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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 113571, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181282

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sparganii Rhizoma (SR), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is the rhizome of Sparganium stoloniferum Buch.-Ham. mainly distributed in East Asia. It has been used for eliminating blood stasis, promoting the flow of Qi, removing the retention of undigested food and relieving pain in China for hundreds of years. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review summarizes comprehensive information in traditional clinical application, processing, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and toxicity of SR, in exploring future scientific and therapeutic potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pertinent information was systematically collected from several electronic scientific databases (e.g., Web of Science, PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, Springer, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar), PhD and MS dissertations, and classic Chinese medical books. RESULTS: SR is a gynecological drug which is often used to treat dysmenorrhea, mass in the abdomen, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, and abdominal distension in TCM. Two kinds of processed products of SR are included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, which have better pharmacological effects than the crude herb. Approximately 180 compounds have been identified from SR, including phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, organic acids, alkaloids, steroids, volatile oils, diarylheptanes, etc. The crude extracts and isolated components of SR have been reported to have anti-tumor, antithrombotic, estrogen antagonistic , anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, anti organ fibrosis and other pharmacological activities. SR also has reproductive toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: As an important TCM, SR has been demonstrated by modern pharmacological researches to have significant bioactivities, especially on anti-tumor, antithrombotic, and estrogen antagonistic activities. These activities provide prospects for the development of new drugs and therapeutics for future applications. Nevertheless, quality control and evaluation, in-depth pharmacological mechanism, and toxicological effect of SR require further detailed research.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11280, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647188

RESUMO

Chemical profile and antioxidant potency of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus quinquecostatus Celak. (thyme oils) obtained from Loess Plateau in China had been studied. 130 constituents of thyme oils were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and carvacrol ethyl ether was firstly reported as a new natural product, which has been used as a synthetic flavoring substance with no safety concern. The thyme oils showed the anti-oxidant activity using 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conferred protection against oxidative stress in zebrafish. In addition, a class of carvacrol analogues was found to develop as potential natural antioxidant products of thyme oils from Loess Plateau by the correlation analysis. YL-thyme oil performed the best antioxidant activity in this research, which could be recommended as preferred sources of thyme oils. Furthermore, YL-thyme oil exhibited a potent antioxidant capacity by reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, enhancing the endogenous antioxidant system, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and activation of Keap1/Nrf2 pathway in zebrafish.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 250: 112465, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821851

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma (CR-SR) are the classical herbal couple for activating blood circulation and treating tumor in clinics. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-tumor activity and to clarify the bioactive ingredients of herbal couple CR-SR and the single herbs Curcumae Rhizoma (CR) and Sparganii Rhizoma (SR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The active fractions of CR-SR decoction were fractioned by column chromatography. And isolated compounds were characterized by IR, ESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR techniques. Detecting linear-diarylheptanoids in CR-SR, CR and SR was realized through UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn, based on the fragmentation pathways established in this study, comparison with MS data of isolated compounds and references. The anti-tumor activities of different solvent fractions from CR-SR, CR and SR, as well as isolated ingredients were tested by CCK-8 method. RESULTS: Ultimately, a new compound (1), having a sulfonic acid group at C-3, named demethoxyshogasulfonic acid, along with another structurally similar 17 known linear-diarylheptanoids were isolated. These linear-diarylheptanoids (1-18) were divided into 12 categories based on the differences of substituents at C-3 and C-5 on the straight chain of seven carbons. Six fragmentation pathways were established by summarizing MS data of the 18 isolated compounds collected from UPLC-MS. Based on that, and retention times and MS fragmentation ions, 47 linear-diarylheptanoids were identified in CR-SR and CR, in which 12 linear-diarylheptanoids were also detected in SR. Most importantly, 5 sulfonated linear-diarylheptanoids were new compounds detected in CR and CR-SR. And the biological assay indicated that compounds 1-4 and 12-15 significantly reduced the proliferation and inhibited colony formation of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. CONCLUSION: The new compound (1) exhibited good anti-cancer activity, which suggests that a great effort has to be paid to investigate the bioactivity of sulfonated compounds. The fractions of CR-SR decoction exhibited stronger anti-tumor activities than that of CR and SR against 5 different cancer cells. As for chemical composition, it is the first time to report that diarylheptanoids are in Sparganiaceae and the sulfonated compounds in Zingiberaceae. Moreover, the linear-diarylheptanoids found in SR which being tested to possess good anti-tumor activity, plus those compounds in CR enhance the capacity of CR-SR. It shows importance of TCM compatibility.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Curcuma , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rizoma , Typhaceae , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885669

