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2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(9): 2708-2716, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG) are usually managed with alkylating chemotherapy ± bevacizumab. However, prognosis remains very poor. Preclinically, we showed that HGGs are a target for arginine depletion with pegargiminase (ADI-PEG20) due to epimutations of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1) and/or argininosuccinate lyase (ASL). Moreover, ADI-PEG20 disrupts pyrimidine pools in ASS1-deficient HGGs, thereby impacting sensitivity to the antifolate, pemetrexed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We expanded a phase I trial of ADI-PEG20 with pemetrexed and cisplatin (ADIPEMCIS) to patients with ASS1-deficient recurrent HGGs (NCT02029690). Patients were enrolled (01/16-06/17) to receive weekly ADI-PEG20 36 mg/m2 intramuscularly plus pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously once every 3 weeks for up to 6 cycles. Patients with disease control were allowed ADI-PEG20 maintenance. The primary endpoints were safety, tolerability, and preliminary estimates of efficacy. RESULTS: Ten ASS1-deficient heavily pretreated patients were treated with ADIPEMCIS therapy. Treatment was well tolerated with the majority of adverse events being Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03 grade 1-2. The best overall response was stable disease in 8 patients (80%). Plasma arginine was suppressed significantly below baseline with a reciprocal increase in citrulline during the sampling period. The anti-ADI-PEG20 antibody titer rose during the first 4 weeks of treatment before reaching a plateau. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.5-20.8) and overall survival was 6.3 months (95% CI, 1.8-9.7). CONCLUSIONS: In this recurrent HGG study, ADIPEMCIS was well tolerated and compares favorably to historical controls. Additional trials of ADI-PEG20 in HGG are planned.

4.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 17(5): 580-587, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: How transplant nephrectomy affects patient survival after return to dialysis is unclear. Here, we compared patient survival after graft loss between patients with and without transplant nephrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We divided 171 patients who received transplant between 2000 and 2015 and had graft loss into 3 groups: 64 had graft failure left in situ (without nephrectomy), 51 had nephrectomy < 3 months posttransplant (early nephrectomy), and 56 patients had nephrectomy > 3 months posttransplant (late nephrectomy). The primary endpoint was patient survival. Risk factors for patient death were also analyzed. Secondary endpoints included relisting for transplant and immunosuppressive agent status. RESULTS: Patient survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years posttransplant in those without nephrectomy, early nephrectomy, and late nephrectomy were 92.1% /90.5%/86.6%, 96.0%/89.7%/80.4%, and 100.0% /97.9%/ 95.6%, respectively. Rates in patients with early nephrectomy differed significantly from those with late nephrectomy (P = .005). On multivariate analysis, patient survival was affected by relisting for transplant (hazard ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.41; P < .001) and graft survival duration (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.93; P = .036). Relisting for transplant occurred in 46.9% of patients without nephrectomy, 56.9% of patients with early nephrectomy, and 51.8% of patients with late nephrectomy. Those with late nephrectomy took 14.7 months after graft loss to relist for transplant, with 7.8 months for those without nephrectomy (P = .039) and 6.3 months for those with early nephrectomy (P = .051). Only 10.9% of those without nephrectomy were immunosuppressive free, which was in contrast to 94.1% and 78.6% of those with early and late nephrectomy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: After graft failure, patients without nephrectomy did not have inferior survival versus patients who received early or late nephrectomy. Graft survival time and relisting for transplant were associated with patient survival regardless of having transplant nephrectomy.

