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1.
Birth Defects Res ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our goal was to develop an approach that can systematically identify potential associations between medication prescribed in pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) by mining large administrative "claims" databases containing hundreds of medications. One such association that we illustrate emerged with antiviral medications used for herpes treatment. METHODS: IBM MarketScan® databases (2007-2016) were used. A pregnancy cohort was established using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9/10) codes. Multiple hypothesis testing and the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure that limited false discovery rate at 5% revealed, among 863 medications, five that showed odds ratios (ORs) <1. The statistically strongest was an association between antivirals and sPTB that we illustrate as a real example of our approach, specifically for treatment of genital herpes (GH). Three groups of women were identified based on diagnosis of GH and treatment during the first 36 weeks of pregnancy: (a) GH without treatment; (b) GH treated with antivirals; (c) no GH or treatment. RESULTS: We identified 2,538,255 deliveries. 0.98% women had a diagnosis of GH. Among them, 60.0% received antiviral treatment. Women with treated GH had OR < 1, (OR [95% CI] = 0.91 [0.85, 0.98]). In contrast, women with untreated GH had a small increased risk of sPTB (OR [95% CI] =1.22 [1.14, 1.32]). CONCLUSIONS: Data-driven approaches can effectively generate new hypotheses on associations between medications and sPTB. This analysis led us to examine the association with GH treatment. While unknown confounders may impact these findings, our results indicate that women with untreated GH have a modest increased risk of sPTB.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263463

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is one of the most severe pregnancy complications and a leading cause of maternal death. However, early diagnosis of preeclampsia remains a clinical challenge. Alterations in the normal immune adaptations necessary for the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy are central features of preeclampsia. However, prior analyses primarily focused on the static assessment of select immune cell subsets have provided limited information for the prediction of preeclampsia. Here, we used a high-dimensional mass cytometry immunoassay to characterize the dynamic changes of over 370 immune cell features (including cell distribution and functional responses) in maternal blood during healthy and preeclamptic pregnancies. We found a set of eight cell-specific immune features that accurately identified patients well before the clinical diagnosis of preeclampsia (median area under the curve (AUC) 0.91, interquartile range [0.82-0.92]). Several features recapitulated previously known immune dysfunctions in preeclampsia, such as elevated pro-inflammatory innate immune responses early in pregnancy and impaired regulatory T (Treg) cell signaling. The analysis revealed additional novel immune responses that were strongly associated with, and preceded the onset of preeclampsia, notably abnormal STAT5ab signaling dynamics in CD4+T cell subsets (AUC 0.92, p = 8.0E-5). These results provide a global readout of the dynamics of the maternal immune system early in pregnancy and lay the groundwork for identifying clinically-relevant immune dysfunctions for the prediction and prevention of preeclampsia.

4.
Am J Perinatol ; 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with timely (0-2 days after birth) myelomeningocele surgical repair. STUDY DESIGN: We examined 2006 to 2011 births from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, linking to hospital discharge and vital records. Selected maternal, infant, and delivery hospital characteristics were evaluated to understand disparities in timely repair. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Overall, 399 of the 450 (89%) infants had a timely repair and approximately 80% of them were delivered in level III/IV hospitals. Infants with hydrocephalus were significantly less likely to have a delayed myelomeningocele repair compared with those without (aRR = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.39); infants whose medical care was paid by Medi-Cal or other nonprivate insurance were 2.2 times more likely to have a delayed repair compared with those covered by a private insurance (aRR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.17, 4.27). Low birth weight was a significant predictor for delayed repair (aRR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.83). CONCLUSION: There was a significant disparity in myelomenigocele repair based on medical care payer. Families and hospitals should work together for timely repair in hospitals having specialized multidisciplinary teams. Findings from the study can be used to follow best clinical practices for myelomeningocele repair.

