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1.
Radiology ; : 202630, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973837

RESUMO

Background Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is a key feature of aortic stenosis, and patients with aortic stenosis often have coronary -artery disease. Therefore, proving the association between the progression of AVC and coronary atherosclerosis could improve follow-up and treatment strategies. Purpose To explore the association between the progression of AVC and the progression of total and plaque volume composition from a large multicenter registry of serial coronary CT angiographic examinations. Materials and Methods A prospective multinational registry (PARADIGM) of consecutive participants who underwent serial coronary CT angiography at intervals of every 2 years or more was performed (January 2003-December 2015). AVC and the total and plaque volume composition at baseline and follow-up angiography were quantitatively analyzed. Plaque volumes were normalized by using the mean total analyzed vessel length of the study population. Multivariable linear mixed-effects models were constructed. Results Overall, 594 participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 62 years ± 10; 330 men) were included (mean interval between baseline and follow-up angiography, 3.9 years ± 1.5). At baseline, the AVC score was 31 Agatston units ± 117, and the normalized total plaque volume at baseline was 122 mm3 ± 219. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical risk factors, and medication use, AVC was independently associated with total plaque volume (standardized ß = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.32; P < .001) and both calcified (ß = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.34; P < .001) and noncalcified (ß = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.25; P < .001) plaque volumes at baseline. The progression of AVC was associated with the progression of total plaque volume (ß = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22; P = .01), driven solely by calcified plaque volume (ß = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.34; P < .001) but not noncalcified plaque volumes (ß = -0.06; 95% CI: -0.14, 0.03; P = .17). Conclusion The overall burden of coronary atherosclerosis was associated with aortic valve calcification at baseline. However, the progression of aortic valve calcification was associated with only the progression of calcified plaque volume but not with the -progression of noncalcified plaque volume. Clinical trial registration no. NCT02803411 © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Sinitsyn in this issue.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858808

RESUMO

In the United States, non-obstructive coronary disease has been on the rise, and each year, nearly one million adults suffer myocardial infarction, 70% of which are non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). In addition, approximately 15% of patients suffering NSTEMI will have subsequent readmission for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). While invasive angiography remains the standard of care in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these patients, these methods have limitations that include procedural complications, uncertain specificity in diagnosis of the culprit lesion in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), and challenges in following coronary disease over time. The role of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for evaluating patients with both stable and acute chest pain has seen a paramount upshift in the last decade. This paper reviews the established role of CCTA for the rapid exclusion of obstructive plaque in troponin negative acute chest pain, while exploring opportunities to address challenges in the current approach to evaluating NSTEMI.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 324: 46-51, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been suggested as a marker of plasma atherogenicity. This study aimed to assess the association between AIP and the rapid progression of coronary atherosclerosis using serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: A total of 1488 adults (60.9 ± 9.2 years, 58.9% male) who underwent serial CCTA with a median inter-scan period of 3.4 years were included. AIP was defined as the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of the concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Rapid plaque progression (RPP) was defined as the change of percentage atheroma volume (PAV) ≥1.0%/year. All participants were divided into three groups based on AIP tertiles. RESULTS: Baseline total PAV (median [interquartile range (IQR)]) (%) (group I [lowest]: 1.91 [0.00, 6.21] vs. group II: 2.82 [0.27, 8.83] vs. group III [highest]: 2.70 [0.41, 7.50]), the annual change of total PAV (median [IQR]) (%/year) (group I: 0.27 [0.00, 0.81] vs. group II: 0.37 [0.04, 1.11] vs. group III: 0.45 [0.06, 1.25]), and the incidence of RPP (group I: 19.7% vs. group II: 27.3% vs. group III: 31.4%) were significantly different among AIP tertiles (all p < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk of RPP was increased in group III (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26; p = 0.042) compared to group I after adjusting for clinical factors and baseline total PAV. CONCLUSIONS: Based on serial CCTA findings, AIP is an independent predictive marker for RPP beyond traditional risk factors.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865779