RESUMO

Objectives: Tannins with complex structures are important plant resources, which are abundant in the genus Terminalia. Various Terminalia species have been playing an important role in traditional medicine system. A systematic scoping review of Terminalia Linn. research literature for tannins was conducted to summarize the structures of tannins and analysis fragmentation pathway characteristics, which could provide references for the structural analysis of tannins from Terminalia Linn. Methods: After an update of the literature search up to September 2018, the terms of Terminalia in all publications were analyzed. Electronic searches were conducted in scifinder and PubMed, and the information from 197 articles in all with regard to the tannin structure study was extracted. Results: The compounds of 82 tannins from the genus Terminalia were reviewed. According to the structural differences, they can be divided into three categories, hydrolysable tannins, condensed tannins, and complex tannins, respectively. The fragmentation pathways of 46 identified tannins were analyzed, and the fragmentation rules of tannins were speculated according to different types. Conclusion: This review has attracted attention to the active substances in this species such as the tannins summarized in further study. How to improve the extraction and purification technology of tannins from genus Terminalia is an urgent problem to be solved.

5.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752141

RESUMO

The tea-like beverage Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Stevia) is popular in China because it reduces blood glucose and has a sweet taste. In this work, a comprehensive quality assessment of Stevia led to the discovery of five phenylethanoid glycosides, namely steviophethanoside (1), cuchiloside (2), salidroside (3), icariside D (4), and tyrosol (5). Of them, compound 1 is a novel compound. Mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy were employed to confirm the absolute configuration. A hydrolytic step with 4 N TFA at 95 °C for 4 h was used to confirm the monosaccharides. In addition, Discovery Studio 4.0 was used to predict the ADME and toxicity activity of compound 1. The results suggested that compound 1 was biocompatible and had poor toxicity, which was verified by rat INS-1 islet ß cells through an MTT assay. Meanwhile, a significant stimulatory effect on INS-1 cells was observed, which indicated a hypoglycemic effect of compound 1. This is the first report that describes a natural, novel, and hypoglycemic phenylethanoid glycoside in Stevia.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Stevia/química , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
6.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487833

RESUMO

Nü-Er-Cha, produced from the leaves of Rhamnus heterophylla Oliv., is known as an herbal tea and used in the treatment of bleeding, irregular menstruation and dysentery. A method was developed for the quality assessment of herbal tea, Nü-Er-Cha, adopting physical parameters, chemical constituents and sensory profiles as various potential factors. Their inner relationship was mined by multivariate statistical analysis tools, and the three factors were integrated by a technique for order preference by a similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approach to comprehensively analyze the characters of Nü-Er-Cha. Viscosity was also introduced to the physical parameter determination besides conductivity, pH and color. Seven common peaks of eight batches of Nü-Er-Cha were marked by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. They were further identified by HPLC mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) as hydroxybenzoic acids and flavanol glycosides. Fifty trained members participated in the sensory evaluation. Significant correlations between total sensory scores and conductivity, viscosity as well as pH were observed, a relatively innovative result for the quality assessment of herbal teas. The common peaks, belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids and flavanol glycosides, were mainly related to the color of infusions and leaves. The result of the TOPSIS analysis showed that S3 and S4 ranked as the top two in the comprehensive quality assessment. This may be related to rhamnetin triglycoside with a galactose/glucose and two rhamnoses, which had a higher peak response in S3 and S4 than that in the other samples. The present study may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship regarding physical properties, chemical composition and sensory profiles, and it may supply ideas for the comprehensive quality assessment of the herbal tea Nü-Er-Cha.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhamnus/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Análise Espectral , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 175: 112791, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398629