5.
Birth Defects Res ; 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) is a multisite, population-based, case-control study of genetic and nongenetic risk factors for major structural birth defects. Eligible women had a pregnancy affected by a birth defect or a liveborn child without a birth defect between 1997 and 2011. They were invited to complete a telephone interview to collect pregnancy exposure data and were mailed buccal cell collection kits to collect specimens from themselves, their child (if living), and their child's father. Over 23,000 families representing more than 30 major structural birth defects provided DNA specimens. METHODS: To evaluate their utility for exome sequencing (ES), specimens from 20 children with colonic atresia were studied. Evaluations were conducted on specimens collected using cytobrushes stored and transported in open versus closed packaging, on native genomic DNA (gDNA) versus whole genome amplified (WGA) products and on a library preparation protocol adapted to low amounts of DNA. RESULTS: The DNA extracted from brushes in open packaging yielded higher quality sequence data than DNA from brushes in closed packaging. Quality metrics of sequenced gDNA were consistently higher than metrics from corresponding WGA products and were consistently high when using a low input protocol. CONCLUSIONS: This proof-of-principle study established conditions under which ES can be applied to NBDPS specimens. Successful sequencing of exomes from well-characterized NBDPS families indicated that this unique collection can be used to investigate the roles of genetic variation and gene-environment interaction effects in birth defect etiologies, providing a valuable resource for birth defect researchers.

6.
J Perinatol ; 39(9): 1175-1181, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB < 37 weeks GA). We investigated whether short IPI (< 6 months) contributes to the higher PTB frequency among non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB). STUDY DESIGN: Using a linked birth cohort > 1.5 million California live births, we examined frequencies of short IPI between racial/ethnic groups and estimated risks by multivariable logistic regression for spontaneous PTB. We expanded the study to births 1991-2012 and utilized a "within-mother" approach to permit methodologic inquiry about residual confounding. RESULTS: NHB women had higher frequency (7.6%) of short IPI than non-Hispanic White (NHW) women (4.4%). Adjusted odds ratios for PTB and short IPI were 1.64 (95% CI 1.54, 1.76) for NHW and 1.49 (1.34, 1.65) for NHB. Using within-mother analysis did not produce substantially different results. CONCLUSIONS: Short IPI is associated with PTB but does not explain risk disparity between NHWs and NHBs.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1260-1269, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063268

RESUMO

Cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CLP) is a common craniofacial malformation with complex etiologies, reflecting both genetic and environmental factors. Most of the suspected genetic risk for CLP has yet to be identified. To further classify risk loci and estimate the contribution of rare variants, we sequenced the exons in 49 candidate genes in 323 CLP cases and 211 nonmalformed controls. Our findings indicated that rare, protein-altering variants displayed markedly higher burdens in CLP cases at relevant loci. First, putative loss-of-function mutations (nonsense, frameshift) were significantly enriched among cases: 13 of 323 cases (~4%) harbored such alleles within these 49 genes, versus one such change in controls (p = 0.01). Second, in gene-level analyses, the burden of rare alleles showed greater case-association for several genes previously implicated in cleft risk. For example, BHMT displayed a 10-fold increase in protein-altering variants in CLP cases (p = .03), including multiple case occurrences of a rare frameshift mutation (K400 fs). Other loci with greater rare, coding allele burdens in cases were in signaling pathways relevant to craniofacial development (WNT9B, BMP4, BMPR1B) as well as the methionine cycle (MTRR). We conclude that rare coding variants may confer risk for isolated CLP.

