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1.
Blood ; 134(20): 1755-1763, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558465

RESUMO

TCRαß+/CD19+ graft depletion effectively prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In the current study, we compared the outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with TCRαß+/CD19+ depletion from matched unrelated donors (MUDs) and mismatched related donors (MMRDs) in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). A total of 98 pediatric patients with various PIDs underwent HSCT with TCRαß+/CD19+ graft depletion from MUDs (n = 75) and MMRDs (n = 23). All patients received a fludarabine-/treosulfan-based conditioning regimen, with 73 also receiving a second alkylating agent. For GVHD prophylaxis, all but 2 received serotherapy (antithymocyte globulin) before HSCT and a short course of posttransplant immunosuppression. Neutrophil and platelet engraftment in both the MUD and MMRD groups occurred on days 14 and 13, respectively. The incidence of secondary graft failure was 0.16 and 0.17 (P = .85), respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grade 2 to 4 was 0.17 in the MUD group and 0.22 in the MMRD group (P = .7). The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia was 0.5 in the MUD group and 0.6 in the MMRD group (P = .35). The frequency of CMV disease was high (17%), and the most common manifestation was retinitis. The kinetics of immune recovery was similar in both groups. The overall survival was 0.86 in the MUD group and 0.87 in the MMRD group (P = .95). In our experience, there was no difference in the outcomes of HSCT performed from MUD and MMRD. Hence, given the immediate availability of donors, in the absence of HLA-identical siblings, HSCT with TCRαß+/CD19+ graft depletion from MMRDs can be considered as the first choice in patients with PID.

2.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278208

RESUMO

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is associated with thrombocytopenia of unclear origin. We investigated real-time cytosolic calcium dynamics, mitochondrial membrane potential and PS exposure in single fibrinogen-bound platelets using confocal microscopy. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome platelets had higher resting calcium levels, more frequent spikes, and their mitochondria more frequently lost membrane potential followed by the PS exposure (in 22.9% of platelets vs 3.9% in controls, P<0.001) after the collapse of the last mitochondria. This phenomenon was inhibited by mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporin A, as well by xestospongin C and lack of extracellular calcium. Thapsigargin by itself caused accelerated cell death in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome platelets. The number of mitochondria was predictive for PS exposure: 33% of platelets from Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients with less than 5 mitochondria exposed PS, while only 12% did among those who had 5 and more. Interestingly, healthy donor platelets with fewer mitochondria also more readily became procoagulant upon PAR1/PAR4 stimulation. Collapse of single mitochondria led to greater cytosolic calcium increase in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome platelets if they had 1-3 mitochondria compared with platelets containing higher numbers. Computer systems biology model of platelet calcium homeostasis showed that smaller platelets with fewer mitochondria could have impaired calcium homeostasis due to higher surface-to-volume ratio and greater metabolic load, respectively. There was correlation (C=0.81,p<0.02) between the mean platelet size and platelet count in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients. We conclude that Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome platelets readily expose PS via mitochondria-dependent necrotic mechanism caused by their smaller size, which could contribute to the development of thrombocytopenia.

3.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285581

RESUMO

In breast cancer, the increased stiffness of the extracellular matrix is a key driver of malignancy. Yet little is known about the epigenomic changes that underlie the tumorigenic impact of extracellular matrix mechanics. Here, we show in a three-dimensional culture model of breast cancer that stiff extracellular matrix induces a tumorigenic phenotype through changes in chromatin state. We found that increased stiffness yielded cells with more wrinkled nuclei and with increased lamina-associated chromatin, that cells cultured in stiff matrices displayed more accessible chromatin sites, which exhibited footprints of Sp1 binding, and that this transcription factor acts along with the histone deacetylases 3 and 8 to regulate the induction of stiffness-mediated tumorigenicity. Just as cell culture on soft environments or in them rather than on tissue-culture plastic better recapitulates the acinar morphology observed in mammary epithelium in vivo, mammary epithelial cells cultured on soft microenvironments or in them also more closely replicate the in vivo chromatin state. Our results emphasize the importance of culture conditions for epigenomic studies, and reveal that chromatin state is a critical mediator of mechanotransduction.