5.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 16(3): 259-265, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The impact of allograft nephrectomy on the outcome of a subsequent renal transplant is unclear. This study was conducted to assess the effects of the first allograft nephrectomy on outcomes of a second transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 118 patients who received a second transplant between 1994 and 2015. Before the second transplant, 59 patients did not undergo a first allograft nephrectomy (group A). Group B comprised 59 patients who had undergone a first allograft nephrectomy. We compared sensitization, acute rejection, and survival of the second graft between groups. The risk factors of a second graft loss were assessed. RESULTS: The first graft survival was significantly longer in group A than in group B (100.6 vs 3.7 months; P < .001). Prevalence of preformed donor-specific antibodies before the second allograft was similar between both groups (28.8% vs 39.0% for group A vs group B; P = .243). Numerically higher acute rejection rates occurred in group B than in group A (23.7% vs 15.3%; P = .245). In group A, graft survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 93.0%, 87.0%, and 82.3% and were significantly higher than for group B (76.7%, 69.1%, and 62.5%; P ⟨ .05). On multivariate analysis, survival of the second graft was affected by acute rejection (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-4.45; P = .027) and the interval from first graft loss to second transplant (hazard ratio = 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.19; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS: A first allograft nephrectomy was associated with inferior second graft survival. We recommend that recipients of second transplants should be considered as high risk if they had undergone prior allograft nephrectomy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/métodos , Nefrectomia , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Isoanticorpos/sangue , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(8): 1262-1268, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659752

RESUMO

Background: Information on the performance of anal cytology in women who are high risk for human papillomavirus-related lesions and the factors that might influence cytology are largely lacking. Methods: Retrospective study including all new referrals of women with a previous history of anogenital neoplasia from January 2012 to July 2017, with concomitant anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy with or without biopsies. Results: Six hundred and thirty six anal cytology samples and 323 biopsies obtained from 278 women were included. Overall sensitivity and specificity of "any abnormality" on anal cytology to predict any abnormality in histology was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41%-54%) and 84% (95% CI, 73%-91%), respectively. For detecting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)/cancer, sensitivity was 71% (95% CI, 61%-79%) and specificity was 73% (95% CI, 66%-79%). There was a poor concordance between cytological and histological grades (κ = 0.147). Cytology had a higher sensitivity to predict HSIL/cancer in immunosuppressed vs nonimmunosuppressed patients (92% vs 60%, P = .002). The sensitivity for HSIL detection was higher when 2 or more quadrants were affected compared with 1 (86% vs 57%, P = .006). A previous history of vulvar HSIL/cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.71, 1.08-2.73; P = .023), immunosuppression (OR, 1.88, 1.17-3.03; P = .009), and concomitant genital HSIL/cancer (OR, 2.51, 1.47-4.29; P = .001) were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Conclusions: Women characteristics can influence the performance of anal cytology. The sensitivity for detecting anal HSIL/cancer was higher in those immunosuppressed and with more extensive disease.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/citologia , Canal Anal/patologia , Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Técnicas Citológicas/normas , Proctoscopia/normas , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Técnicas Histológicas/normas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Acute Med ; 17(1): 36-43, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589604

RESUMO

Nephrotic syndrome is an important presentation of glomerular disease characterised by heavy proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. The differential diagnosis of the underlying condition is wide including primary renal disorders and secondary diseases such as malignancy, infection, diabetes and amyloid. Presentations to acute medicine may be with hypervolaemia, complications of the nephrotic state (such as venous thromboembolism), or complications of therapy (such as infection). Early recognition of nephrotic syndrome is possible through simple urinalysis for protein and testing serum albumin, although a high index of suspicion is sometimes required in patients with comorbidities including potentially distracting cardiac or hepatic diseases.


Assuntos
Síndrome Nefrótica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Nefrótica/etiologia , Síndrome Nefrótica/terapia , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Dislipidemias/terapia , Edema/etiologia , Barreira de Filtração Glomerular/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Proteinúria/etiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
8.
Mod Pathol ; 31(4): 598-606, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327706