9.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 122: 18-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anotia and microtia are congenital malformations of the external ear with few known risk factors. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of a wide range of potential risk factors using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a population-based case-control study of non-chromosomal structural birth defects in the United States. METHODS: Mothers of 699 infants with anotia or microtia (cases) and 11,797 non-malformed infants (controls) delivered between 1997 and 2011 were interviewed to obtain information about sociodemographic, health behavioral, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with logistic regression. RESULTS: Infants with anotia/microtia were more likely to be male (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.50) and from a multifetal pregnancy (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.16-2.42). Cases were also more likely to have parents of Hispanic ethnicity (maternal aOR, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.61-3.91; paternal aOR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.54-2.88), and parents born outside the United States (maternal aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.06-1.57; paternal aOR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.53-2.41). Maternal health conditions associated with increased odds of anotia/microtia included obesity (aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61) and pre-pregnancy diabetes (type I aOR, 9.89; 95% CI, 5.46-17.92; type II aOR, 4.70; 95% CI, 2.56-8.63). Reduced odds were observed for black mothers (aOR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85) and mothers reporting daily intake of folic acid-containing supplements (aOR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.46-0.76). CONCLUSION: We identified several risk factors for anotia/microtia, some which have been previously reported (e.g., diabetes) and others which we investigate for perhaps the first time (e.g., binge drinking) that warrant further investigation. Our findings point to some potentially modifiable risk factors and provide further leads toward understanding the etiology of anotia/microtia.


Assuntos
Microtia Congênita/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Microtia Congênita/etnologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Perinatol ; 39(6): 837-841, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal transpyloric feeding (TPF) has not been rigorously studied since the 1980s. Our objective was to evaluate early TPF, defined as TPF initiated within the first week after birth, among preterm infants in the setting of modern neonatal practice. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2013 and 2017 for all extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit where early TPF is a common practice. Infants were excluded if they did not receive enteral feeding within the first week after birth or if they died prior to initiation of enteral feeding. The primary outcome was death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The association between early TPF and the primary outcome was assessed using multivariable logistic regression, with adjustment for gestational age, birth weight, and intubation status. RESULT: The study sample included 368 ELBW infants. Twenty-seven percent received early TPF. Death or BPD occurred in 58% of infants who received early TPF compared with 67% of infants who received gastric feeding, adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.9. Growth and adverse gastrointestinal outcomes did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Early TPF is associated with reduced risk of death or BPD among ELBW infants. Further investigation in the form of a randomized controlled trial is required to confirm a causal association between early TPF and improved clinical outcomes.

11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(6): e688, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between the maternal genotype for celiac disease-associated variants and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study, using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We evaluated 667 cases (women with an offspring with NTD) and 743 controls (women with an offspring without a birth defect). We classified women as having low, intermediate, or high risk of celiac disease based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants. We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between HLA celiac risk group (low, intermediate, high) and risk of NTDs. Fifteen non-HLA variants (identified from genome-wide association studies of celiac disease) were individually evaluated and modeled additively. RESULTS: There was no association between HLA celiac risk group and NTDs (intermediate vs. low risk: aOR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3; high vs. low risk: aOR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.5-1.3). Of the fifteen non-HLA variants, we observed five significant associations after accounting for multiple comparisons. Three negative associations were observed with rs10903122, rs13314993, rs13151961 (aOR range: 0.69-0.81), and two positive associations were observed with rs13003464 and rs11221332 (aOR range: 1.27-1.73). CONCLUSION: If confirmed, our results suggest that the maternal variants related to celiac disease may be involved in the risk of NTDs.

12.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(11): 640-648, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common birth defect group and a significant contributor to neonatal and infant death. CHD with single ventricle anatomy, including hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), tricuspid atresia (TA), and various double-inlet ventricle (DIV) malformations, is the most complex with the highest mortality. Prenatal risk factors associated with HLHS have been studied, but such data for DIV are lacking. METHODS: We analyzed DIV cases and nonmalformed controls in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a case-control, multicenter population-based study of birth defects. Random forest analysis identified potential predictor variables for DIV, which were included in multivariable models to estimate effect magnitude and directionality. RESULTS: Random forest analysis identified pre-pregnancy diabetes, history of maternal insulin use, maternal total lipid intake, paternal race, and intake of several foods and nutrients as potential predictors of DIV. Logistic regression confirmed pre-pregnancy diabetes, maternal insulin use, and paternal race as risk factors for having a child with DIV. Additionally, higher maternal total fat intake was associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal pre-pregnancy diabetes and history of insulin use were associated with an increased risk of having an infant with DIV, while maternal lipid intake had an inverse association. These novel data provide multiple metabolic pathways for investigation to identify better the developmental etiologies of DIV and suggest that public health interventions targeting diabetes prevention and management in women of childbearing age could reduce CHD risk.

