15, IL-2, NGAL, CCL2, MMP-9, sTNFRSF1A, sST2, IL-10) and 2 additional biomarkers (lactoferrin, CXCL9) that were substantially associated with mortality when increased, while IL-1α was associated with mortality when decreased. Among these, sST2, sTNFRSF1A, IL-10, and IL-15 were consistently higher throughout the hospitalization in patients who died versus those who recovered, suggesting that these biomarkers may provide an early warning of eventual disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/terapia , Calgranulina B/genética , Calgranulina B/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CXCL9/genética , Quimiocina CXCL9/imunologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ferritinas/genética , Ferritinas/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/imunologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Interleucina-15/genética , Interleucina-15/imunologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Lactoferrina/genética , Lactoferrina/imunologia , Lipocalina-2/genética , Lipocalina-2/imunologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia
7.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972996

RESUMO

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon alfa-2/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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