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to investigate whether coronary computed tomography angiography assessments of coronary plaque might explain differences in the prognosis of men and women presenting with chest pain. BACKGROUND: Important sex differences exist in coronary artery disease. Women presenting with chest pain have different risk factors, symptoms, prevalence of coronary artery disease and prognosis compared to men. METHODS: Within a multicenter randomized controlled trial, we explored sex differences in stenosis, adverse plaque characteristics (positive remodeling, low-attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, or napkin ring sign) and quantitative assessment of total, calcified, noncalcified and low-attenuation plaque burden. RESULTS: Of the 1,769 participants who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography, 772 (43%) were female. Women were more likely to have normal coronary arteries and less likely to have adverse plaque characteristics (p < 0.001 for all). They had lower total, calcified, noncalcified, and low-attenuation plaque burdens (p < 0.001 for all) and were less likely to have a low-attenuation plaque burden >4% (41% vs. 59%; p < 0.001). Over a median follow-up of 4.7 years, myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in 11 women (1.4%) and 30 men (3%). In those who had MI, women had similar total, noncalcified, and low-attenuation plaque burdens as men, but men had higher calcified plaque burden. Low-attenuation plaque burden predicted MI (hazard ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 2.34; p = 0.015), independent of calcium score, obstructive disease, cardiovascular risk score, and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women presenting with stable chest pain have less atherosclerotic plaque of all subtypes compared to men and a lower risk of subsequent MI. However, quantitative low-attenuation plaque is as strong a predictor of subsequent MI in women as in men. (Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590).

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(9): e020110, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884888

RESUMO

Guideline-based medical therapy is the foundation of treatment for individuals with coronary artery disease. However, revascularization with either percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting may be beneficial in patients with acute coronary syndromes, refractory symptoms, or in other specific scenarios (eg, left main disease and heart failure). While the goal of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting is to achieve complete revascularization, anatomical and ischemic definitions of complete revascularization and their methodology for assessment remain highly variable. Such lack of consensus invariably contributes to the absence of standardized approaches for invasive treatment of coronary artery disease. Herein, we propose a novel, comprehensive, yet pragmatic algorithm with both anatomical and ischemic parameters that aims to provide a systematic method to assess complete revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting in both clinical practice and clinical trials.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735407

RESUMO

Coronary angiography has been recommended in all patients with suspected chronic coronary syndrome and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%. The role of ischemia testing, for example, through stress-rest myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), for risk prediction is not well established. METHODS: We evaluated 1576 consecutive patients referred to MPS and stratified into 3 LV ejection fraction (LVEF) categories: ≤35%, 36-49%, and ≥ 50%. RESULTS: Patients with LVEF ≤35% were oldest, most often men, and with the highest likelihood of prior early (elective or urgent) coronary revascularization. They had also the highest values or summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS), and summed difference score (SDS), as well as the highest frequency of significant coronary artery disease, and a greater number of diseased vessels. FOLLOW-UP: In this subgroup, 32 cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) (21%), 35 all-cause deaths (22%), and 37 cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal MI, or late revascularizations (27%) were recorded with the shortest survival among all LVEF classes. SRS, SSS, and SDS had very low area under the curve values for the prediction of the 3 endpoints, with very high cut-offs, respectively. SRS and SSS cut-offs predicted a worse outcome in Cox regression models including the number of diseased vessels and early revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with LVEF ≤35%, SRS and SSS are less predictive of outcome than in patients with better preserved systolic dysfunction, but their cut-offs retain independent prognostic significance from the number of vessels with significant stenoses and from early revascularization.