4.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 25(11): 1788-1795, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with very early onset inflammatory bowel diseases (VEO-IBD) often have a refractory and severe disease course. A significant number of described VEO-IBD-causing monogenic disorders can be attributed to defects in immune-related genes. The diagnosis of the underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID) often has critical implications for the treatment of patients with IBD-like phenotypes. METHODS: To identify the molecular etiology in 5 patients from 3 unrelated kindred with IBD-like symptoms, we conducted whole exome sequencing. Immune workup confirmed an underlying PID. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing revealed 3 novel CARMIL2 loss-of-function mutations in our patients. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed reduction of regulatory and effector memory T cells and impaired B cell class switching. The T cell proliferation and activation assays confirmed defective responses to CD28 costimulation, consistent with CARMIL2 deficiency. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights that human CARMIL2 deficiency can manifest with IBD-like symptoms. This example illustrates that early diagnosis of underlying PID is crucial for the treatment and prognosis of children with VEO-IBD.

5.
Stem Cells ; 37(9): 1151-1157, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135093

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular properties of the cell cycle of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is critical for effectively promoting differentiation. Here, we use the Fluorescence Ubiquitin Cell Cycle Indicator system adapted into hPSCs and perform RNA sequencing on cell cycle sorted hPSCs primed and unprimed for differentiation. Gene expression patterns of signaling factors and developmental regulators change in a cell cycle-specific manner in cells primed for differentiation without altering genes associated with pluripotency. Furthermore, we identify an important role for PI3K signaling in regulating the early transitory states of hPSCs toward differentiation. Stem Cells 2019;37:1151-1157.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 97, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder that leads to aneuploidies of different chromosomes in various tissues. Type 1 MVA (MVA1) is caused by mutations in the budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog beta (BUB1B) gene. The main clinical features of MVA1 syndrome are growth and mental retardation, central nervous system anomalies, microcephaly, and predisposition to cancers. There have been no reports of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in MVA patients. RESULTS: We report an 11-year old boy diagnosed with MVA1 syndrome. The BUB1B gene mutations c.498_505delAAACTTTA and c.1288 + 5G > A were detected using the next generation sequencing (NGS) method. The patient presented with cytopenia soon after birth, but remained stable until 9 years of age, when he developed myelodysplastic syndrome associated with monosomy of chromosome 7. Due to severe dependence on blood transfusions, a TCRαß+/CD19+ depleted HSCT was performed from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) using a treosulfan-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. The engraftment occurred, and no severe toxicity was observed soon after the HSCT, but on day + 47, graft rejection was detected. It was followed by prolonged pancytopenia and sepsis with multi-organ Enterococcus faecium infection, which led to the patient's death on day + 156 after HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we demonstrate that RIC HSCT with TCRαß+/CD19+ depletion was well tolerated and resulted in complete hematologic recovery in our MVA1 patient, but, unfortunately, it was followed by rapid graft rejection. This fact needs to be taken into consideration for HSCT in other MVA patients.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Transtornos Cromossômicos/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Instabilidade Cromossômica/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica/fisiologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/terapia , Humanos , Mosaicismo , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
7.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 24, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975992

RESUMO

Studies have established the importance of physical activity and fitness for long-term cardiovascular health, yet limited data exist on the association between objective, real-world large-scale physical activity patterns, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health primarily due to difficulties in collecting such datasets. We present data from the MyHeart Counts Cardiovascular Health Study, wherein participants contributed data via an iPhone application built using Apple's ResearchKit framework and consented to make this data available freely for further research applications. In this smartphone-based study of cardiovascular health, participants recorded daily physical activity, completed health questionnaires, and performed a 6-minute walk fitness test. Data from English-speaking participants aged 18 years or older with a US-registered iPhone who agreed to share their data broadly and who enrolled between the study's launch and the time of the data freeze for this data release (March 10 2015-October 28 2015) are now available for further research. It is anticipated that releasing this large-scale collection of real-world physical activity, fitness, sleep, and cardiovascular health data will enable the research community to work collaboratively towards improving our understanding of the relationship between cardiovascular indicators, lifestyle, and overall health, as well as inform mobile health research best practices.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Exercício , Sono , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Adolescente , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/virologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
10.
Platelets ; : 1-10, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285517

