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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(46): 15791-15803, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285448

RESUMO

The ensemble emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots are broader than achievable spectra of cadmium- and lead-based quantum dots, despite similar single-particle line widths and significant efforts invested in the improvement of synthetic protocols. We seek to explain the origin of persistently broad ensemble emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots by investigating the nature of the electronic states responsible for luminescence. We identify a correlation between red-shifted emission spectra and anomalous broadening of the excitation spectra of luminescent InP colloids, suggesting a trap-associated emission pathway in highly emissive core-shell quantum dots. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments find that electrons are largely untrapped on photoluminescence relevant time scales pointing to emission from recombination of localized holes with free electrons. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy on InP quantum dots reveals multiple emissive states and increased electron-phonon coupling associated with hole localization. These localized hole states near the valence band edge are hypothesized to arise from incomplete surface passivation and structural disorder associated with lattice defects. We confirm the presence and effect of lattice disorder by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman scattering measurements. Participation of localized electronic states that are associated with various classes of lattice defects gives rise to phonon-coupled defect related emission. These findings explain the origins of the persistently broad emission spectra of colloidal InP quantum dots and suggest future strategies to narrow ensemble emission lines comparable to what is observed for cadmium-based materials.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(8): 1900-1906, 2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589949

RESUMO

Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are commonly grown with a shell of a second semiconductor material to obtain desired physical properties, such as increased photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the growth of a lattice-mismatched shell results in strain within the nanocrystal, and this strain has the potential to produce crystalline defects. Here, we study CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods as a model system to investigate the influence of core size and shape on the formation of stacking faults in the nanocrystal. Using a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and pair-distribution-function analysis of synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that growth of the CdS shell on smaller, spherical CdSe cores results in relatively small strain and few stacking faults. By contrast, growth of the shell on larger, prolate spheroidal cores leads to significant strain in the CdS lattice, resulting in a high density of stacking faults.

3.
ACS Nano ; 10(6): 5769-81, 2016 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27203222

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor-polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I∥/I⊥ = 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

4.
ACS Nano ; 9(10): 9475-85, 2015 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302368

RESUMO

There have been multiple demonstrations of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing using colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. However, it has been proven difficult to achieve low thresholds suitable for practical use of nanocrystals as gain media. Low-threshold blue ASE and lasing from nanocrystals is an even more challenging task. Here, we show that colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) with electronic structure of quantum wells can produce ASE in the red, yellow, green, and blue regions of the visible spectrum with low thresholds and high gains. In particular, for blue-emitting NPLs, the ASE threshold is 50 µJ/cm(2), lower than any reported value for nanocrystals. We then demonstrate red, yellow, green, and blue lasing using NPLs with different thicknesses. We find that the lateral size of NPLs does not show any strong effect on the Auger recombination rates and, correspondingly, on the ASE threshold or gain saturation. This observation highlights the qualitative difference of multiexciton dynamics in CdSe NPLs and other quantum-confined CdSe materials, such as quantum dots and rods. Our measurements of the gain bandwidth and gain lifetime further support the prospects of colloidal NPLs as solution-processed optical gain materials.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/química , Coloides/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Compostos de Selênio/química , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Medições Luminescentes , Pontos Quânticos/ultraestrutura
5.
Nano Lett ; 14(5): 2772-7, 2014 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24773282

RESUMO

The use of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals for optical amplification and lasing has been limited by the need for high input power densities. Here we show that colloidal nanoplatelets produce amplified spontaneous emission with thresholds as low as 6 µJ/cm(2) and gain as high as 600 cm(-1), both a significant improvement over colloidal nanocrystals; in addition, gain saturation occurs at pump fluences 2 orders of magnitude higher than the threshold. We attribute this exceptional performance to large optical cross-sections, slow Auger recombination rates, and narrow ensemble emission line widths.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 46(33): 6090-2, 2010 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20652192

RESUMO

A pi-extended porphyrin possessing two anchoring groups has been synthesized and successfully applied to dye-sensitized solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 5.5%, rendering it comparable to the performance of N719-sensitized solar cells under the conditions employed here.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 132(13): 4580-2, 2010 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20230034

RESUMO

Nickel bis(dicarbollide) is used as a fast, one-electron outer sphere redox couple in dye-sensitized solar cells. Device performances with this anionic shuttle are investigated with different electrolyte concentrations and additives, using only 0.030 M of the Ni(III) bis(dicarbollide) to efficiently regenerate the ruthenium dye. Atomic layer deposition of Al(2)O(3) on the nanoparticulate TiO(2) photoanodes is further used to improve device performances, increasing current densities almost 2-fold and attaining power conversion efficiencies approximately 10x greater than its metallocene analogue, ferrocene/ferrocenium. Open-circuit voltage decay is used to probe the kinetics of the Ni(III)/(IV) bis(dicarbollide) redox couple, and electron interception is found to be approximately 10(3)x slower than ferrocene/ferrocenium, explaining the large discrepancy in open-circuit voltage potentials between these two redox shuttles.

