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1.
EMBO Rep ; : e53658, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34854526

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), known to be more common in the elderly, who also show more severe symptoms and are at higher risk of hospitalization and death. Here, we show that the expression of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor, increases during aging in mouse and human lungs. ACE2 expression increases upon telomere shortening or dysfunction in both cultured mammalian cells and in vivo in mice. This increase is controlled at the transcriptional level, and Ace2 promoter activity is DNA damage response (DDR)-dependent. Both pharmacological global DDR inhibition of ATM kinase activity and selective telomeric DDR inhibition by the use of antisense oligonucleotides prevent Ace2 upregulation following telomere damage in cultured cells and in mice. We propose that during aging telomere dysfunction due to telomeric shortening or damage triggers DDR activation and this causes the upregulation of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor, thus contributing to make the elderly more susceptible to the infection.

2.
Behav Brain Res ; 419: 113677, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818568

RESUMO

In long-term spaceflight, astronauts will face unique cognitive loads and social challenges which will be complicated by communication delays with Earth. It is important to understand the central nervous system (CNS) effects of deep spaceflight and the associated unavoidable exposure to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Rodent studies show single- or simple-particle combination exposure alters CNS endpoints, including hippocampal-dependent behavior. An even better Earth-based simulation of GCR is now available, consisting of a 33-beam (33-GCR) exposure. However, the effect of whole-body 33-GCR exposure on rodent behavior is unknown, and no 33-GCR CNS countermeasures have been tested. Here astronaut-age-equivalent (6mo-old) C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to 33-GCR (75cGy, a Mars mission dose). Pre-/during/post-Sham or 33-GCR exposure, mice received a diet containing a 'vehicle' formulation alone or with the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory compound CDDO-EA as a potential countermeasure. Behavioral testing beginning 4mo post-irradiation suggested radiation and diet did not affect measures of exploration/anxiety-like behaviors (open field, elevated plus maze) or recognition of a novel object. However, in 3-Chamber Social Interaction (3-CSI), CDDO-EA/33-GCR mice failed to spend more time exploring a holder containing a novel mouse vs. a novel object (empty holder), suggesting sociability deficits. Also, Vehicle/33-GCR and CDDO-EA/Sham mice failed to discriminate between a novel stranger vs. familiarized stranger mouse, suggesting blunted preference for social novelty. CDDO-EA given pre-/during/post-irradiation did not attenuate the 33-GCR-induced blunting of preference for social novelty. Future elucidation of the mechanisms underlying 33-GCR-induced blunting of preference for social novelty will improve risk analysis for astronauts which may in-turn improve countermeasures.

3.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593527

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the therapeutic role of a novel telomere-directed inhibitor, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (THIO) in gliomas both in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A panel of human and mouse glioma cell lines was used to test therapeutic efficacy of THIO using cell viability assays, flow cytometric analyses, and immunofluorescence. Integrated analyses of RNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein array data revealed the potential antitumor mechanisms of THIO. Four patient-derived xenografts (PDX), two patient-derived organoids (PDO), and two xenografts of human glioma cell lines were used to further investigate the therapeutic efficacy of THIO. RESULTS: THIO was effective in the majority of human and mouse glioma cell lines with no obvious toxicity against normal astrocytes. THIO as a monotherapy demonstrated efficacy in three glioma cell lines that had acquired resistance to temozolomide. In addition, THIO showed efficacy in four human glioma cell lines grown as neurospheres by inducing apoptotic cell death. Mechanistically, THIO induced telomeric DNA damage not only in glioma cell lines but also in PDX tumor specimens. Integrated computational analyses of transcriptomic and proteomic data indicated that THIO significantly inhibited cell invasion, stem cell, and proliferation pathways while triggering DNA damage and apoptosis. Importantly, THIO significantly decreased tumor proliferation in two PDO models and reduced the tumor size of a glioblastoma xenograft and a PDX model. CONCLUSIONS: The current study established the therapeutic role of THIO in primary and recurrent gliomas and revealed the acute induction of telomeric DNA damage as a primary antitumor mechanism of THIO in gliomas.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503147