RESUMO

The ability of platelets to carry out their hemostatic function can be impaired in a wide range of inherited and acquired conditions: trauma, surgery, inflammation, pre-term birth, sepsis, hematological malignancies, solid tumors, chemotherapy, autoimmune disorders, and many others. Evaluation of this impairment is vitally important for research and clinical purposes. This problem is particularly pronounced in pediatric patients, where these conditions occur frequently, while blood volume and the choice of blood collection methods could be limited. Here we describe a simple flow cytometry-based screening method of comprehensive whole blood platelet function testing that was validated for a range of pediatric and adult samples (n = 31) in the hematology hospital setting including but not limited to: classic inherited platelet function disorders (Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier, Wiscott-Aldrich, and Hermasky-Pudlak syndromes, MYH9-dependent thrombocytopenia), healthy and pre-term newborns, acute and chronic immune thrombocytopenia, chronic lympholeukemia, effects of therapy on platelet function, etc. The method output includes levels of forward and side scatter, levels of major adhesion and aggregation glycoproteins Ib and IIb-IIIa, active integrins' level based on PAC-1 binding, major alpha-granule component P-selectin, dense granule function based on mepacrine uptake and release, and procoagulant activity quantified as a percentage of annexin V-positive platelets. This analysis is performed for both resting and dual-agonist-stimulated platelets. Preanalytical and analytical variables are provided and discussed. Parameter distribution within the healthy donor population for adults (n = 72) and children (n = 17) is analyzed.

11.
Pediatrics ; 142(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) is recommended for children with complement deficiencies, asplenia, and splenic dysfunction; however, data on the immunogenicity of 4CMenB in these "at-risk" children are missing. METHODS: Participants aged 2 to 17 years in Italy, Spain, Poland, the United Kingdom, and Russia with complement deficiencies, asplenia, or splenic dysfunction received 2 doses of 4CMenB 2 months apart, as did healthy children in the control group. Exogenous and endogenous human complement serum bactericidal activity (SBA) was determined at baseline and 1 month after the second immunization against 4 test strains: H44/76 (assessing vaccine antigen factor H binding protein), 5/99 (Neisserial adhesion A), NZ98/254 (Porin A), and M10713 (Neisserial heparin binding antigen). RESULTS: Of 239 participants (mean age 10.3 years, 45% female), 40 children were complement deficient (9 eculizumab therapy, 4 terminal-chain deficiencies, 27 "other"), 112 children had asplenia or splenic dysfunction (8 congenital asplenia, 8 functional asplenia, 96 splenectomy), and 87 children were in the control group. After immunization, the proportions of complement-deficient participants with exogenous complement SBA titers ≥1:5 were 87% (H44/76), 95% (5/99), 68% (NZ98/254), and 73% (M10713), compared with 97%, 100%, 86%, and 94%, respectively, for asplenic children and 98%, 99%, 83%, and 99% for children in the control group. When testing with endogenous complement, strain-specific bactericidal activity was evident in only 1 eculizumab-treated participant and 1 terminal chain complement-deficient participant. CONCLUSIONS: 4CMenB administration is similarly immunogenic in healthy children and those with asplenia or splenic dysfunction. The significance of the trend to lower responses of SBA titers in complement-deficient children (especially those with terminal chain complement deficiency or those on eculizumab therapy) must be determined by ongoing surveillance for vaccine failures.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 378(20): 1908-1919, 2018 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency (also known as the hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome), and the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) are monogenic autoinflammatory diseases characterized by recurrent fever flares. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with genetically confirmed colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency, or TRAPS at the time of a flare to receive 150 mg of canakinumab subcutaneously or placebo every 4 weeks. Patients who did not have a resolution of their flare received an add-on injection of 150 mg of canakinumab. The primary outcome was complete response (resolution of flare and no flare until week 16). In the subsequent phase up to week 40, patients who had a complete response underwent a second randomization to receive canakinumab or placebo every 8 weeks. Patients who underwent a second randomization and had a subsequent flare and all other patients received open-label canakinumab. RESULTS: At week 16, significantly more patients receiving canakinumab had a complete response than those receiving placebo: 61% vs. 6% of patients with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever (P<0.001), 35% versus 6% of those with mevalonate kinase deficiency (P=0.003), and 45% versus 8% of those with TRAPS (P=0.006). The inclusion of patients whose dose was increased to 300 mg every 4 weeks yielded a complete response in 71% of those with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever, 57% of those with mevalonate kinase deficiency, and 73% of those with TRAPS. After week 16, an extended dosing regimen (every 8 weeks) maintained disease control in 46% of patients with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever, 23% of those with mevalonate kinase deficiency, and 53% of those with TRAPS. Among patients who received canakinumab, the most frequently reported adverse events were infections (173.3, 313.5, and 148.0 per 100 patient-years among patients with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever, those with mevalonate kinase deficiency, and those with TRAPS, respectively), with a few being serious infections (6.6, 13.7, and 0.0 per 100 patient-years). CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, canakinumab was effective in controlling and preventing flares in patients with colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency, and TRAPS. (Funded by Novartis; CLUSTER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02059291 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6451, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691431