8.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(5): 1003-1004, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744137
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709096

RESUMO

AIMS : To investigate the change in atherosclerotic plaque volume in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and declining renal function, using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 891 participants with analysable serial CCTA and available glomerular filtration rate (GFR, derived using Cockcroft-Gault formulae) at baseline (CCTA 1) and follow-up (CCTA 2) were included. CKD was defined as GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Declining renal function was defined as ≥10% drop in GFR from the baseline. Quantitative assessment of plaque volume and composition were performed on both scans. There were 203 participants with CKD and 688 without CKD. CKD was associated with higher baseline total plaque volume, but similar plaque progression, measured by crude (57.5 ± 3.4 vs. 65.9 ± 7.7 mm3/year, P = 0.28) or annualized (17.3 ± 1.0 vs. 19.9 ± 2.0 mm3/year, P = 0.25) change in total plaque volume. There were 709 participants with stable GFR and 182 with declining GFR. Declining renal function was independently associated with plaque progression, with higher crude (54.1 ± 3.2 vs. 80.2 ± 9.0 mm3/year, P < 0.01) or annualized (16.4 ± 0.9 vs. 23.9 ± 2.6 mm3/year, P < 0.01) increase in total plaque volume. In CKD, plaque progression was driven by calcified plaques whereas in patients with declining renal function, it was driven by non-calcified plaques. CONCLUSION: Decline in renal function was associated with more rapid plaque progression, whereas the presence of CKD was not.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 148: 16-21, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667445

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic calcium(TAC) is an important marker of extracoronary atherosclerosis with established predictive value for all-cause mortality. We sought to explore the predictive value of TAC for stroke mortality, independent of the more established coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. The CAC Consortium is a retrospectively assembled database of 66,636 patients aged ≥18 years with no previous history of cardiovascular disease, baseline CAC scans for risk stratification, and follow-up for 12 ± 4 years. CAC scans capture the adjacent thoracic aorta, enabling assessment of TAC from the same images. TAC was available in 41,066 (62%), and was primarily analyzed as present or not present. To account for competing risks for nonstroke death, we utilized multivariable-adjusted Fine and Gray competing risk regression models adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and CAC score. The mean age of participants was 53.8 ± 10.3 years, with 34.4% female. There were 110 stroke deaths during follow-up. The unadjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) for stroke mortality in those who had TAC present compared with those who did not was 8.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.97, 12.98). After adjusting for traditional risk factors and CAC score, the SHR was 2.21 (95% CI:1.39,3.49). In sex-stratified analyses, the fully adjusted SHR for females was 3.42 (95% CI: 1.74, 6.73) while for males it was 1.55 (95% CI: 0.83, 2.90). TAC was associated with stroke mortality independent of CAC and traditional risk factors, more so in women. The presence of TAC appears to be an independent risk marker for stroke mortality.

11.
Am Heart J ; 237: 90-103, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately half of all women with anginal symptoms and/or signs of ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) referred for coronary angiography have elevated risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), poor quality of life and resource consumption. Yet, guidelines focus on symptom management while clinical practice typically advocates only reassurance. Pilot studies of INOCA subjects suggest benefit with intensive medical therapy (IMT) that includes high-intensity statins and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) or receptor blockers (ARB) to provide the rationale for a randomized pragmatic trial to limit MACE. METHODS: The Women's IschemiA TRial to Reduce Events In Non-ObstRuctive CAD is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded outcome evaluation (PROBE design) of a pragmatic strategy of IMT vs usual care (UC) in 4,422 symptomatic women with INOCA (NCT03417388) in approximately 70 United States sites. The hypothesis is that IMT will reduce the primary outcome of first occurrence of MACE by 20% vs. UC at ∼2.5 year followup. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, time to return to "duty"/work, healthcare utilization, angina, cardiovascular death and individual primary outcome components over 3 years follow-up. The study utilizes web-based data capture, e-consents, single IRB and centralized pharmacy distribution of strategy medications directly to patients' homes to reduce site and patient burden. A biorepository will collect blood samples to assess potential mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this trial will provide important data necessary to inform guidelines regarding how best to manage this growing and challenging population of women with INOCA.

