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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498468

RESUMO

Mutations in TANK binding kinase gene (TBK1) have been identified as causative in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we examine the spectrum of TBK1 mutations in a cohort of ALS patients from Northern England, comparing missense and loss of function mutations with clinical phenotype. Analysis of 290 ALS cases identified seven variants, including one novel in-frame deletion (p.Ile85del). In silico analysis and review of the literature suggested that four variants, one nonsense mutation (p.Glu2Ter), two in-frame deletions (p.Ile85del, p.Glu643del) and one missense mutation (p.Gln565Pro) were pathogenic, whilst the remaining three missense mutations were variants of uncertain significance or benign. Post-mortem material was available from the patient with the novel in-frame deletion. Neuropathological examination established this individual had classical ALS pathology, with moderate phosphorylated TDP-43 neuronal and glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the motor cortex, skein-like inclusions in the lower motor neurons and "pre-inclusions" in the medulla. This corresponds to Type B FTLD-TDP pathology and is consistent with previously published literature on TBK1 mutants. In addition to demonstrating no changes in TBK1 staining, we are the first to show there was no differential expression of interferon regulatory factor IRF3, a downstream effector of TBK1 in the innate immunity pathway, in the TBK1-mutant tissue compared to controls. Comparison of clinical and neuropathological data, however, suggests that TBK1-ALS cases show classical ALS pathology but no specific phenotype.

2.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(8): 597, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395857

RESUMO

Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are increasingly presumed to be a prospective stem cell source for cell replacement therapy in various degenerative and/or traumatic diseases. The potential of trans-differentiating hADSCs into motor neuron cells indisputably provides an alternative way for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. In the present study, a stepwise and efficient hADSC trans-differentiation protocol with retinoic acid (RA), sonic hedgehog (SHH), and neurotrophic factors were developed. With this protocol hADSCs could be converted into electrophysiologically active motoneuron-like cells (hADSC-MNs), which expressed both a cohort of pan neuronal markers and motor neuron specific markers. Moreover, after being primed for neuronal differentiation with RA/SHH, hADSCs were transplanted into SCI mouse model and they survived, migrated, and integrated into injured site and led to partial functional recovery of SCI mice. When ablating the transplanted hADSC-MNs harboring HSV-TK-mCherry overexpression system with antivirial Ganciclovir (GCV), functional relapse was detected by motor-evoked potential (MEP) and BMS assays, implying that transplanted hADSC-MNs participated in rebuilding the neural circuits, which was further confirmed by retrograde neuronal tracing system (WGA). GFP-labeled hADSC-MNs were subjected to whole-cell patch-clamp recording in acute spinal cord slice preparation and both action potentials and synaptic activities were recorded, which further confirmed that those pre-conditioned hADSCs indeed became functionally active neurons in vivo. As well, transplanted hADSC-MNs largely prevented the formation of injury-induced cavities and exerted obvious immune-suppression effect as revealed by preventing astrocyte reactivation and favoring the secretion of a spectrum of anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Our work suggests that hADSCs can be readily transformed into MNs in vitro, and stay viable in spinal cord of the SCI mouse and exert multi-therapeutic effects by rebuilding the broken circuitry and optimizing the microenvironment through immunosuppression.

3.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 115, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315673