RESUMO

We performed a large genome-wide association study to discover genetic variation associated with muscular strength, and to evaluate shared genetic aetiology with and causal effects of muscular strength on several health indicators. In our discovery analysis of 223,315 individuals, we identified 101 loci associated with grip strength (P <5 × 10-8). Of these, 64 were associated (P < 0.01 and consistent direction) also in the replication dataset (N = 111,610). eQTL analyses highlighted several genes known to play a role in neuro-developmental disorders or brain function, and the results from meta-analysis showed a significant enrichment of gene expression of brain-related transcripts. Further, we observed inverse genetic correlations of grip strength with cardiometabolic traits, and positive correlation with parents' age of death and education. We also showed that grip strength had shared biological pathways with indicators of frailty, including cognitive performance scores. By use of Mendelian randomization, we provide evidence that higher grip strength is protective of both coronary heart disease (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.79, P < 0.0001) and atrial fibrillation (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.62-0.90, P = 0.003). In conclusion, our results show shared genetic aetiology between grip strength, and cardiometabolic and cognitive health; and suggest that maintaining muscular strength could prevent future cardiovascular events.

14.
J Forensic Sci ; 63(6): 1841-1845, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660126

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) enables additional DNA forensic capabilities not attainable using traditional STR panels. However, the inclusion of sets of loci selected for mixture analysis, extended kinship, phenotype, biogeographic ancestry prediction, etc., can result in large panel sizes that are difficult to analyze in a rapid fashion. GrigoraSNP was developed to address the allele-calling bottleneck that was encountered when analyzing SNP panels with more than 5000 loci using HTS. GrigoraSNPs uses a MapReduce parallel data processing on multiple computational threads plus a novel locus-identification hashing strategy leveraging target sequence tags. This tool optimizes the SNP calling module of the DNA analysis pipeline with runtimes that scale linearly with the number of HTS reads. Results are compared with SNP analysis pipelines implemented with SAMtools and GATK. GrigoraSNPs removes a computational bottleneck for processing forensic samples with large HTS SNP panels.

15.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(7): 1432-1440, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550630