13.
Epigenetics ; 14(2): 198-213, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870065

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common human birth defect whose etiologies remain largely unknown. Several studies have demonstrated that periconceptional supplementation of folic acid can reduce risk of CL/P in offspring. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the preventive effect of folic acid is manifested through epigenetic modifications by determining whether DNA methylation changes are associated with CL/P. To more readily observe the potential effects of maternal folate on the offspring epigenome, we focused on births prior to mandatory dietary folate fortification in the United States (i.e. birth year 1997 or earlier). Genomic DNA methylation levels were assessed from archived newborn bloodspots in a 182-member case-control study using the Illumina® Human Beadchip 450K array. CL/P cases displayed striking epigenome-wide hypomethylation relative to controls: 63% of CpGs interrogated had lower methylation levels in case newborns, a trend which held up in racially stratified sub-groups. 28 CpG sites reached epigenome-wide significance and all were case-hypomethylated. The most significant CL/P-associated differentially methylated region encompassed the VTRNA2-1 gene, which was also hypomethylated in cases (FWER p = 0.014). This region has been previously characterized as a nutritionally-responsive, metastable epiallele and CL/P-associated methylation changes, in general, were greater at or near putative metastable epiallelic regions. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of CL/P-associated DMRs showed an over-representation of genes involved in palate development such as WNT9B, MIR140 and LHX8. CL/P-associated DNA methylation changes may partly explain the mechanism by which orofacial clefts are responsive to maternal folate levels.

14.
J Reprod Immunol ; 132: 16-20, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852461

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Preterm birth (PTB), or the delivery of an infant prior to 37 weeks of gestation, is a major health concern. Although a variety of social, environmental, and maternal factors have been implicated in PTB, causes of preterm labor have remained largely unknown. There is evidence of effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, however fewer studies have looked at vaccination response as an indicator of an innate host response that may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We carried out a pilot study to analyze the flu vaccine response during pregnancy of women who later deliver preterm or term. METHOD OF STUDY: We performed a secondary analysis of the individual-level data from an influenza vaccination response study (openly available from ImmPort) measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay of 91 pregnant women with term deliveries and 11 women who went on to deliver preterm. Flu vaccination responses for H1N1 and H3N2 influenza strains were compared between term and preterm deliveries. RESULTS: Women who went on to deliver preterm showed a significantly (P < 0.001) greater flu vaccine response for the H1N1 strain than women who delivered at term. The vaccine response for H3N2 was not significantly different between these two groups (P = 0.97). CONCLUSIONS: Although the sample size is limited and additional validation is required, our findings suggest an increased activation of the maternal immune system as shown by the stronger vaccination response to H1N1 in women who subsequently delivered preterm, in comparison to women who delivered at term.