9.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(10): 3384-90, 2010 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20178352

RESUMO

We report direct measurements of the excess polarizability volumes of butadiyne-bridged zinc porphyrin dimers at singly beta-to-beta (1Zn) and doubly beta-to-beta (2Zn) positions using the transient dc photoconductivity (TDCP) technique. The excess polarizability volumes of the singlet exciton for 1Zn and 2Zn are 110 and 270 A(3), respectively, while those of the triplet exciton are approximately 100 A(3) for both dimers. Our measurements suggest that the singlet exciton is mainly localized on one porphyrin subunit for 1Zn, similar to the case for the porphyrin monomer. While the exciton is fully delocalized on two porphyrin subunits in the case of meso-to-meso linked dimer (3Zn), the extent of exciton localization/delocalization for doubly beta-to-beta linked dimer lies between those of singly beta-to-beta and meso-to-meso linked dimers. Electronic structure calculations show that the dramatically different extents of exciton localization/delocalization are the results of frontier orbital coefficients being small at beta positions but large at meso positions. Two butadiyne linkages between the porphyrins at beta positions (2Zn) clearly facilitate electronic communication between the two porphyrin subunits by virtue of stabilization of cumulenic charge resonance structures through enforced planarity.


Assuntos
Alquinos/química , Dimerização , Elétrons , Porfirinas/química , Absorção , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Fenômenos Ópticos , Fótons , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 46(4): 547-9, 2010 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20062857

RESUMO

Photoinduced electron transfer in a self-assembled supramolecular ladder structure comprising oligomeric porphyrin rails and ligated dipyridyltetrazine rungs was characterized by transient absorption spectroscopy and transient direct current photoconductivity to be mainly from an oligomer (rail) to the center of a terminal tetrazine (rung), with the remaining hole being delocalized on the oligomer and subsequent charge recombination in 0.19 ns.

11.
Langmuir ; 26(3): 1401-4, 2010 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19911802

RESUMO

Two porphyrin-based dyes with carboxylic acid tethers of differing acidity in both protonated and deprotonated forms were examined on ZnO nanotube electrodes. All of the dyes have similar surface coverage, but only the more acidic dye in the acid form injects electrons well; this dye is the only one that corrodes the ZnO. In control experiments on TiO(2) nanoparticle electrodes, both dyes load and inject in protonated and deprotonated forms. These results are consistent with a requirement that the dye must partially corrode the ZnO surface in order for efficient injection to occur. Alternatively, it may possibly point to a coupling of electron injection to proton uptake.

12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 11(38): 8586-91, 2009 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19774291

RESUMO

Solvent-induced excited-state configuration mixing in a Pt(II) diimine chromophore with phenylene ethynylene containing acetylide ligands, [Pt((t)Bu2bpy)(PE3)2] (1), was characterized by nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and transient dc photoconductivity (TDCP). The mixing is a result of closely spaced triplet charge transfer (3CT) and intraligand-localized (3IL) triplet energy levels that are finely tuned with solvent polarity as ascertained by their parent model chromophores [Pt((t)Bu2bpy)(PE1)2] (2) and [Pt(P2)(PE3)2] (3), respectively. The absorption difference spectrum of the mixed triplet state is dramatically different from those of the 3CT and 3IL state model chromophores. The 3CT, 3IL and configuration-mixed triplet states led to distinct TDCP signals. The TDCP response is of negative polarity for 3CT excited states but of positive polarity for 3IL excited states. TDCP transients for 1 in mixed solvents are a combination of signals from the 3IL and 3CT states, with the signal magnitude depending on the polarity of solvent composition. The fraction of 3CT state character in the configurationally mixed excited state was quantified by TDCP to be approximately 0.24 in pure benzene, while it decreased to approximately 0.05 in 20 : 80 (v : v) benzene-CH2Cl2. The charge transfer fraction appears to increase slightly to approximately 0.11 in the lower polarity 20 : 80 n-hexane-CH2Cl2 medium. TDCP is shown to be a useful tool for the identification of the lowest excited state in electrically neutral metal-organic chromophores.