RESUMO

Our initial experience with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 12) or a haploidentical related donor (n = 6) with T cell receptor (TCR)αß+/CD19+ graft depletion in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (n = 18) showed a dramatic decrease in the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and transplantation-related mortality, with an increased overall survival (OS) of 88.9%. Unfortunately, the treatment was associated with mixed myeloid donor chimerism and secondary graft dysfunction (severe thrombocytopenia, n = 2; graft rejection, n = 5). To improve the outcome, we hypothesized that the addition of G-CSF and plerixafor to the conditioning chemotherapy would result in more complete donor stem cell engraftment. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03019809). A study group of patients with WAS (n = 16) underwent TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted HSCT (MUD, n = 6; haploidentical, n = 10). The conditioning regimen was treosulfan-fludarabine-rabbit antithymocyte globulin-melphalan (or thiophosphamide in 1 patient) with G-CSF (10 µg/kg/day for 5 days starting on day -8) and plerixafor (240 µg/kg/day for 3 days starting on day -6). The clinical outcomes in this study were compared to those in a historical dataset (n = 18). No patients had grade III/IV acute GVHD in either the study or the historical control group. Importantly, in the patients with WAS, there was no statistical significance in OS between those who underwent HSCT from haploidentical donors and those who underwent HSCT from MUDs (93.8% versus 88.5%; P = .612). All patients in the study group had full donor chimerism in whole blood and in the CD3+ compartments. The OS was 93.8%, and there were no cases of graft dysfunction. This study demonstrates the efficacy of adding G-CSF/plerixafor to the conditioning regimen before HSCT with TCRαß+/C D19+ graft depletion in patients with WAS.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 1036-1049.e5, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy x-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by FOXP3 mutations. Because it is a rare disease, the natural history and response to treatments, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and immunosuppression (IS), have not been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVE: This analysis sought to evaluate disease onset, progression, and long-term outcome of the 2 main treatments in long-term IPEX survivors. METHODS: Clinical histories of 96 patients with a genetically proven IPEX syndrome were collected from 38 institutions worldwide and retrospectively analyzed. To investigate possible factors suitable to predict the outcome, an organ involvement (OI) scoring system was developed. RESULTS: We confirm neonatal onset with enteropathy, type 1 diabetes, and eczema. In addition, we found less common manifestations in delayed onset patients or during disease evolution. There is no correlation between the site of mutation and the disease course or outcome, and the same genotype can present with variable phenotypes. HSCT patients (n = 58) had a median follow-up of 2.7 years (range, 1 week-15 years). Patients receiving chronic IS (n = 34) had a median follow-up of 4 years (range, 2 months-25 years). The overall survival after HSCT was 73.2% (95% CI, 59.4-83.0) and after IS was 65.1% (95% CI, 62.8-95.8). The pretreatment OI score was the only significant predictor of overall survival after transplant (P = .035) but not under IS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving chronic IS were hampered by disease recurrence or complications, impacting long-term disease-free survival. When performed in patients with a low OI score, HSCT resulted in disease resolution with better quality of life, independent of age, donor source, or conditioning regimen.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 704-717.e5, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) cause susceptibility to a range of infections, autoimmunity, immune dysregulation, and combined immunodeficiency. Disease manifestations can be mild or severe and life-threatening. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in some patients with more severe symptoms to treat and cure the disorder. However, the outcome of HSCT for this disorder is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We sought to aggregate the worldwide experience of HSCT in patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations and to assess outcomes, including donor engraftment, overall survival, graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related complications. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations who had undergone HSCT using a variety of conditioning regimens and donor sources. Retrospective data collection allowed the outcome of transplantation to be assessed. In vitro functional testing was performed to confirm that each of the identified STAT1 variants was in fact a GOF mutation. RESULTS: Primary donor engraftment in this cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations was 74%, and overall survival was only 40%. Secondary graft failure was common (50%), and posttransplantation event-free survival was poor (10% by 100 days). A subset of patients had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis before transplant, contributing to their poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that HSCT for patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations is curative but has significant risk of secondary graft failure and death.