15.
Circulation ; 139(16): 1889-1899, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although lower-complexity cardiac malformations constitute the majority of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), the long-term risks of adverse cardiovascular events and relationship with conventional risk factors in this population are poorly understood. We aimed to quantify the risk of adverse cardiovascular events associated with lower-complexity ACHD that is unmeasured by conventional risk factors. METHODS: A multitiered classification algorithm was used to select individuals with lower-complexity ACHD and individuals without ACHD for comparison among >500 000 British adults in the UK Biobank. ACHD diagnoses were subclassified as isolated aortic valve and noncomplex defects. Time-to-event analyses were conducted for the primary end points of fatal or nonfatal acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation and a secondary combined end point for major adverse cardiovascular events. Maximum follow-up time for the study period was 22 years with retrospectively and prospectively collected data from the UK Biobank. RESULTS: We identified 2006 individuals with lower-complexity ACHD and 497 983 unexposed individuals in the UK Biobank (median age at enrollment, 58 [interquartile range, 51-63] years). Of the ACHD-exposed group, 59% were male, 51% were current or former smokers, 30% were obese, and 69%, 41%, and 7% were diagnosed or treated for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, respectively. After adjustment for 12 measured cardiovascular risk factors, ACHD remained strongly associated with the primary end points, with hazard ratios ranging from 2.0 (95% CI, 1.5-2.8; P<0.001) for acute coronary syndrome to 13.0 (95% CI, 9.4-18.1; P<0.001) for heart failure. ACHD-exposed individuals with ≤2 cardiovascular risk factors had a 29% age-adjusted incidence rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, in contrast to 13% in individuals without ACHD with ≥5 risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with lower-complexity ACHD had a higher burden of adverse cardiovascular events relative to the general population that was unaccounted for by conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the need for closer surveillance of patients with mild to moderate ACHD and further investigation into management and mechanisms of cardiovascular risk unique to this growing population of high-risk adults.

16.
BMJ Open ; 9(1): e027941, 2019 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Short interpregnancy interval (IPI) has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. WHO recommends waiting at least 2 years after a live birth and 6 months after miscarriage or induced termination before conception of another pregnancy. The evidence underpinning these recommendations largely relies on data from low/middle-income countries. Furthermore, recent epidemiological investigations have suggested that these studies may overestimate the effects of IPI due to residual confounding. Future investigations of IPI effects in high-income countries drawing from large, population-based data sources are needed to inform IPI recommendations. We aim to assess the impact of IPIs on maternal and child health outcomes in high-income countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This international longitudinal retrospective cohort study will include more than 18 million pregnancies, making it the largest study to investigate IPI in high-income countries. Population-based data from Australia, Finland, Norway and USA will be used. Birth records in each country will be used to identify consecutive pregnancies. Exact dates of birth and clinical best estimates of gestational length will be used to estimate IPI. Administrative birth and health data sources with >99% coverage in each country will be used to identify maternal sociodemographics, pregnancy complications, details of labour and delivery, birth and child health information. We will use matched and unmatched regression models to investigate the impact of IPI on maternal and infant outcomes, and conduct meta-analysis to pool results across countries. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics boards at participating sites approved this research (approval was not required in Finland). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences, and will inform recommendations for optimal IPI in high-income countries. Findings will provide important information for women and families planning future pregnancies and for clinicians providing prenatal care and giving guidance on family planning.

17.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(5): 248-253, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent study observed women's restricted carbohydrate diet in the year before conception was associated with increased risk of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. That study corresponded to the era of postfortification of folic acid. Because folic acid and carbohydrate measures would derive from similar foods, investigators of that study could not determine whether the increased risk with restricted carbohydrate intake was a consequence of lower folate intake. We extend their novel observation by examining rigorous NTD data prior to folic acid fortification. METHODS: Data were derived from a population-based case-control study of fetuses and infants with NTDs among 1989-1991 California births. Interviews were conducted with mothers of 449 NTD cases and with mothers of 458 nonmalformed controls. A standard 100-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess macro- and micronutrient intakes based on reported intakes 3 months before conception. RESULTS: Case mothers were twice as likely to have consumed a low carbohydrate (≤5th percentile intake among controls) diet with a crude odds ratio of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.4). Adjustment for race/ethnicity, education, alcohol intake, and folic acid use made very little difference on the odds ratio. Adjustment for total energy intake appeared to be the only factor to slightly attenuate the odds ratio. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the association between low carbohydrate intake and NTD risk may not be wholly a function of low folic acid in the postfortification era. Such a finding offers new clues to pursue for the seemingly folate-insensitive NTDs that continue to occur.