RESUMO

The expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC in C9orf72 is the most common known cause of ALS accounting for ~ 40% familial cases and ~ 7% sporadic cases in the European population. In most people, the repeat length is 2, but in people with ALS, hundreds to thousands of repeats may be observed. A small proportion of people have an intermediate expansion, of the order of 20 to 30 repeats in size, and it remains unknown whether intermediate expansions confer risk of ALS in the same way that massive expansions do. We investigated the association of this intermediate repeat with ALS by performing a meta-analysis of four previously published studies and a new British/Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset of 1295 cases and 613 controls. The final dataset comprised 5071 cases and 3747 controls. Our meta-analysis showed association between ALS and intermediate C9orf72 repeats of 24 to 30 repeats in size (random-effects model OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.23-14.35, p-value = 0.02). Furthermore, we showed a different frequency of the repeat between the northern and southern European populations (Fisher's exact test p-value = 5 × 10- 3). Our findings provide evidence for the association between intermediate repeats and ALS (p-value = 2 × 10- 4) with direct relevance for research and clinical practice by showing that an expansion of 24 or more repeats should be considered pathogenic.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Funding and resources for low prevalent neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are limited, and optimising their use is vital for efficient drug development. In this study, we review the design assumptions for pivotal ALS clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints and provide optimised settings for future trials. METHODS: We extracted design settings from 13 completed placebo-controlled trials. Optimal assumptions were estimated using parametric survival models in individual participant data (n=4991). Designs were compared in terms of sample size, trial duration, drug use and costs. RESULTS: Previous trials overestimated the hazard rate by 18.9% (95% CI 3.4% to 34.5%, p=0.021). The median expected HR was 0.56 (range 0.33-0.66). Additionally, we found evidence for an increasing mean hazard rate over time (Weibull shape parameter of 2.03, 95% CI 1.93 to 2.15, p<0.001), which affects the design and planning of future clinical trials. Incorporating accrual time and assuming an increasing hazard rate at the design stage reduced sample size by 33.2% (95% CI 27.9 to 39.4), trial duration by 17.4% (95% CI 11.6 to 23.3), drug use by 14.3% (95% CI 9.6 to 19.0) and follow-up costs by 21.2% (95% CI 15.6 to 26.8). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing distributional knowledge and incorporating accrual at the design stage could achieve large gains in the efficiency of ALS clinical trials with time-to-event endpoints. We provide an open-source platform that helps investigators to make more accurate sample size calculations and optimise the use of their available resources.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931641

RESUMO

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons resulting in progressive paralysis and death, typically within 3-5 years. Although the heritability of ALS is about 60%, only about 11% is explained by common gene variants, suggesting that other forms of genetic variation are important. Telomeres maintain DNA integrity during cellular replication and shorten naturally with age. Gender and age are risk factors for ALS and also associated with telomere length. We therefore investigated telomere length in ALS. Methods: We estimated telomere length by applying a bioinformatics analysis to whole genome sequence data of leukocyte-derived DNA from people with ALS and age and gender-matched matched controls in a UK population. We tested the association of telomere length with ALS and ALS survival. Results: There were 1241 people with ALS and 335 controls. The median age for ALS was 62.5 years and for controls, 60.1 years, with a male-female ratio of 62:38. Accounting for age and sex, there was a 9% increase of telomere length in ALS compared to matched controls. Those with longer telomeres had a 16% increase in median survival. Of nine SNPs associated with telomere length, two were also associated with ALS: rs8105767 near the ZNF208 gene (p = 1.29 × 10-4) and rs6772228 (p = 0.001), which is in an intron for the PXK gene. Conclusions: Longer telomeres in leukocyte-derived DNA are associated with ALS, and with increased survival in those with ALS.

6.
Cell Rep ; 26(9): 2298-2306.e5, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811981

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective neuroprotective therapy. Known genetic variants impair pathways, including RNA processing, axonal transport, and protein homeostasis. We report ALS-causing mutations within the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase GLT8D1. Exome sequencing in an autosomal-dominant ALS pedigree identified p.R92C mutations in GLT8D1, which co-segregate with disease. Sequencing of local and international cohorts demonstrated significant ALS association in the same exon, including additional rare deleterious mutations in conserved amino acids. Mutations are associated with the substrate binding site, and both R92C and G78W changes impair GLT8D1 enzyme activity. Mutated GLT8D1 exhibits in vitro cytotoxicity and induces motor deficits in zebrafish consistent with ALS. Relative toxicity of mutations in model systems mirrors clinical severity. In conclusion, we have linked ALS pathophysiology to inherited mutations that diminish the activity of a glycosyltransferase enzyme.