RESUMO

A recently described nuclear grading system predicted survival in patients with epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The current study was undertaken to validate the grading system and to identify additional prognostic factors. We analyzed cases of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma from 17 institutions across the globe from 1998 to 2014. Nuclear grade was computed combining nuclear atypia and mitotic count into a grade of I-III using the published system. Nuclear grade was assessed by one pathologist for three institutions, the remaining were scored independently. The presence or absence of necrosis and predominant growth pattern were also evaluated. Two additional scoring systems were evaluated, one combining nuclear grade and necrosis and the other mitotic count and necrosis. Median overall survival was the primary endpoint. A total of 776 cases were identified including 301 (39%) nuclear grade I tumors, 354 (45%) grade II tumors and 121 (16%) grade III tumors. The overall survival was 16 months, and correlated independently with age (P=0.006), sex (0.015), necrosis (0.030), mitotic count (0.001), nuclear atypia (0.009), nuclear grade (<0.0001), and mitosis and necrosis score (<0.0001). The addition of necrosis to nuclear grade further stratified overall survival, allowing classification of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma into four distinct prognostic groups: nuclear grade I tumors without necrosis (29 months), nuclear grade I tumors with necrosis and grade II tumors without necrosis (16 months), nuclear grade II tumors with necrosis (10 months) and nuclear grade III tumors (8 months). The mitosis-necrosis score stratified patients by survival, but not as well as the combination of necrosis and nuclear grade. This study confirms that nuclear grade predicts survival in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma, identifies necrosis as factor that further stratifies overall survival, and validates the grading system across multiple institutions and among both biopsy and resection specimens. An alternative scoring system, the mitosis-necrosis score is also proposed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Necrose/patologia , Gradação de Tumores/métodos , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Núcleo Celular/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Prognóstico
9.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(3): 507-513, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444337

RESUMO

Background: The role of repeat renal biopsy in lupus nephritis (LN) to guide treatment or predict prognosis has been controversial. We assessed glomerular and tubulointerstitial histological characteristics of serial renal biopsies, correlations with clinical variables and the impact on subsequent management. Methods: Out of a large single-centre cohort of 270 biopsy-proven LN patients, 66 (24%) had serial biopsies. LN classes based on glomerular pathology were defined according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society 2003 classification, while tubulointerstitial pathologies were evaluated using the revised Austin's semi-quantitative scoring system. Results: LN class transitions from proliferative (III and IV) to non-proliferative classes (II and V) were uncommon (n = 4, 7.7%), while non-proliferatives frequently switched to proliferative classes (n = 12, 63.2%) and were more likely to receive increased immunosuppression (P = 0.040). Biochemical or serological variables could not predict these histopathological transitions. Tubulointerstitial score (mean ± standard deviation) progressed from 2.69 ± 2.03 on reference to 3.78 ± 2.03 on repeat biopsy (P = 0.001). Serum creatinine levels correlated with the degree of tubular atrophy on both reference (r = 0.33, P = 0.048) and repeat biopsy (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), and with interstitial scarring (r = 0.60, P < 0.001) on repeat biopsy. Greater interstitial inflammation on reference biopsy was associated with advanced interstitial scarring on repeat biopsies (r = 0.385, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Repeat renal biopsy is an important tool to guide management, in particular in those with initial class II or V who flare. Although class transitions cannot be predicted by clinical parameters, serum creatinine level correlates with the degree of tubulointerstitial damage.


Assuntos
Rim/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/classificação , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Nefrite Lúpica/cirurgia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Oncoimmunology ; 6(12): e1363137, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209570

RESUMO

Mesothelioma is an incurable cancer for which effective therapies are required. Aberrant MET expression is prevalent in mesothelioma, although targeting using small molecule-based therapeutics has proven disappointing. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) couple the HLA-independent binding of a cell surface target to the delivery of a tailored T-cell activating signal. Here, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of MET re-targeted CAR T-cells against mesothelioma. Using immunohistochemistry, MET was detected in 67% of malignant pleural mesotheliomas, most frequently of epithelioid or biphasic subtype. The presence of MET did not influence patient survival. Candidate MET-specific CARs were engineered in which a CD28+CD3ζ endodomain was fused to one of 3 peptides derived from the N and K1 domains of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), which represents the minimum MET binding element present in this growth factor. Using an NIH3T3-based artificial antigen-presenting cell system, we found that all 3 candidate CARs demonstrated high specificity for MET. By contrast, these CARs did not mediate T-cell activation upon engagement of other HGF binding partners, namely CD44v6 or heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including Syndecan-1. NK1-targeted CARs demonstrated broadly similar in vitro potency, indicated by destruction of MET-expressing mesothelioma cell lines, accompanied by cytokine release. In vivo anti-tumor activity was demonstrated following intraperitoneal delivery to mice with an established mesothelioma xenograft. Progressive tumor regression occurred without weight loss or other clinical indicators of toxicity. These data confirm the frequent expression of MET in malignant pleural mesothelioma and demonstrate that this can be targeted effectively and safely using a CAR T-cell immunotherapeutic strategy.