13.
J Phys Chem A ; 113(29): 8182-6, 2009 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19569676

RESUMO

Solution-phase transient dc photoconductivity (TDCP) measurements are used to address the question of exciton localization/delocalization in strongly coupled oligomeric porphyrins and in well-defined, higher-order assemblies of oligomers (ladder and prism assemblies). The approach used is determination of the excited-state excess polarizability volume, Delta alpha(V)--a quantity known to report on exciton delocalization. The measurements reveal for the oligomers that singlet excitons are substantially delocalized but that triplet excitons are much more localized. For each of the two higher-order assemblies, the measurements reveal that excitons are transiently confined to individual oligomeric subunits rather than being delocalized over the entire assembly.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 111(29): 6832-42, 2007 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17518452

RESUMO

The effects of anchoring groups on electron injection from adsorbate to nanocrystalline thin films were investigated by comparing injection kinetics through carboxylate versus phosphonate groups to TiO2 and SnO2. In the first pair of molecules, Re(LA)(CO)3Cl (ReC1A) and Re(Lp)(CO)3Cl (ReC1P), [LA=2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-bis-CH2-COOH, Lp=2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-bis-CH2-PO3H2], the anchoring groups were insulated from the bipyridine ligand by a CH2 group. In the second pair of molecules, Ru(dcbpyH2)2(NCS)2 (RuN3) and Ru(bpbpyH2)2(NCS)2 (RuN3P), [dcbpy=2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-biscarboxylic acid, bpbpy=2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-bisphosphonic acid], the anchoring groups were directly connected to the bipyridine ligands. The injection kinetics, as measured by subpicosecond IR absorption spectroscopy, showed that electron injection rates from ReC1P to both TiO2 and SnO2 were faster than those from ReC1A. The injection rates from RuN3 and RuN3P to SnO2 films were similar. On TiO2, the injection kinetics from RuN3 and RuN3P were biphasic: carboxylate group enhances the rate of the <100 fs component, but reduces the rate of the slower components. To provide insight into the effect of the anchoring groups, the electronic structures of Re-bipyridyl-Ti model clusters containing carboxylate and phosphonate anchoring groups and with and without a CH2 spacer were computed using density functional theory. With the CH2 spacer, the phosphonate group led to a stronger electronic coupling between bpy and Ti center than the carboxylate group, which accounted for the faster injection from ReC1P than ReC1A. When the anchoring groups were directly connected to the bpy ligand without the CH2 spacer, such as in RuN3 and RuN3P, their effects were 2-fold: the carboxylate group enhanced the electronic coupling of bpy pi* with TiO2 and lowered the energy of the bpy orbital. How these competing factors led to different effects on TiO2 and SnO2 and on different components of the biphasic injection kinetics were discussed.

15.
J Phys Chem B ; 111(24): 6903-12, 2007 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17518489

RESUMO

Factors that control photoinduced interfacial electron transfer (ET) between molecular adsorbates and semiconductor nanoparticles have been intensely investigated in recent years. In this work, the solvent dependence of interfacial ET was studied by comparing ET rates in dye sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline films in different solvent environments. Photoinduced ET rates from Re(LA)(CO)3Cl [LA=dcbpy=4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine] (ReC1A) to TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films in air, pH buffer, MeOH, EtOH, and DMF were measured by femtosecond transient IR spectroscopy. The ET rates in these solvent environments were noticeably different. However, differences between the rates in pH buffer and nonaqueous solvents (MeOH, EtOH, and DMF) were much smaller than the values expected from much more negative TiO2 conduction band-edge positions in the latter solvents under anhydrous conditions. It was suggested that the presence of adsorbed water, which was evident in FTIR spectra, lowered the band edge of TiO2 in these solvents and reduced the rate differences. The important effect of adsorbed water was verified by comparing two samples of Re(LP)(CO)3Cl [LP=2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-bis-CH2PO(OH)2] sensitized TiO2 in DMF, in which the presence of a trace amount of water was found to significantly increase the injection rate.