7.
Brain ; 142(3): 586-605, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698736

RESUMO

As clinical evidence supports a negative impact of dysfunctional energy metabolism on the disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, it is vital to understand how the energy metabolic pathways are altered and whether they can be restored to slow disease progression. Possible approaches include increasing or rerouting catabolism of alternative fuel sources to supplement the glycolytic and mitochondrial pathways such as glycogen, ketone bodies and nucleosides. To analyse the basis of the catabolic defect in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis we used a novel phenotypic metabolic array. We profiled fibroblasts and induced neuronal progenitor-derived human induced astrocytes from C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients compared to normal controls, measuring the rates of production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides from 91 potential energy substrates. This approach shows for the first time that C9orf72 human induced astrocytes and fibroblasts have an adenosine to inosine deamination defect caused by reduction of adenosine deaminase, which is also observed in induced astrocytes from sporadic patients. Patient-derived induced astrocyte lines were more susceptible to adenosine-induced toxicity, which could be mimicked by inhibiting adenosine deaminase in control lines. Furthermore, adenosine deaminase inhibition in control induced astrocytes led to increased motor neuron toxicity in co-cultures, similar to the levels observed with patient derived induced astrocytes. Bypassing metabolically the adenosine deaminase defect by inosine supplementation was beneficial bioenergetically in vitro, increasing glycolytic energy output and leading to an increase in motor neuron survival in co-cultures with induced astrocytes. Inosine supplementation, in combination with modulation of the level of adenosine deaminase may represent a beneficial therapeutic approach to evaluate in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

8.
Neurobiol Aging ; 73: 229.e5-229.e9, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348461

RESUMO

Analysis of 226 exome-sequenced UK cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia identified 2 individuals who harbored a P497H and P506S UBQLN2 mutation, respectively (n = 0.9%). The P506S index case presented with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia at the age of 54 years then progressed to ALS surviving 3 years. Three sons presented with (1) slowly progressive pure spastic paraplegia with an onset at 25 years and (2) ALS with disease onset of 25 years and survival of 2 years, and (3) ALS presenting symptoms at the age of 26 years, respectively. Analysis of postmortem tissue from the index case revealed frequent neuronal cytoplasmic UBQLN2-positive inclusions in the dentate gyrus and TDP-43-positive neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the frontal and temporal cortex and granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of published UBQLN2 mutations demonstrated that only proline-rich domain mutations contribute to a significantly earlier age of onset in male patients (p = 0.0026).

9.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 6(1): 125, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454072

RESUMO

A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) within the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene is the most prevalent cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/fronto-temporal dementia (ALS/FTD). Current evidence suggests HREs induce neurodegeneration through accumulation of RNA foci and/or dipeptide repeat proteins (DPR). C9orf72 patients are known to have transactive response DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy, but whether there is further cross over between C9orf72 pathology and the pathology of other ALS sub-types has yet to be revealed.To address this, we generated and characterised two zebrafish lines expressing C9orf72 HREs. We also characterised pathology in human C9orf72-ALS cases. In addition, we utilised a reporter construct that expresses DsRed under the control of a heat shock promoter, to screen for potential therapeutic compounds.Both zebrafish lines showed accumulation of RNA foci and DPR. Our C9-ALS/FTD zebrafish model is the first to recapitulate the motor deficits, cognitive impairment, muscle atrophy, motor neuron loss and mortality in early adulthood observed in human C9orf72-ALS/FTD. Furthermore, we identified that in zebrafish, human cell lines and human post-mortem tissue, C9orf72 expansions activate the heat shock response (HSR). Additionally, HSR activation correlated with disease progression in our C9-ALS/FTD zebrafish model. Lastly, we identified that the compound ivermectin, as well as riluzole, reduced HSR activation in both C9-ALS/FTD and SOD1 zebrafish models.Thus, our C9-ALS/FTD zebrafish model is a stable transgenic model which recapitulates key features of human C9orf72-ALS/FTD, and represents a powerful drug-discovery tool.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342764