11.
Oncotarget ; 8(31): 50510-50520, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28881579

RESUMO

We studied DNA methylation patterns of human papillomavirus (HPV) and tumor suppressor gene EPB41L3 in 148 anal and perianal biopsies to determine whether high levels of methylation would be associated with anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). The most prevalent HPV type was HPV16, detected in 54% of the 30 benign biopsies, 33% of the 43 low-grade AIN (lgAIN), 82% of the 59 high grade AIN (hgAIN) and 4 of the 5 anal cancers. A methylation score was developed (0.561*HPV16me+0.439*EPB41L3) which had increasing values with severity of disease: the mean was 8.1% in benign, 13.2% in lgAIN, 22.3% in hgAIN and 49.3% in cancers (p < 0.0001). The methylation score as a triage classifier at a cut-off of 8.8 gave a sensitivity of 90.6% (95% CI: 82.8, 96.9), specificity of 50.7% (95% CI: 39.7, 61.6) and area under the curve of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.89) for separating hgAIN and cancer from benign and lgAIN biopsies. We conclude that methylation of HPV16 and EPB41L3 show highly significant association with increasing severity of AIN and cancer and may be useful as biomarkers in anal disease.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(16): 1778-1785, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388291

RESUMO

Purpose Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) depletes essential amino acid levels in argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) -negative tumors by converting arginine to citrulline and ammonia. The main aim of this study was to determine the recommended dose, safety, and tolerability of ADI-PEG 20, cisplatin, and pemetrexed in patients with ASS1-deficient malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods Using a 3 + 3 + 3 dose-escalation study, nine chemotherapy-naïve patients (five MPM, four NSCLC) received weekly ADI-PEG 20 doses of 18 mg/m2, 27 mg/m2, or 36 mg/m2, together with pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 which were given every three weeks (maximum of six cycles). Patients achieving stable disease or better could continue ADI-PEG 20 monotherapy until disease progression or withdrawal. Adverse events were assessed by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03, and pharmacodynamics and immunogenicity were also evaluated. Tumor response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 for NSCLC and by modified RECIST criteria for MPM. Results No dose-limiting toxicities were reported; nine of 38 reported adverse events (all grade 1 or 2) were related to ADI-PEG 20. Circulating arginine concentrations declined rapidly, and citrulline levels increased; both changes persisted at 18 weeks. Partial responses were observed in seven of nine patients (78%), including three with either sarcomatoid or biphasic MPM. Conclusion Target engagement with depletion of arginine was maintained throughout treatment with no dose-limiting toxicities. In this biomarker-selected group of patients with ASS1-deficient cancers, clinical activity was observed in patients with poor-prognosis tumors. Therefore, we recommend a dose for future studies of weekly ADI-PEG 20 36 mg/m2 plus three-weekly cisplatin 75 mg/m2 and pemetrexed 500 mg/m2.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Argininossuccinato Sintase/deficiência , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Hidrolases/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/enzimologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Pemetrexede/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/enzimologia , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 5(4): 938-945, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351785