12.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(2): 173-185, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has adversely affected diagnosis and treatment of noncommunicable diseases. Its effects on delivery of diagnostic care for cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death worldwide, have not been quantified. OBJECTIVES: The study sought to assess COVID-19's impact on global cardiovascular diagnostic procedural volumes and safety practices. METHODS: The International Atomic Energy Agency conducted a worldwide survey assessing alterations in cardiovascular procedure volumes and safety practices resulting from COVID-19. Noninvasive and invasive cardiac testing volumes were obtained from participating sites for March and April 2020 and compared with those from March 2019. Availability of personal protective equipment and pandemic-related testing practice changes were ascertained. RESULTS: Surveys were submitted from 909 inpatient and outpatient centers performing cardiac diagnostic procedures, in 108 countries. Procedure volumes decreased 42% from March 2019 to March 2020, and 64% from March 2019 to April 2020. Transthoracic echocardiography decreased by 59%, transesophageal echocardiography 76%, and stress tests 78%, which varied between stress modalities. Coronary angiography (invasive or computed tomography) decreased 55% (p < 0.001 for each procedure). In multivariable regression, significantly greater reduction in procedures occurred for centers in countries with lower gross domestic product. Location in a low-income and lower-middle-income country was associated with an additional 22% reduction in cardiac procedures and less availability of personal protective equipment and telehealth. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was associated with a significant and abrupt reduction in cardiovascular diagnostic testing across the globe, especially affecting the world's economically challenged. Further study of cardiovascular outcomes and COVID-19-related changes in care delivery is warranted.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Agências Internacionais
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome based on the patient similarity network using quantitative coronary plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). BACKGROUND: Coronary CTA can noninvasively assess coronary plaques quantitatively. METHODS: Patients who underwent 2 coronary CTAs at a minimum of 24 months' interval were analyzed (n = 1,264). A similarity Mapper network of patients was built by topological data analysis (TDA) based on the whole-heart quantitative coronary plaque analysis on coronary CTA to identify distinct patient groups and their association with outcome. RESULTS: Three distinct patient groups were identified by TDA, and the patient similarity network by TDA showed a closed loop, demonstrating a continuous trend of coronary plaque progression. Group A had the least coronary plaque amount (median 12.4 mm3 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.0 to 39.6 mm3]) in the entire coronary tree. Group B had a moderate coronary plaque amount (31.7 mm3 [IQR: 0.0 to 127.4 mm3]) with relative enrichment of fibrofatty and necrotic core (32.6% [IQR: 16.7% to 46.2%] and 2.7% [IQR: 0.1% to 6.9%] of the total plaque, respectively) components. Group C had the largest coronary plaque amount (187.0 mm3 [IQR: 96.7 to 306.4 mm3]) and was enriched for dense calcium component (46.8% [IQR: 32.0% to 63.7%] of the total plaque). At follow-up, total plaque volume, fibrous, and dense calcium volumes increased in all groups, but the proportion of fibrofatty component decreased in groups B and C, whereas the necrotic core portion decreased in only group B (all p < 0.05). Group B showed a higher acute coronary syndrome incidence than other groups (0.3% vs. 2.6% vs. 0.6%; p = 0.009) but both group B and C had a higher revascularization incidence than group A (3.1% vs. 15.5% vs. 17.8%; p < 0.001). Incorporating group information from TDA demonstrated increase of model fitness for predicting acute coronary syndrome or revascularization compared with that incorporating clinical risk factors, percentage diameter stenosis, and high-risk plaque features. CONCLUSIONS: The TDA of quantitative whole-heart coronary plaque characteristics on coronary CTA identified distinct patient groups with different plaque dynamics and clinical outcomes. (Progression of AtheRosclerotic PlAque DetermIned by Computed TomoGraphic Angiography Imaging [PARADIGM]; NCT02803411).