RESUMO

NIPA1 (nonimprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 1) mutations are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia type 6, a neurodegenerative disease that phenotypically overlaps to some extent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previously, a genomewide screen for copy number variants found an association with rare deletions in NIPA1 and ALS, and subsequent genetic analyses revealed that long (or expanded) polyalanine repeats in NIPA1 convey increased ALS susceptibility. We set out to perform a large-scale replication study to further investigate the role of NIPA1 polyalanine expansions with ALS, in which we characterized NIPA1 repeat size in an independent international cohort of 3955 patients with ALS and 2276 unaffected controls and combined our results with previous reports. Meta-analysis on a total of 6245 patients with ALS and 5051 controls showed an overall increased risk of ALS in those with expanded (>8) GCG repeat length (odds ratio = 1.50, p = 3.8×10-5). Together with previous reports, these findings provide evidence for an association of an expanded polyalanine repeat in NIPA1 and ALS.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons with a median survival of 2 years. Familial ALS has a younger age of onset than apparently sporadic ALS. We sought to determine whether this younger age of onset is a result of ascertainment bias or has a genetic basis. METHODS: Samples from people with ALS were sequenced for 13 ALS genes. To determine the effect of genetic variation, age of onset was compared in people with sporadic ALS carrying a pathogenic gene variant and those who do not; to determine the effect of family history, we compared those with genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS. RESULTS: There were 941 people with a diagnosis of ALS, 100 with familial ALS. Of 841 with apparently sporadic ALS, 95 carried a pathogenic gene variant. The mean age of onset in familial ALS was 5.3 years younger than for apparently sporadic ALS (p=6.0×10-5, 95% CI 2.8 to 7.8 years). The mean age of onset of genetic sporadic ALS was 2.9 years younger than non-genetic sporadic ALS (p=0.011, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.2 years). There was no difference between the mean age of onset in genetic sporadic ALS and familial ALS (p=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: People with familial ALS have an age of onset about 5 years younger than those with apparently sporadic ALS, and we have shown that this is a result of Mendelian gene variants lowering the age of onset, rather than ascertainment bias.

12.
J Mol Biol ; 430(21): 3942-3953, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171839

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Mitochondrial abnormalities have been identified in many cell types in AD, with deficits preceding the development of the classical pathological aggregations. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis, improves mitochondrial function in fibroblasts derived from Parkinson's disease patients as well as several animal models of AD and Parkinson's disease. In this paper, we investigated both mitochondrial function and morphology in fibroblasts from patients with both sporadic and familial AD. We show that both sporadic AD (sAD) and PSEN1 fibroblasts share the same impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential and alterations in mitochondrial morphology. Mitochondrial respiration, however, was decreased in sAD fibroblasts and increased in PSEN1 fibroblasts. Morphological changes seen in AD fibroblasts include reduced mitochondrial number and increased mitochondrial clustering around the cell nucleus as well as an increased number of long mitochondria. We show here for the first time in AD patient tissue that treatment with UDCA increases mitochondrial membrane potential and respiration as well as reducing the amount of long mitochondria in AD fibroblasts. In addition, we show reductions in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) level, particularly the amount localized to mitochondria in both sAD and familial patient fibroblasts. Drp1 protein amount and localization were increased after UDCA treatment. The restorative effects of UDCA are abolished when Drp1 is knocked down. This paper highlights the potential use of UDCA as a treatment for neurodegenerative disease.

13.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 12: 75-88, 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195799

RESUMO

Of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) cases, 20% are caused by mutations in the gene encoding human cytosolic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (hSOD1). Efficient translation of the therapeutic potential of RNAi for the treatment of SOD1-ALS patients requires the development of vectors that are free of significant off-target effects and with reliable biomarkers to discern sufficient target engagement and correct dosing. Using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 to deliver RNAi against hSOD1 in the SOD1G93A mouse model, we found that intrathecal injection of the therapeutic vector via the cisterna magna delayed onset of disease, decreased motor neuron death at end stage by up to 88%, and prolonged the median survival of SOD1G93A mice by up to 42%. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate no significant off-target effects linked to hSOD1 silencing, providing further confidence in the specificity of this approach. We also report the measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hSOD1 protein levels as a biomarker of effective dosing and efficacy of hSOD1 knockdown. Together, these data provide further confidence in the safety of the clinical therapeutic vector. The CSF biomarker will be a useful measure of biological activity for translation into human clinical trials.

15.
Neurobiol Aging ; 71: 266.e1-266.e10, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033073

RESUMO

Mutations in TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Some TBK1 variants are nonsense and are predicted to cause disease through haploinsufficiency; however, many other mutations are missense with unknown functional effects. We exome sequenced 699 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and identified 16 TBK1 novel or extremely rare protein-changing variants. We characterized a subset of these: p.G217R, p.R357X, and p.C471Y. Here, we show that the p.R357X and p.G217R both abolish the ability of TBK1 to phosphorylate 2 of its kinase targets, IRF3 and optineurin, and to undergo phosphorylation. They both inhibit binding to optineurin and the p.G217R, within the TBK1 kinase domain, reduces homodimerization, essential for TBK1 activation and function. Finally, we show that the proportion of TBK1 that is active (phosphorylated) is reduced in 5 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients harboring heterozygous missense or in-frame deletion TBK1 mutations. We conclude that missense mutations in functional domains of TBK1 impair the binding and phosphorylation of its normal targets, implicating a common loss of function mechanism, analogous to truncation mutations.