RESUMO

To investigate environmental impacts upon colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC) by diet, we assessed two western diet food contaminants: 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a major lipid peroxidation product neoformed during digestion, and a mixture of pesticides. We used human colonic cell lines ectopically eliciting varied genetic susceptibilities to CRC: the non-transformed human epithelial colonic cells (HCECs) and their five isogenic cell lines with the loss of APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli) and TP53 (Tumor protein 53) and/or ectopic expression of mutated KRAS (Kristen-ras). These cell lines have been exposed for either for a short time (2-24 h) or for a long period (3 weeks) to 1 µM HNE and/or 10 µM pesticides. After acute exposure, we did not observe any cytotoxicity or major DNA damage. However, long-term exposure to pesticides alone and in mixture with HNE induced clonogenic transformation in normal HCECs, as well as in cells representing later stages of carcinogenesis. It was associated with genotoxic and non-genomic mechanisms (cell growth, metabolic reprogramming, cell mobility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition) depending on genetic susceptibility. This study demonstrated a potential initiating and promoting effect of food contaminants on CRC after long-term exposure. It supports that these contaminants can accelerate carcinogenesis when mutations in oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes occur.

5.
Oncogene ; 40(41): 5984-5992, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385594

RESUMO

PD-L1 expression is elevated in various human cancers, including colorectal cancer. High levels of PD-L1 expressed on tumor epithelial cells are one of the potential mechanisms by which tumor cells become resistant to immune attack. However, PD-L1 regulation in tumor cells is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene lead to colonic epithelial cell resistance to CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity by induction of PD-L1 expression. Mechanistically, this occurs as a result of the ß-catenin/TCF4 complex binding to the PD-L1 promoter, leading to increased transcription. Our findings not only reveal a novel mechanism by which APC mutations induce tumor immune evasion via an immune checkpoint pathway but also pave the way for developing ß-catenin or TCF4 inhibitors as possible new options for immune checkpoint inhibition.

6.
J Med Chem ; 64(15): 10951-10966, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260245

RESUMO

Influenza viruses cause approximately half a million deaths every year worldwide. Vaccines are available but partially effective, and the number of antiviral medications is limited. Thus, it is crucial to develop therapeutic strategies to counteract this major pathogen. Influenza viruses enter the host cell via their hemagglutinin (HA) proteins. The HA subtypes of influenza A virus are phylogenetically classified into groups 1 and 2. Here, we identified an inhibitor of the HA protein, a tertiary aryl sulfonamide, that prevents influenza virus entry and replication. This compound shows potent antiviral activity against diverse H1N1, H5N1, and H3N2 influenza viruses encoding HA proteins from both groups 1 and 2. Synthesis of derivatives of this aryl sulfonamide identified moieties important for antiviral activity. This compound may be considered as a lead for drug development with the intent to be used alone or in combination with other influenza A virus antivirals to enhance pan-subtype efficacy.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Antivirais/síntese química , Antivirais/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfonamidas/síntese química , Sulfonamidas/química , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(8): 1110-1118, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115837

RESUMO

The protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is able to repair the mutagenic O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) adduct back to guanine. In this context, it may protect against colorectal cancer formation associated with N-nitroso compounds. Such compounds may be endogenously formed by nitrosylation of amino acids, which can give rise to mutagenic O6-MeG and O6-carboxymethylguanine (O6-CMG) adducts. It is well established that O6-MeG is repaired by MGMT. However, up to now, whether O6-CMG is repaired by this enzyme remains unresolved. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the fate of both types of O6-guanine adducts in the presence and absence of MGMT activity. To this end, MGMT activity was efficiently blocked by its chemical inhibitor O6-benzylguanine in human colon epithelial cells (HCECs). Exposure of cells to azaserine (AZA) caused significantly higher levels of both O6-MeG and O6-CMG adducts in MGMT-inhibited cells, with O6-CMG as the more abundant DNA lesion. Interestingly, MGMT inhibition did not result in higher levels of AZA-induced DNA strand breaks in spite of elevated DNA adduct levels. In contrast, MGMT inhibition significantly increased DNA strand break formation after exposure to temozolomide (TMZ), a drug that exclusively generates O6-MeG adducts. In line with this finding, the viability of the cells was moderately reduced by TMZ upon MGMT inhibition, whereas no clear effect was observed in cells treated with AZA. In conclusion, our study clearly shows that O6-CMG is repaired by MGMT in HCEC, thereby suggesting that MGMT might play an important role as a tumor suppressor in diet-mediated colorectal cancer.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809063

