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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(33): 30154-30162, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353888

RESUMO

Here, we propose a simple approach for the design of highly porous multicomponent heterostructures by infiltration of block-co-polymer templates with inorganic precursors in swelling solvents followed by gas-phase sequential infiltration synthesis and thermal annealing. This approach can prepare conformal coatings, free-standing membranes, and powders consisting of uniformly sized metal or metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) well dispersed in a porous oxide matrix. We employed this new, versatile synthetic concept to synthesize catalytically active heterostructures of uniformly dispersed ∼4.3 nm PdO nanoparticles accessible through three-dimensional pore networks of the alumina support. Importantly, such materials reveal high resistance against sintering at 800 °C, even at relatively high loadings of NPs (∼10 wt %). At the same time, such heterostructures enable high mass transport due to highly interconnected nature of the pores. The surface of synthesized nanoparticles in the porous matrix is highly accessible, which enables their good catalytic performance in methane and carbon monoxide oxidation. In addition, we demonstrate that this approach can be utilized to synthesize heterostructures consisting of different types of NPs on a highly porous support. Our results show that swelling-based infiltration provides a promising route toward the robust and scalable synthesis of multicomponent structures.

2.
Langmuir ; 35(3): 796-803, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614710

RESUMO

Infiltration of the polymer templates with inorganic precursors using the selective vapor-phase infiltration approach, or sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), allows the design of materials with advanced properties. Swelling of the block co-polymer (BCP) templates enables the additional control of the structure, porosity, and thickness of the composite or inorganic materials. Here, we use the highly precise quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique to investigate quantitatively the effect of the micelle opening by swelling and inorganic precursor infiltrating on the evolution of porosity in amphiphilic BCPs. We show that swelling of the polystyrene- block-poly-4-vinyl pyridine (PS- b-P4VP) BCP in ethanol at 75 °C occurs rapidly and results in a stable polymer structure in 30 min. By using an alumina model system, we found that swelling enables access to all available polar domains of the PS- b-P4VP film leading to an increase in the SIS-infiltrated alumina mass as compared to the nonswelled BCP layer. Our results demonstrate that swelling of the 110 nm thick BCP template results in the formation of 192 nm thick alumina films with 2 times larger alumina mass and 4 times larger effective pore volume than in case of the nonswelled sample. In the case of the thicker polymer template, the difference due to swelling becomes even more substantial because the fraction of accessible polymer is increased much more than in thin films. Our findings provide important insights into the mechanism of the infiltration of the inorganic precursors into swelled and nonswelled, spin-coated BCP templates enabling the design of highly porous thick ceramic films by SIS.

3.
Nanotechnology ; 29(49): 495703, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211698

RESUMO

Inorganic nanoporous materials with highly accessible pores are of great interest for the design of efficient catalytic, purification and detection systems. Limited access to the pores is a common problem associated with traditional approaches for the synthesis of porous materials, affecting the functionality of the low-density structure. Recently, infiltration of a nanoporous polymer template with inorganic precursors followed by oxidative annealing was proposed as a new and efficient approach to creating porous inorganic structures with controlled thickness, composition and pore sizes. Here, we report an ultra-high accessibility of the pores in porous films prepared via polymer-swelling-assisted sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS). Using a quartz crystal microbalance technique, we show the increased solvent adsorbing capabilities of highly porous alumina films as a result of high interconnectivity of the pores in such structures. The directionality and highly interconnected nature of the pores are demonstrated in experiments with the partial blocking of pore access by the deposition of a single-layer graphene that is not transparent to solvent. 60% of the pores remain accessible when only 20% of the surface is exposed to solvent. Using humidity detection as an example, we also show that highly porous alumina produced by polymer-swelling-assisted SIS is a promising candidate for sensing applications.

4.
ACS Omega ; 2(11): 7812-7819, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457338

RESUMO

Nanoporous conformal coating is an important class of materials for electrocatalysis, water purification, antireflective coatings, etc. Common synthesis methods of porous films often require harsh conditions (high temperature and high plasma power) or specific substrate materials. Here, we report a plasma-enhanced sequential infiltration synthesis (PE SIS) as a new platform toward deposition of nanoporous inorganic films. PE SIS is based on oxygen-plasma-induced rapid conversion of metal precursors selectively adsorbed in a block-copolymer template. Porosity and thickness of resulting materials can be easily controlled by characteristics of the template. PE SIS is conducted under gentle conditions, and can be applied to a broad range of substrates, including water-sensitive surfaces. PE SIS offers adventurous rapid infiltration with improved ability to obtain highly interconnected porous alumina films with thicknesses up to 5 µm. We show that full infiltration of the polar domain of the polymer template can be achieved upon initial exposure to TMA, followed by its oxygen-plasma-induced conversion into a functional material. Since different types of plasma (such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, etc.) induce conversion of a broad range of metal precursors, PE SIS opens a new approach for synthesis of highly porous materials with various elemental compositions and stoichiometries.

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