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aimed to examine the independent prognostic value of whole-heart atherosclerosis progression by serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). METHODS: The multi-center PARADIGM study includes patients undergoing serial CCTA for symptomatic reasons, ≥2 years apart. Whole-heart atherosclerosis was characterized on a segmental level, with co-registration of baseline and follow-up CCTA, and summed to per-patient level. The independent prognostic significance of atherosclerosis progression for MACE (non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], death, unplanned coronary revascularization) was examined. Patients experiencing interval MACE were not omitted. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1166 patients (age 60.5 â€‹± â€‹9.5 years, 54.7% male) who experienced 139 MACE events during 8.2 (IQR 6.2, 9.5) years of follow up (15 death, 5 non-fatal MI, 119 unplanned revascularizations). Whole-heart percent atheroma volume (PAV) increased from 2.32% at baseline to 4.04% at follow-up. Adjusted for baseline PAV, the annualized increase in PAV was independently associated with MACE: OR 1.23 (95% CI 1.08, 1.39) per 1 standard deviation increase, which was consistent in multiple subpopulations. When categorized by composition, only non-calcified plaque progression associated independently with MACE, while calcified plaque did not. Restricting to patients without events before follow-up CCTA, those with future MACE showed an annualized increase in PAV of 0.93% (IQR 0.34, 1.96) vs 0.32% (IQR 0.02, 0.90), P â€‹< â€‹0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-heart atherosclerosis progression examined by serial CCTA is independently associated with MACE, with a prognostic threshold of 1.0% increase in PAV per year.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the concordance of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) assessment of coronary anatomy and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference standard in patients enrolled in the International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA). BACKGROUND: Performance of CCTA compared with ICA has not been assessed in patients with very high burdens of stress-induced ischemia and a high likelihood of anatomically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A blinded CCTA was performed after enrollment to exclude patients with left main (LM) disease or no obstructive CAD before randomization to an initial conservative or invasive strategy, the latter guided by ICA and optimal revascularization. METHODS: Rates of concordance were calculated on a per-patient basis in patients randomized to the invasive strategy. Anatomic significance was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis (DS) for both modalities. Sensitivity analyses using a threshold of ≥70% DS for CCTA or considering only CCTA images of good-to-excellent quality were performed. RESULTS: In 1,728 patients identified by CCTA as having no LM disease ≥50% and at least single-vessel CAD, ICA confirmed 97.1% without LM disease ≥50%, 92.2% with at least single-vessel CAD and no LM disease ≥50%, and only 4.9% without anatomically significant CAD. Results using a ≥70% DS threshold or only CCTA of good-to-excellent quality showed similar overall performance. CONCLUSIONS: CCTA before randomization in ISCHEMIA demonstrated high concordance with subsequent ICA for identification of patients with angiographically significant disease without LM disease.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe worldwide variations in the use of myocardial perfusion imaging hardware, software, and imaging protocols and their impact on radiation effective dose (ED). BACKGROUND: Concerns about long-term effects of ionizing radiation have prompted efforts to identify strategies for dose optimization in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Studies have increasingly shown opportunities for dose reduction using newer technologies and optimized protocols. METHODS: Data were submitted voluntarily to the INCAPS (International Atomic Energy Agency Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study) registry, a multinational, cross-sectional study comprising 7,911 imaging studies from 308 labs in 65 countries. The study compared regional use of camera technologies, advanced post-processing software, and protocol characteristics and analyzed the influence of each factor on ED. RESULTS: Cadmium-zinc-telluride and positron emission tomography (PET) cameras were used in 10% (regional range 0% to 26%) and 6% (regional range 0% to 17%) of studies worldwide. Attenuation correction was used in 26% of cases (range 10% to 57%), and advanced post-processing software was used in 38% of cases (range 26% to 64%). Stress-first single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging comprised nearly 20% of cases from all world regions, except North America, where it was used in just 7% of cases. Factors associated with lower ED and odds ratio for achieving radiation dose ≤9 mSv included use of cadmium-zinc-telluride, PET, advanced post-processing software, and stress- or rest-only imaging. Overall, 39% of all studies (97% PET and 35% SPECT) were ≤9 mSv, while just 6% of all studies (32% PET and 4% SPECT) achieved a dose ≤3 mSv. CONCLUSIONS: Newer-technology cameras, advanced software, and stress-only protocols were associated with reduced ED, but worldwide adoption of these practices was generally low and varied significantly between regions. The implementation of dose-optimizing technologies and protocols offers an opportunity to reduce patient radiation exposure across all world regions.