16.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 57: 114-120, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Head Up collar is a cervical orthosis designed to be adaptable to a patient's needs using adjustable removable supports. The aim of this study was to characterise the ability of this orthosis to provide head support and facilitate the control of head movements in people living with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. METHODS: Thirteen patients (6 females, age range: 45-74 years old, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale range: 13-44) with neck muscle weakness due to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis were enrolled in the study. An additional inclusion criterion was the presence of enough residual muscle strength to enable the performance of the test procedure. Participants were asked to perform a series of head movements with and without wearing the collar. Two parameters (mean angular velocity and ratio of movement coupling) were extracted from recorded angular velocities, to quantify changes in the execution of the movement between the two conditions. FINDINGS: Participants exhibited different levels of impairment in performing different movements. When wearing the collar self-selected movement velocity was preserved and significant improvement in the control of lateral flexion movement was observed (median ratio of movement coupling value reduced from 1.1 to 0.84, P = 0.013). A lower ratio of movement coupling was also observed in 4 out of 7 individuals that were fitted with anterior supports. INTERPRETATION: The heterogeneity observed in the level of impairment and residual function highlights the need for personalized interventions. The Head Up was effective in enabling more controlled movements and maintaining the natural velocity of head movement.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8097, 2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802307

RESUMO

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a key player in neurodegenerative diseases including frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Accumulation of TDP-43 is associated with neuronal death in the brain. How increased and disease-causing mutant forms of TDP-43 induce cell death remains unclear. Here we addressed the role of TDP-43 during neural development and show that reduced TDP-43 causes defects in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation but not cell death. However, overexpression of wild type and TDP-43A315T proteins induce p53-dependent apoptosis of neural stem/progenitors and human induced pluripotent cell (iPS)-derived immature cortical neurons. We show that TDP-43 induces expression of the proapoptotic BH3-only genes Bbc3 and Bax, and that p53 inhibition rescues TDP-43 induced cell death of embryonic mouse, and human cortical neurons, including those derived from TDP-43G298S ALS patient iPS cells. Hence, an increase in wild type and mutant TDP-43 induces p53-dependent cell death in neural progenitors developing neurons and this can be rescued. These findings may have important implications for accumulated or mutant TDP-43 induced neurodegenerative diseases.