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Severely symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with lung inflammation, pneumonia, and respiratory failure, thereby raising concerns of elevated risk of COVID-19-associated mortality among lung cancer patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into lung cells. The single-cell expression landscape of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung cancer patients remains unknown. We sought to delineate single-cell expression profiles of ACE2 and other SARS-CoV-2-related genes in pulmonary tissues of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) patients. We examined the expression levels and cellular distribution of ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2-priming proteases TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 in 5 LUADs and 14 matched normal tissues by single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis. scRNA-seq of 186,916 cells revealed epithelial-specific expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and TMPRSS4. Analysis of 70,030 LUAD- and normal-derived epithelial cells showed that ACE2 levels were highest in normal alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells and that TMPRSS2 was expressed in 65% of normal AT2 cells. Conversely, the expression of TMPRSS4 was highest and most frequently detected (75%) in lung cells with malignant features. ACE2-positive cells co-expressed genes implicated in lung pathobiology, including COPD-associated HHIP, and the scavengers CD36 and DMBT1. Notably, the viral scavenger DMBT1 was significantly positively correlated with ACE2 expression in AT2 cells. We describe normal and tumor lung epithelial populations that express SARS-CoV-2 receptor and proteases, as well as major host defense genes, thus comprising potential treatment targets for COVID-19 particularly among lung cancer patients.

9.
J Cell Biol ; 220(6)2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851958

RESUMO

It is well established that short telomeres activate an ATM-driven DNA damage response that leads to senescence in terminally differentiated cells. However, technical limitations have hampered our understanding of how telomere shortening is signaled in human stem cells. Here, we show that telomere attrition induces ssDNA accumulation (G-strand) at telomeres in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), but not in their differentiated progeny. This led to a unique role for ATR in the response of hPSCs to telomere shortening that culminated in an extended S/G2 cell cycle phase and a longer period of mitosis, which was associated with aneuploidy and mitotic catastrophe. Loss of p53 increased resistance to death, at the expense of increased mitotic abnormalities in hPSCs. Taken together, our data reveal an unexpected dominant role of ATR in hPSCs, combined with unique cell cycle abnormalities and, ultimately, consequences distinct from those observed in their isogenic differentiated counterparts.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Mitose , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/patologia , Telômero/fisiologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Aneuploidia , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Dano ao DNA , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5115, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664422

RESUMO

Recent hypotheses propose that the human placenta and chorioamniotic membranes (CAMs) experience telomere length (TL)-mediated senescence. These hypotheses are based on mean TL (mTL) measurements, but replicative senescence is triggered by short and dysfunctional telomeres, not mTL. We measured short telomeres by a vanguard method, the Telomere shortest length assay, and telomere-dysfunction-induced DNA damage foci (TIF) in placentas and CAMs between 18-week gestation and at full-term. Both the placenta and CAMs showed a buildup of short telomeres and TIFs, but not shortening of mTL from 18-weeks to full-term. In the placenta, TIFs correlated with short telomeres but not mTL. CAMs of preterm birth pregnancies with intra-amniotic infection showed shorter mTL and increased proportions of short telomeres. We conclude that the placenta and probably the CAMs undergo TL-mediated replicative aging. Further research is warranted whether TL-mediated replicative aging plays a role in all preterm births.