18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 12(1): 167, 2017 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29047407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary recurrent fevers (HRF) are a group of rare monogenic diseases leading to recurrent inflammatory flares. A large number of variants has been described for the four genes associated with the best known HRF, namely MEFV, NLRP3, MVK, TNFRSF1A. The Infevers database ( http://fmf.igh.cnrs.fr/ISSAID/infevers ) is a large international registry collecting variants reported in these genes. However, no genotype-phenotype associations are provided, but only the clinical phenotype of the first patient(s) described for each mutation. The aim of this study is to develop a registry of genotype-phenotype associations observed in patients with HRF, enrolled and validated in the Eurofever registry. RESULTS: Genotype-phenotype associations observed in all the patients with HRF enrolled in the Eurofever registry were retrospectively analyzed. For autosomal dominant diseases (CAPS and TRAPS), all mutations were individually analyzed. For autosomal recessive diseases (FMF and MKD), homozygous and heterozygous combinations were described. Mean age of onset, disease course (recurrent or chronic), mean duration of fever episodes, clinical manifestations associated with fever episodes, atypical manifestations, complications and response to treatment were also studied. Data observed in 751 patients (346 FMF, 133 CAPS, 114 MKD, 158 TRAPS) included in the Eurofever registry and validated by experts were summarized in Tables. A total of 149 variants were described: 46 TNFRSF1A and 27 NLRP3 variants, as well as various combinations of 48 MVK and 28 MEFV variants were available. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a potentially useful tool for physicians dealing with HRF, namely a registry of genotype-phenotype associations for patients enrolled in the Eurofever registry. This tool is complementary to the Infevers database and will be available at the Eurofever and Infevers websites.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Sistema de Registros , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Front Immunol ; 8: 685, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28952612

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) have been isolated from primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients exposed to oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Patients may excrete poliovirus strains for months or years; the excreted viruses are frequently highly divergent from the parental OPV and have been shown to be as neurovirulent as wild virus. Thus, these patients represent a potential reservoir for transmission of neurovirulent polioviruses in the post-eradication era. In support of WHO recommendations to better estimate the prevalence of poliovirus excreters among PIDs and characterize genetic evolution of these strains, 635 patients including 570 with primary antibody deficiencies and 65 combined immunodeficiencies were studied from 13 OPV-using countries. Two stool samples were collected over 4 days, tested for enterovirus, and the poliovirus positive samples were sequenced. Thirteen patients (2%) excreted polioviruses, most for less than 2 months following identification of infection. Five (0.8%) were classified as iVDPVs (only in combined immunodeficiencies and mostly poliovirus serotype 2). Non-polio enteroviruses were detected in 30 patients (4.7%). Patients with combined immunodeficiencies had increased risk of delayed poliovirus clearance compared to primary antibody deficiencies. Usually, iVDPV was detected in subjects with combined immunodeficiencies in a short period of time after OPV exposure, most for less than 6 months. Surveillance for poliovirus excretion among PID patients should be reinforced until polio eradication is certified and the use of OPV is stopped. Survival rates among PID patients are improving in lower and middle income countries, and iVDPV excreters are identified more frequently. Antivirals or enhanced immunotherapies presently in development represent the only potential means to manage the treatment of prolonged excreters and the risk they present to the polio endgame.

20.
Front Immunol ; 8: 807, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a combined primary immunodeficiency with DNA repair defect, microcephaly, and other phenotypical features. It predominantly occurs in Slavic populations that have a high frequency of carriers with the causative NBN gene c.657_661del5 mutation. Due to the rarity of the disease in the rest of the world, studies of NBS patients are few. Here, we report a prospective study of a cohort of Russian NBS patients. METHODS: 35 Russian NBS patients of ages 1-19 years, referred to our Center between years 2012 and 2016, were prospectively studied. RESULTS: Despite the fact that in 80% of the patients microcephaly was diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter, the average delay of NBS diagnosis was 6.5 years. Though 80% of the patients had laboratory signs of immunodeficiency, only 51% of the patients experienced significant infections. Autoimmune complications including interstitial lymphocytic lung disease and skin granulomas were noted in 34%, malignancies-in 57% of the patients. T-cell excision circle (TREC)/kappa-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) levels were low in the majority of patients studied. Lower KREC levels correlated with autoimmune and oncological complications. Fifteen patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 10 of them were alive and well, with good graft function. Three patients in the HSCT group and five non-transplanted patients died; tumor progression being the main cause of death. The probability of the overall survival since NBS diagnosis was 0.76 in the HSCT group and 0.3 in the non-transplanted group. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings of low TRECs in most NBS patients, independent of their age, TREC detection can be potentially useful for detection of NBS patients during neonatal screening. KREC concentration can be used as a prognostic marker of disease severity. HSCT is a viable treatment option in NBS and should be especially considered in patients with low KREC numbers early on, before development of life-threatening complications.

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