18.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(5): 423-433, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29598923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive, fatal motor neuron disease with a variable natural history. There are no accurate models that predict the disease course and outcomes, which complicates risk assessment and counselling for individual patients, stratification of patients for trials, and timing of interventions. We therefore aimed to develop and validate a model for predicting a composite survival endpoint for individual patients with ALS. METHODS: We obtained data for patients from 14 specialised ALS centres (each one designated as a cohort) in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, and the UK. All patients were diagnosed in the centres after excluding other diagnoses and classified according to revised El Escorial criteria. We assessed 16 patient characteristics as potential predictors of a composite survival outcome (time between onset of symptoms and non-invasive ventilation for more than 23 h per day, tracheostomy, or death) and applied backward elimination with bootstrapping in the largest population-based dataset for predictor selection. Data were gathered on the day of diagnosis or as soon as possible thereafter. Predictors that were selected in more than 70% of the bootstrap resamples were used to develop a multivariable Royston-Parmar model for predicting the composite survival outcome in individual patients. We assessed the generalisability of the model by estimating heterogeneity of predictive accuracy across external populations (ie, populations not used to develop the model) using internal-external cross-validation, and quantified the discrimination using the concordance (c) statistic (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve) and calibration using a calibration slope. FINDINGS: Data were collected between Jan 1, 1992, and Sept 22, 2016 (the largest data-set included data from 1936 patients). The median follow-up time was 97·5 months (IQR 52·9-168·5). Eight candidate predictors entered the prediction model: bulbar versus non-bulbar onset (univariable hazard ratio [HR] 1·71, 95% CI 1·63-1·79), age at onset (1·03, 1·03-1·03), definite versus probable or possible ALS (1·47, 1·39-1·55), diagnostic delay (0·52, 0·51-0·53), forced vital capacity (HR 0·99, 0·99-0·99), progression rate (6·33, 5·92-6·76), frontotemporal dementia (1·34, 1·20-1·50), and presence of a C9orf72 repeat expansion (1·45, 1·31-1·61), all p<0·0001. The c statistic for external predictive accuracy of the model was 0·78 (95% CI 0·77-0·80; 95% prediction interval [PI] 0·74-0·82) and the calibration slope was 1·01 (95% CI 0·95-1·07; 95% PI 0·83-1·18). The model was used to define five groups with distinct median predicted (SE) and observed (SE) times in months from symptom onset to the composite survival outcome: very short 17·7 (0·20), 16·5 (0·23); short 25·3 (0·06), 25·2 (0·35); intermediate 32·2 (0·09), 32·8 (0·46); long 43·7 (0·21), 44·6 (0·74); and very long 91·0 (1·84), 85·6 (1·96). INTERPRETATION: We have developed an externally validated model to predict survival without tracheostomy and non-invasive ventilation for more than 23 h per day in European patients with ALS. This model could be applied to individualised patient management, counselling, and future trial design, but to maximise the benefit and prevent harm it is intended to be used by medical doctors only. FUNDING: Netherlands ALS Foundation.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Attendance at a specialist multidisciplinary motor neurone disease (MND) clinic is associated with improved survival and may also improve quality of life and reduce hospital admissions. However, patients struggle to travel to clinic and may experience difficulties between clinic visits that may not be addressed in a timely manner. We wanted to explore how we could improve access to specialist MND care. METHODS: We adopted an iterative, user-centered co-design approach, collaborating with those with experience of providing and receiving MND care including patients, carers, clinicians, and technology developers. We explored the unmet needs of those living with MND, how they might be met through service redesign and through the use of digital technologies. We developed a new digital solution and performed initial testing with potential users including clinicians, patients, and carers. RESULTS: We used these findings to develop a telehealth system (TiM) using an Android app into which patients and carers answer a series of questions about their condition on a weekly basis. The questions aim to capture all the physical, emotional, and social difficulties associated with MND. This information is immediately uploaded to the internet for review by the MND team. The data undergoes analysis in order to alert clinicians to any changes in a patient or carer's condition. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the benefits of developing a novel digitally enabled service underpinned by participatory design. Future trials must evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the TiM system within a clinical environment.

20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(3): 248-255, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical, electrophysiological and whole-body muscle MRI measurements of progression in patients with motor neuron disease (MND), as tools for future clinical trials, and to probe pathophysiological mechanisms in vivo. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, observational, clinicoelectrophysiological and radiological cohort study was performed. Twenty-nine patients with MND and 22 age-matched and gender-matched healthy controls were assessed with clinical measures, electrophysiological motor unit number index (MUNIX) and T2-weighted whole-body muscle MRI, at first clinical presentation and 4 months later. Between-group differences and associations were assessed using age-adjusted and gender-adjusted multivariable regression models. Within-subject longitudinal changes were assessed using paired t-tests. Patterns of disease spread were modelled using mixed-effects multivariable regression, assessing associations between muscle relative T2 signal and anatomical adjacency to site of clinical onset. RESULTS: Patients with MND had 30% higher relative T2 muscle signal than controls at baseline (all regions mean, 95% CI 15% to 45%, p<0.001). Higher T2 signal was associated with greater overall disability (coefficient -0.009, 95% CI -0.017 to -0.001, p=0.023) and with clinical weakness and lower MUNIX in multiple individual muscles. Relative T2 signal in bilateral tibialis anterior increased over 4 months in patients with MND (right: 10.2%, 95% CI 2.0% to 18.4%, p=0.017; left: 14.1%, 95% CI 3.4% to 24.9%, p=0.013). Anatomically, contiguous disease spread on MRI was not apparent in this model. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-body muscle MRI offers a new approach to objective assessment of denervation over short timescales in MND and enables investigation of patterns of disease spread in vivo. Muscles inaccessible to conventional clinical and electrophysiological assessment may be investigated using this methodology.

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