RESUMO

The anti-rheumatic fraction (ARF), is responsible for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Dianbaizhu derived from the aerial part of Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis (Ericaceae). The gastrointestinal metabolism of ARF was investigated in vitro through simulating a series of models-gastric juice, intestinal juice, and human intestinal bacteria, analyzed by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MSn. ARF includes three categories: methyl salicylate glycosides, organic acids and the others. The primordial and metabolic components of ARF bio-transformed by simulated gastric fluid (36 and 13), intestinal fluid (29 and 7) and two human fecal bacteria (34 and 34, 40 and 25) were characterized, respectively. The methyl salicylate glycosides, MSTG-B, MSTG-A and gaultherin, with terminal-xylosyl-moiety in sugar chain were always being found in the whole gastrointestinal incubation processing. The metabolites were formed through hydrolysis of ester and glucosidic bond, as well as methylation, hydroxylation, acetylation, sulfation, reduction, decarboxylation, deglycosylation and glucuronidation. The metabolic conversion effect of the four index compounds, MSTG-B, MSTG-A, gaultherin, and chlorogenic acid by human intestinal bacteria exhibited much stronger. Those markers' variation in content-time curve in volunteer A gut flora were faster than that in volunteer B's. These results indicate that ARF is relatively stable in the gastrointestinal tract.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Gaultheria/metabolismo , Intestinos/fisiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ericaceae/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Suco Gástrico/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia
8.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(9): e1900254, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381251

RESUMO

The genus Thymus (Lamiaceae) comprises about 214 species throughout the world, mainly found in North Africa, Europe, and temperate Asia zone. They are traditionally used as food additives and folk medicines. This review comprehensively summarizes information about traditional uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities of this genus and provides recommendations for future investigations. All information was gathered from scientific databases including Google Scholar, Sci-Finder, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and CNKI. Volatile oils are the most concerned constituents of this genus. Flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, tannins, organic acids, terpenoids, and phytosterols were also summarized. This genus plants possessed a variety of activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, analgesic, and antidiabetic. In brief, this review will be helpful to provide valuable data for explorations and create more interests towards Thymus genus in the future.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação
9.
Molecules ; 23(11)2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384480

RESUMO

Tiansi Liquid is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used to treat depression; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the effect of Tiansi Liquid in a rat model of hydrocortisone-induced depression using behavioral testing, 16S rRNA high-throughput pyrosequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of the tryptophan (TRP)⁻kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Tiansi Liquid significantly improved the sucrose preference and exploratory behavior of the depressive rats. The richness of intestinal mucosa samples from the model (depressive) group tended to be higher than that from the control group, while the richness was higher in the Tiansi Liquid-treated group than in the model group. Tiansi Liquid increased the relative abundance of some microbiota (Ruminococcaceae, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group). Metabolomics showed that Tiansi Liquid reduced the levels of tryptophan 2,3 dioxygenase, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, quinoline and the KYN/TRP ratio, while increasing kynurenic acid and 5-HT levels. Correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between the relative abundance of the Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group and quinoline content. Collectively, these findings suggest that Tiansi Liquid ameliorates depressive symptoms in rats by modulating the gut microbiota composition and metabolites in the TRP⁻KYN pathway.