11.
Chromosoma ; 130(1): 61-73, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555479

RESUMO

Telomeres are repetitive non-coding nucleotide sequences (TTAGGGn) capping the ends of chromosomes. Progressive telomere shortening with increasing age has been associated with shifts in gene expression through models such as the telomere position effect (TPE), which suggests reduced interference of the telomere with transcriptional activity of increasingly more distant genes. A modification of the TPE model, referred to as Telomere Position Effects over Long Distance (TPE-OLD), explains why some genes 1-10 MB from a telomere are still affected by TPE, but genes closer to the telomere are not. Here, we describe an imaging approach to systematically examine the occurrence of TPE-OLD at the single cell level. Compared to existing methods, the pipeline allows rapid analysis of hundreds to thousands of cells, which is necessary to establish TPE-OLD as an acceptable mechanism of gene expression regulation. We examined two human genes, ISG15 and TERT, for which TPE-OLD has been described before. For both genes, we found less interaction with the telomere on the same chromosome in old cells compared to young cells; and experimentally elongated telomeres in old cells rescued the level of telomere interaction for both genes. However, the dependency of the interactions on the age progression from young to old cells varied. One model for the differences between ISG15 and TERT may relate to the markedly distinct interstitial telomeric sequence arrangement in the two genes. Overall, this provides a strong rationale for the role of telomere length shortening in the regulation of gene expression.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Encurtamento do Telômero , Telômero , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Ubiquitinas/genética , Ubiquitinas/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Cell ; 39(1): 109-121.e5, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338427

RESUMO

Tumors with defective mismatch repair (dMMR) are responsive to immunotherapy because of dMMR-induced neoantigens and activation of the cGAS-STING pathway. While neoantigens result from the hypermutable nature of dMMR, it is unknown how dMMR activates the cGAS-STING pathway. We show here that loss of the MutLα subunit MLH1, whose defect is responsible for ~50% of dMMR cancers, results in loss of MutLα-specific regulation of exonuclease 1 (Exo1) during DNA repair. This leads to unrestrained DNA excision by Exo1, which causes increased single-strand DNA formation, RPA exhaustion, DNA breaks, and aberrant DNA repair intermediates. Ultimately, this generates chromosomal abnormalities and the release of nuclear DNA into the cytoplasm, activating the cGAS-STING pathway. In this study, we discovered a hitherto unknown MMR mechanism that modulates genome stability and has implications for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/deficiência , Neoplasias/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Simples , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Reparo do DNA , DNA de Cadeia Simples/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteína de Replicação A/metabolismo
14.
Cancer Cell ; 38(3): 400-411.e6, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619407

RESUMO

Telomerase is an attractive target for anti-tumor therapy as it is almost universally expressed in cancer cells. Here, we show that treatment with a telomere-targeting drug, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG), leads to tumor regression through innate and adaptive immune-dependent responses in syngeneic and humanized mouse models of telomerase-expressing cancers. 6-thio-dG treatment causes telomere-associated DNA damages that are sensed by dendritic cells (DCs) and activates the host cytosolic DNA sensing STING/interferon I pathway, resulting in enhanced cross-priming capacity of DCs and tumor-specific CD8+ T cell activation. Moreover, 6-thio-dG overcomes resistance to checkpoint blockade in advanced cancer models. Our results unveil how telomere stress increases innate sensing and adaptive anti-tumor immunity and provide strong rationales for combining telomere-targeting therapy with immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Telômero/genética , Tionucleosídeos/farmacologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Desoxiguanosina/uso terapêutico , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Telomerase/metabolismo , Telômero/enzimologia , Tionucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/genética , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 136: 52-68, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653773