18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(4): e00584, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variants in planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway genes have been repeatedly implicated in the pathogenesis of NTDs in both mouse models and in human cohorts. Mouse models indicate that the homogenous disruption of the Ptk7 gene, a PCP regulator, results in craniorachischisis; while embryos that are doubly heterozygous for Ptk7XST87 and Vangl2Lp mutations present with spina bifida. METHODS: In this study, we initially sequenced exons of the human PTK7 gene in 192 spina bifida patients and 190 controls from a California population. A phase II validation study was performed in 343 Chinese NTD cohort. Functional assays including immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation were used to study identified variants effect on PTK7 function. RESULTS: We identified three rare (MAF <0.001) missense heterozygous PTK7 variants (NM_001270398.1:c.581C>T, p.Arg630Ser and p.Tyr725Phe) in the spina bifida patients. In our functional analyses, p.Arg630Ser affected PTK7 mutant protein stability and increased interaction with Dvl2, while the p.Thr186Met variant decreased PTK7 interactions with Dvl2. No novel predicted-to-be-damaging variant or function-disrupted PTK7 variant was identified among the control subjects. We subsequently re-sequenced the PTK7 CDS region in 343 NTDs from China to validate the association between PTK7 and NTDs. The frequency of PTK7 rare missense variants in the Chinese NTD samples is significantly higher than in gnomAD controls. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that rare missense variants in PTK7 contribute to the genetic risk of NTDs.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Disrafismo Espinal/genética , Feto Abortado , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Taxa de Mutação , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(3): e010995, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696385

RESUMO

Background More intense and longer-lasting heat events are expected in the United States as a consequence of climate change. This study aimed to project the potential changes in maternal heat exposure during early pregnancy (3-8 weeks post conception) and the associated burden of congenital heart defects ( CHD s) in the future. Methods and Results This study expanded on a prior nationwide case-control study that evaluated the association between CHD s and maternal heat exposure during early pregnancy in summer and spring. We defined multiple indicators of heat exposure, and applied published odds ratios obtained for the matching season of the baseline (1995-2005) into the projection period (2025-2035) to estimate potential changes in CHD burden throughout the United States. Increases in maternal heat exposure were projected across the United States and to be larger in the summer. The Midwest will potentially have the highest increase in summer maternal exposure to excessively hot days (3.42; 95% CI, 2.99-3.88 per pregnancy), heat event frequency (0.52; 95% CI, 0.44-0.60) and heat event duration (1.73; 95% CI, 1.49-1.97). We also found large increases in specific CHD subtypes during spring, including a 34.0% (95% CI, 4.9%-70.8%) increase in conotruncal CHD in the South and a 38.6% (95% CI , 9.9%-75.1%) increase in atrial septal defect in the Northeast. Conclusions Projected increases in maternal heat exposure could result in an increased CHD burden in certain seasons and regions of the United States.

20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(10): 1726-1737, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689861

RESUMO

Mutations in IRF6, TFAP2A and GRHL3 cause orofacial clefting syndromes in humans. However, Tfap2a and Grhl3 are also required for neurulation in mice. Here, we found that homeostasis of Irf6 is also required for development of the neural tube and associated structures. Over-expression of Irf6 caused exencephaly, a rostral neural tube defect, through suppression of Tfap2a and Grhl3 expression. Conversely, loss of Irf6 function caused a curly tail and coincided with a reduction of Tfap2a and Grhl3 expression in tail tissues. To test whether Irf6 function in neurulation was conserved, we sequenced samples obtained from human cases of spina bifida and anencephaly. We found two likely disease-causing variants in two samples from patients with spina bifida. Overall, these data suggest that the Tfap2a-Irf6-Grhl3 genetic pathway is shared by two embryologically distinct morphogenetic events that previously were considered independent during mammalian development. In addition, these data suggest new candidates to delineate the genetic architecture of neural tube defects and new therapeutic targets to prevent this common birth defect.

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