16.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(40): 19990-7, 2006 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17020387

RESUMO

The vibrational relaxation dynamics of pseudo-halide anions XCN- (X = O, S, Se) in polar solvents were studied to understand the effect of charge on solute-to-solvent intermolecular energy transfer (IET) and solvent assisted intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) pathways. The T1 relaxation times of the CN stretch in these anions were measured by IR pump/IR probe spectroscopy, in which the 0-1 transition was excited, and the 0-1 and 1-2 transitions were monitored to follow the recovery of the ground state and decay of the excited state. For these anions in five solvents, H2O, D2O, CH3OH, CH3CN, and (CH3)2SO, relaxation rates followed the trend of OCN- > SCN- > SeCN-. For these anions and isotopes of SCN-, the relaxation rate was a factor of a few (2.5-10) higher in H2O than in D2O. To further probe the solvent isotope effect, the relaxation rates of S12C14N-, S13C14N-, and S12C15N- in deuterated methanols (CH3OH, CH3OD, CH3OH, CD3OD) were compared. Relaxation rate was found to be affected by the change of solvent vibrational band at the CN- stretching mode (CD3 symmetric stretch) and lower frequency regions, suggesting the presence of both direct IET and solvent assisted IVR relaxation pathways. The possible relaxation pathways and mechanisms for the observed trends in solute and solvent dependence were discussed.

17.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(11): 5238-44, 2006 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16539453

RESUMO

Photoinduced electron injection dynamics from Ru(dcbpy)(2)(X)(2) (dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine; X(2) = 2SCN(-), 2CN(-), and dcbpy; referenced as RuN3, Ru505, and Ru470) to In(2)O(3) nanocrystalline thin films were studied using ultrafast transient IR absorption spectroscopy. After 532 nm excitation of the adsorbates, the dynamics of electron injection from their excited states to In(2)O(3) were studied by monitoring the IR absorption of the injected electrons in the semiconductor. The injection kinetics were non-single-exponential. For samples exposed to air, the half rise times, defined as the time of 50% injection yield, were 5 +/- 0.8, 85 +/- 20, and >200 ps for RuN3, Ru505, and Ru470, respectively. For samples in pH 2 buffer, the corresponding half time for injection from these complexes became 6 +/- 1, 105 +/- 20, and 18 +/- 5 ps. The injection kinetics from RuN3 to In(2)O(3) was found to be similar to that to SnO(2). These kinetics traces showed a negligible <100 fs injection component and were very different from those to TiO(2). The dependences of the injection kinetics on adsorbate energetics and the nature of the semiconductors are discussed.

18.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(15): 7095-102, 2005 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16851808

RESUMO

Ultrafast transient IR spectroscopy has been used to examine the effect of doping on interfacial electron transfer (ET) dynamics in Re(dpbpy)(CO)(3)Cl (dpbpy = 4,4'-(CH(2)PO(OH)(2))2-2,2'-bipyridine) (ReC1PO(3)) sensitized ATO (Sb:SnO(2)) nanocrystalline thin films. In films consisting of particles with 0%, 2% and 10% Sb dopant, the rates of electron injection from the adsorbate excited state to ATO were independent of and the rates of the recombination increased with the doping level. The observed similar forward electron injection rates were attributed to negligible changes of available accepting states in the conduction band at the doping levels studied. The dependence of the recombination rate on conduction band electron density and a possible mechanism for the recombination process were discussed.

19.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(41): 19345-55, 2005 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16853498

RESUMO

Photoinduced interfacial electron transfer (ET) from molecular adsorbates to semiconductor nanoparticles has been a subject of intense recent interest. Unlike intramolecular ET, the existence of a quasicontinuum of electronic states in the solid leads to a dependence of ET rate on the density of accepting states in the semiconductor, which varies with the position of the adsorbate excited-state oxidation potential relative to the conduction band edge. For metal oxide semiconductors, their conduction band edge position varies with the pH of the solution, leading to pH-dependent interfacial ET rates in these materials. In this work we examine this dependence in Re(L(P))(CO)3Cl (or ReC1P) [L(P) = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-bis-CH2PO(OH)2] and Re(L(A))(CO)3Cl (or ReC1A) [L(A) = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-bis-CH2COOH] sensitized TiO2 and ReC1P sensitized SnO2 nanocrystalline thin films using femtosecond transient IR spectroscopy. ET rates are measured as a function of pH by monitoring the CO stretching modes of the adsorbates and mid-IR absorption of the injected electrons. The injection rate to TiO2 was found to decrease by 1000-fold from pH 0-9, while it reduced by only a factor of a few to SnO2 over a similar pH range. Comparison with the theoretical predictions based on Marcus' theory of nonadiabatic interfacial ET suggests that the observed pH-dependent ET rate can be qualitatively accounted for by considering the change of density of electron-accepting states caused by the pH-dependent conduction band edge position.

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