RESUMO

Only one class of targeted agents (anti-GD2 antibodies) has been incorporated into front-line therapy for neuroblastoma since the 1980s. The Neuroblastoma New Drug Development Strategy (NDDS) initiative commenced in 2012 to accelerate the development of new drugs for neuroblastoma. Advances have occurred, with eight of nine high-priority targets being evaluated in paediatric trials including anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors being investigated in front-line, but significant challenges remain. This article reports the conclusions of the second NDDS forum, which expanded across the Atlantic to further develop the initiative. Pre-clinical and clinical data for 40 genetic targets and mechanisms of action were prioritised and drugs were identified for early-phase trials. Strategies to develop drugs targeting TERT, telomere maintenance, ATRX, alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), BRIP1 and RRM2 as well as direct targeting of MYCN are high priority and should be championed for drug discovery. Promising pre-clinical data suggest that targeting of ALT by ATM or PARP inhibition may be potential strategies. Drugs targeting CDK2/9, CDK7, ATR and telomere maintenance should enter paediatric clinical development rapidly. Optimising the response to anti-GD2 by combinations with chemotherapy, targeted agents and other immunological targets are crucial. Delivering this strategy in the face of small patient cohorts, genomically defined subpopulations and a large number of permutations of combination trials, demands even greater international collaboration. In conclusion, the NDDS provides an internationally agreed, biologically driven selection of prioritised genetic targets and drugs. Improvements in the strategy for conducting trials in neuroblastoma will accelerate bringing these new drugs more rapidly to front-line therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Congressos como Assunto , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/organização & administração , Descoberta de Drogas/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/tendências , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/organização & administração , Pediatria/tendências , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências
16.
Respir Investig ; 58(5): 344-354, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586780

RESUMO

Primary cultures of human lung epithelial cells are ideal representatives of normal lung epithelial cells, and while there are certain novel approaches for the long-term culture of lung epithelial cells, the cells eventually undergo irreversible growth arrest, limiting their experimental utility, particularly the ability to widely distribute these cultures and their clonal derivatives to the broader research community. Therefore, the establishment of immortalized normal human lung epithelial cell strains has garnered considerable attention. The number and type of oncogenic changes necessary for the tumorigenic transformation of normal cells could be determined using "normal" cell lines immortalized with the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT). A primary report suggested that LT, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and oncogenic RAS transformed normal lung epithelial cells into tumorigenic cells. Since LT inactivates the tumor suppressors p53 and RB, at least four alterations would be necessary. However, the SV40 small T antigen (ST), a different oncoprotein, was also introduced simultaneously with LT in the above-mentioned study. Furthermore, the possible uncharacterized functions of LT remained largely obscure. Therefore, no definitive conclusion could be arrived in these studies. Subsequent studies used methods that did not involve the use of oncoproteins and revealed that at least five genetic changes were necessary for full tumorigenic transformation. hTERT-immortalized normal human lung epithelial cell lines established without using viral oncoproteins were also used for investigating several aspects of lung cancer, such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the cancer stem cell theory. The use of immortalized normal lung epithelial cell models has improved our understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and these models can serve as valuable research tools.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Pulmão/citologia , Antígenos Virais de Tumores , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Senescência Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Proteínas Oncogênicas , Vírus 40 dos Símios/imunologia , Telomerase , Telômero , Proteínas Virais
17.
J Biol Chem ; 295(32): 11144-11160, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540968

RESUMO

Defective DNA damage response (DDR) signaling is a common mechanism that initiates and maintains the cellular senescence phenotype. Dysfunctional telomeres activate DDR signaling, genomic instability, and cellular senescence, but the links among these events remains unclear. Here, using an array of biochemical and imaging techniques, including a highly regulatable CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to induce DNA double strand breaks specifically in the telomeres, ChIP, telomere immunofluorescence, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), micronuclei imaging, and the telomere shortest length assay (TeSLA), we show that chromosome mis-segregation due to imperfect DDR signaling in response to dysfunctional telomeres creates a preponderance of chromatin fragments in the cytosol, which leads to a premature senescence phenotype. We found that this phenomenon is caused not by telomere shortening, but by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) recognizing cytosolic chromatin fragments and then activating the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and downstream interferon signaling. Significantly, genetic and pharmacological manipulation of cGAS not only attenuated immune signaling, but also prevented premature cellular senescence in response to dysfunctional telomeres. The findings of our study uncover a cellular intrinsic mechanism involving the cGAS-mediated cytosolic self-DNA-sensing pathway that initiates premature senescence independently of telomere shortening.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/genética , Ligases/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Telômero , Ciclo Celular , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008407, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240278