Assuntos
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/microbiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Hidrocortisona/toxicidade , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Triptofano/metabolismo
10.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671816

RESUMO

Thymus quinquecostatus Celak is a species of thyme in China and it used as condiment and herbal medicine for a long time. To set up the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on its 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was introduced to optimize the extraction condition, and the main indicator components were found through an UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn method. The ethanol concentration, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction time on optimum conditions were 42.32%, 1:17.51, and 1.8 h, respectively. 35 components having 12 phenolic acids and 23 flavonoids were unambiguously or tentatively identified both positive and negative modes to employ for the comprehensive analysis in the optimum anti-oxidative part. A simple, reliable, and sensitive HPLC method was performed for the multi-component quantitative analysis of T. quinquecostatus using six characteristic and principal phenolic acids and flavonoids as reference compounds. Furthermore, the chemometrics methods (principal components analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA)) appraised the growing areas and harvest time of this herb closely relative to the quality-controlled. This study provided full-scale qualitative and quantitative information for the quality evaluation of T. quinquecostatus, which would be a valuable reference for further study and development of this herb and related laid the foundation of further study on its pharmacological efficacy.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estresse Oxidativo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Thymus (Planta)/química
11.
Molecules ; 22(8)2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825681

RESUMO

The genus Alnus (Betulaceae) is comprised of more than 40 species. Many species of this genus have a long history of use in folk medicines. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of diarylheptanoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and other compounds. Diarylheptanoids, natural products with a 1,7-diphenylheptane structural skeleton, are the dominant constituents in the genus, whose anticancer effect has been brought into focus. Pure compounds and crude extracts from the genus exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo. This paper compiles 273 naturally occurring compounds from the genus Alnus along with their structures and pharmacological activities, as reported in 138 references.


Assuntos
Alnus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos
12.
Molecules ; 21(10)2016 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783048

RESUMO

Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs) are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3',6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM), presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antidepressivos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cinamatos/química , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27648105

RESUMO

The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

14.
Nat Prod Commun ; 11(6): 869-80, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27534138

RESUMO

Walnuts are seeds with a hard shell from the genus Juglans (J. mandshurica, J. regia, J. sinensis, J. cathayensis, J. nigra and J. sigillata). Walnuts can nourish brain cells to improve human memory. Other parts of the plant are also employed as traditional Chinese medicines. Modern research on Juglans species has been mostly focused on the above-mentioned species, the seeds of which are all called walnuts. Juglans species have diverse chemical constituents, including diarylheptanoids, quinones, polyphenols, flavones and terpenes. The diarylheptanoids and quinones have notable antitumor activity, supplying new lead compounds for preparing antitumor drugs. The potent pain-relieving, antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor activities of these plants are significant. In the review, comprehensive information on the nutritional characteristics, traditional functions, chemical constituents, and biological activities of the Juglans species, together with the seeds used as walnuts is provided to explore their potential and to advance research.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Juglans/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saúde , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27200104

RESUMO

The plants of the genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) have been used as traditional medicinal materials for a long time in China, India, Brazil, and the Southeast Asian countries. They can be used for the treatment of digestive disease, jaundice, and renal calculus. This review discusses the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of Phyllanthus over the past few decades. More than 510 compounds have been isolated, the majority of which are lignins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. The researches of their remarkable antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anticancer activities have become hot topics. More pharmacological screenings and phytochemical investigations are required to support the traditional uses and develop leading compounds.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27057197

RESUMO

Curcumae Rhizoma, known as Ezhu (Chinese: ), and Curcumae Radix, known as Yujin (Chinese: ), are different plant parts coming from three same species according to China Pharmacopoeia. Actually, they are used in different ways in TCM clinical treatment. Curcumae Rhizoma is mainly used as antitumor drug, while Curcumae Radix has been used as antidepressant and cholagogue. Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix are confused in variety and source, even in clinical trials by some nonprofessional workers. So it is important for us to make them clear. This review is aimed at summarizing the ethnopharmacology, phytochemical, and pharmacological differences between Curcumae Radix and Curcumae Rhizoma by SciFinder, CNKI, and so on, to use them exactly and clearly. Further studies on Curcumae Rhizoma and Curcumae Radix can lead to the development of new drugs and therapeutics for various diseases on the basis of the TCM theory.