17.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200780, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237824

RESUMO

Cardiovascular imaging has significantly evolved since the turn of the century. Progress in the last two decades has been marked by advances in every modality used to image the heart, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, cardiac CT and nuclear cardiology. There has also been a dramatic increase in hybrid and fusion modalities that leverage the unique capabilities of two imaging techniques simultaneously, as well as the incorporation of artificial intelligence and machine learning into the clinical workflow. These advances in non-invasive cardiac imaging have guided patient management and improved clinical outcomes. The technological developments of the past 20 years have also given rise to new imaging subspecialities and increased the demand for dedicated cardiac imagers who are cross-trained in multiple modalities. This state-of-the-art review summarizes the evolution of multimodality cardiac imaging in the 21st century and highlights opportunities for future innovation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/tendências , Humanos , Imagem Multimodal/tendências
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303383

RESUMO

Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) provides a wealth of clinically meaningful information beyond anatomic stenosis alone, including the presence or absence of nonobstructive atherosclerosis and high-risk plaque features as precursors for incident coronary events. There is, however, no uniform agreement on how to identify and quantify these features or their use in evidence-based clinical decision-making. This statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography and North American Society of Cardiovascular Imaging addresses this gap and provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on imaging of coronary atherosclerosis. In this statement, we provide standardized definitions for high-risk plaque (HRP) features and distill the evidence on the effectiveness of risk stratification into usable practice points. This statement outlines how this information should be communicated to referring physicians and patients by identifying critical elements to include in a structured CCTA report - the presence and severity of atherosclerotic plaque (descriptive statements, CAD-RADS™ categories), the segment involvement score, HRP features (e.g., low attenuation plaque, positive remodeling), and the coronary artery calcium score (when performed). Rigorous documentation of atherosclerosis on CCTA provides a vital opportunity to make recommendations for preventive care and to initiate and guide an effective care strategy for at-risk patients.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331631

RESUMO

AIMS: Aortic valve calcification (AVC) has been shown to be associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, whether this is independent of traditional risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: From the multicentre CAC Consortium database, 10 007 patients (mean 55.8±11.7 years, 64% male) with concomitant CAC and AVC scoring were included in the current analysis. AVC score was quantified using the Agatston score method and categorized as 0, 1-99, and ≥100. The endpoints were all-cause, CVD, and coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths. AVC (AVC>0) was observed in 1397 (14%) patients. During a median 7.8 (interquartile range: 4.7-10.6) years of study follow-up, 511 (5.1%) deaths occurred; 179 (35%) were CVD deaths, and 101 (19.8%) were CHD deaths. A significant interaction between CAC and AVC for mortality was observed (P<0.001). The incidence of mortality events increased with higher AVC; however, AVC ≥100 was not independently associated with all-cause, CVD, and CHD deaths after adjusting for CVD risk factors and CAC (P=0.192, 0.063, and 0.206, respectively). When further stratified by CAC<100 or ≥100, AVC ≥100 was an independent predictor of all-cause and CVD deaths only in patients with CAC <100, after adjusting for CVD risk factors and CAC [hazard ratio (HR): 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-3.27; P=0.013 and HR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.15-6.34; P=0.022, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Although the overall prognostic significance of AVC was attenuated after accounting for CAC, high AVC was independently associated with all-cause and CVD deaths in patients with low coronary atherosclerosis burden.

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