RESUMO

Influenza A viruses are human pathogens with limited therapeutic options. Therefore, it is crucial to devise strategies for the identification of new classes of antiviral medications. The influenza A virus genome is constituted of 8 RNA segments. Two of these viral RNAs are transcribed into mRNAs that are alternatively spliced. The M1 mRNA encodes the M1 protein but is also alternatively spliced to yield the M2 mRNA during infection. M1 to M2 mRNA splicing occurs at nuclear speckles, and M1 and M2 mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm for translation. M1 and M2 proteins are critical for viral trafficking, assembly, and budding. Here we show that gene knockout of the cellular protein NS1-BP, a constituent of the M mRNA speckle-export pathway and a binding partner of the virulence factor NS1 protein, inhibits M mRNA nuclear export without altering bulk cellular mRNA export, providing an avenue to preferentially target influenza virus. We performed a high-content, image-based chemical screen using single-molecule RNA-FISH to label viral M mRNAs followed by multistep quantitative approaches to assess cellular mRNA and cell toxicity. We identified inhibitors of viral mRNA biogenesis and nuclear export that exhibited no significant activity towards bulk cellular mRNA at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the hits is a small molecule that preferentially inhibits nuclear export of a subset of viral and cellular mRNAs without altering bulk cellular mRNA export. These findings underscore specific nuclear export requirements for viral mRNAs and phenocopy down-regulation of the mRNA export factor UAP56. This RNA export inhibitor impaired replication of diverse influenza A virus strains at non-toxic concentrations. Thus, this screening strategy yielded compounds that alone or in combination may serve as leads to new ways of treating influenza virus infection and are novel tools for studying viral RNA trafficking in the nucleus.


Assuntos
Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Núcleo Celular/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Heliyon ; 6(1): e03263, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021935

RESUMO

Purpose: Over 90% of all cancer related deaths are due to metastasis. However, current diagnostic tools can't reliably discriminate between invasive and localized cancers. Patients and methods: In this proof-of-concept study, we employed the embryonic stem cell marker TRA-1-60 (TRA+) to identify TRA + cells within the blood of prostate cancer patients and searched for TRA + cells in men with metastatic and localized cancers. We isolated whole peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 26 metastatic prostate cancer patients, from 13 patients with localized prostate cancer and from 17 healthy controls. Cells were stained for DAPI, CD45 and TRA + by immunofluorescence and imaged by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Imaged-based software was used both to identify TRA + cells, and to analyze CD45 levels in TRA+ and negative cells. Results: We found high numbers of TRA + cells within the blood of metastatic cancer patients, whereas healthy individuals or men with localized prostate cancer showed none or very low numbers of TRA + cells. Further analysis of the CD45 levels of TRA + cells revealed a small population of TRA + cells with almost undetectable CD45 levels that were found frequently in metastatic prostate cancer patients. By excluding CD45 positive cells from the TRA + cell pool, we were able to refine the assay to be highly specific in identifying men with metastatic disease. In fact, the difference of CD45 levels between TRA+ and negative cells was a robust measure to distinguish between men with localized and metastatic prostate cancers in this small patient cohort. Conclusions: The data suggest that metastatic prostate cancer patient have significant numbers of TRA+/CD45low cells which might represent a potential tool for diagnostic assessment in the future.

20.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 929-936, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948943

RESUMO

Cell membrane transporters facilitate the passage of nucleobases and nucleosides for nucleotide synthesis and metabolism, and are important for the delivery of nucleoside analogues used in anticancer drug therapy. Here, we investigated if cell membrane transporters are involved in the cellular uptake of the nucleoside analogue DNA damage mediator 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG). A large panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (73 of 77) were sensitive to 6-thio-dG; only four NSCLC lines were resistant to 6-thio-dG. When analyzed by microarray and RNA sequencing, the resistant NSCLC cell lines clustered together, providing a molecular signature for patients that may not respond to 6-thio-dG. Significant downregulation of solute carrier family 43 A3 (SLC43A3), an equilibrative nucleobase transporter, was identified as a candidate in this molecular resistance signature. High levels of SLC43A3 mRNA predicted sensitivity to 6-thio-dG and therefore SLC43A3 could serve as a promising biomarker for 6-thio-dG sensitivity in patients with NSCLC. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a biomarker of resistance to the telomeric DNA damage mediator 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Tionucleosídeos/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiguanosina/farmacologia , Desoxiguanosina/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Baixo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Tionucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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