17.
Molecules ; 21(1): 89, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26784150

RESUMO

The isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is a highly efficient method for tackling the ion suppression in complex matrix by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), but a lack of commercial internal standards is a limiting factor for these analyses. Herein, an economical and efficient strategy for the synthesis of (13)C3-simazine via a three-step procedure was developed. The isotope-labeled internal standard was used for determination of simazine residue in soil samples. The quantitation method has a limit of detection of 0.015 µg/kg and quantitation of 0.08 µg/kg. The inter-day and intra-day precision of the method were below 4.6%. Recovery values were ranged between 92.9% and 99.2%. All the samples obtained from six provinces in China contained from 1 to 62 µg/kg of simazine.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Herbicidas/análise , Simazina/análise , Solo/química , Isótopos de Carbono , Cromatografia Líquida , Poluentes Ambientais/síntese química , Herbicidas/síntese química , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo , Limite de Detecção , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Simazina/síntese química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Molecules ; 20(9): 15781-96, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26343630

RESUMO

As a classical herb pair in clinics of traditional Chinese medicine, Curcumae Rhizoma-Sparganii Rhizoma (HP CR-SR) is used for activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis. The essential components in HP CR-SR and its single herbs were comparatively analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data. 66, 22, and 54 components in volatile oils of Curcumae Rhizoma, Sparganii Rhizoma, and HP CR-SR were identified, and total contents accounted for 75.416%, 91.857%, and 79.553% respectively. The thirty-eight components were found in HP CR-SR, and not detected in single herbs Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma. The highest radical trapping action was seen by an essential oil of HP CR-SR (IC50 = 0.59 ± 0.04 mg/mL). Furthermore, the HP CR-SR essential oil showed more remarkable cytotoxicity on tumor cell lines than that of the single herbs Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma in a dose-dependent manner: IC50 values showing 32.32 ± 5.31 µg/mL (HeLa), 34.76 ± 1.82 µg/mL (BGC823), 74.84 ± 1.66 µg/mL (MCF-7), 66.12 ± 11.23 µg/mL (SKOV3), and 708.24 ± 943.91 µg/mL (A549), respectively. In summary, the essential oil of HP CR-SR is different from any one of Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma, nor simply their superposition, and HP CR-SR oil presented more remarkable anticancer and antioxidant activities compared with Curcumae Rhizoma and Sparganii Rhizoma oils.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Curcuma/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Rizoma/química
19.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 62(11): 1083-91, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25366312

RESUMO

Dianbaizhu, a folk medicine from Gaultheria leucocarpa BLUME var. yunnanensis (FRANCH.) T. Z. HSU & R. C. FANG (Ericaceae) used as an antirheumatic, has multiple plant origins and officinal parts. A rapid high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for the simultaneous determination of the characteristic ingredient methyl benzoate-2-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl(1 → 2) [O-ß-D-xylopyranosyl(1 → 6)]-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside and seven bioactive constituents in eight Gaultheria species. This chromatographic method is precise, accurate, and stable. Kruskal-Wallis analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and factor analysis were used to analyze the content of reference compounds in different Gaultheria species and officinal parts. The analyses showed significant differences (p<0.05) in Gaultheria species but few differences (p>0.05) in their medicinal parts. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis appeared to the best among the Gaultheria species tested for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Taken together, the results show that this simultaneous quantification of multiple active constituents using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics can be reliably applied to evaluate the quality of Dianbaizhu.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/isolamento & purificação , Benzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Gaultheria/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antirreumáticos/análise , Benzoatos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Glucosídeos/análise
20.
Molecules ; 19(11): 17478-535, 2014 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25361420

RESUMO

Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicine, popularly used for complementary cancer therapy. GTs are lanostane-tetracyclic triterpenes. They have been reported to possess anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antimicrobial and blood fat reducing effects. To date, 316 GTs have been found and their similar chemical structures have proved difficult to elucidate. This paper compiles 316 naturally occurring triterpenes from Ganoderma based on the literature published through January 2013 along with their structures, physiological activities and 13C-NMR spectral data.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
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