RESUMO

A proportion of people living with common variable immunodeficiency disorders develop granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the definition, diagnosis, and management of GLILD. All UK specialist centers were contacted and relevant physicians were invited to take part in a 3-round online Delphi process. Responses were graded as Strongly Agree, Tend to Agree, Neither Agree nor Disagree, Tend to Disagree, and Strongly Disagree, scored +1, +0.5, 0, -0.5, and -1, respectively. Agreement was defined as greater than or equal to 80% consensus. Scores are reported as mean ± SD. There was 100% agreement (score, 0.92 ± 0.19) for the following definition: "GLILD is a distinct clinico-radio-pathological ILD occurring in patients with [common variable immunodeficiency disorders], associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate and/or granuloma in the lung, and in whom other conditions have been considered and where possible excluded." There was consensus that the workup of suspected GLILD requires chest computed tomography (CT) (0.98 ± 0.01), lung function tests (eg, gas transfer, 0.94 ± 0.17), bronchoscopy to exclude infection (0.63 ± 0.50), and lung biopsy (0.58 ± 0.40). There was no consensus on whether expectant management following optimization of immunoglobulin therapy was acceptable: 67% agreed, 25% disagreed, score 0.38 ± 0.59; 90% agreed that when treatment was required, first-line treatment should be with corticosteroids alone (score, 0.55 ± 0.51).


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum , Granuloma , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Instituições de Caridade , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/diagnóstico por imagem , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/tratamento farmacológico , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/patologia , Consenso , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Sociedades Médicas , Reino Unido
14.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(1): 58-66, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27584578

RESUMO

Importance: Preclinical studies show that arginine deprivation is synthetically lethal in argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1)-negative cancers, including mesothelioma. The role of the arginine-lowering agent pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) has not been evaluated in a randomized and biomarker-driven study among patients with cancer. Objective: To assess the clinical impact of arginine depletion in patients with ASS1-deficient malignant pleural mesothelioma. Design, Setting, and Participants: A multicenter phase 2 randomized clinical trial, the Arginine Deiminase and Mesothelioma (ADAM) study, was conducted between March 2, 2011, and May 21, 2013, at 8 academic cancer centers. Immunohistochemical screening of 201 patients (2011-2013) identified 68 with advanced ASS1-deficient malignant pleural mesothelioma. Interventions: Randomization 2:1 to arginine deprivation (ADI-PEG20, 36.8 mg/m2, weekly intramuscular) plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) (target hazard ratio, 0.60). Secondary end points were overall survival (OS), tumor response rate, safety, and quality of life, analyzed by intention to treat. We measured plasma arginine and citrulline levels, anti-ADI-PEG20 antibody titer, ASS1 methylation status, and metabolic response by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography. Results: Median (range) follow-up in 68 adults (median [range] age, 66 [48-83] years; 19% female) was 38 (2.5-39) months. The PFS hazard ratio was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.33-0.96), with a median of 3.2 months in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 2.0 months in the BSC group (P = .03) (absolute risk, 18% vs 0% at 6 months). Best response at 4 months (modified RECIST) was stable disease: 12 of 23 (52%) in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 2 of 9 (22%) in the BSC group (P = .23). The OS curves crossed, so life expectancy was used: 15.7 months in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 12.1 months in the BSC group (difference of 3.6 [95% CI, -1.0 to 8.1] months; P = .13). The incidence of symptomatic adverse events of grade at least 3 was 11 of 44 (25%) in the ADI-PEG20 group vs 4 of 24 (17%) in the BSC group (P = .43), the most common being immune related, nonfebrile neutropenia, gastrointestinal events, and fatigue. Differential ASS1 gene-body methylation correlated with ASS1 immunohistochemistry, and longer arginine deprivation correlated with improved PFS. Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, arginine deprivation with ADI-PEG20 improved PFS in patients with ASS1-deficient mesothelioma. Targeting arginine is safe and warrants further clinical investigation in arginine-dependent cancers. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01279967.


Assuntos
Argininossuccinato Sintase/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Citrulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Mesotelioma/tratamento farmacológico , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arginina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Citrulinemia/sangue , Citrulinemia/genética , Citrulinemia/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/sangue , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Kidney J ; 9(6): 800-806, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27994857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that can cause kidney disease from crystalline nephropathy or kidney stones. METHODS: We present three cases from a single centre with varied presentations to illustrate how increasing awareness led to better patient identification. We then undertook a cross-sectional survey of all the patients identified from the Purine Research Laboratory in the UK since 1974. RESULTS: Our index case presented with recurrent nephrolithiasis and was diagnosed on stone analysis, the second case presented with acute kidney injury and the third case was identified from a biopsy undertaken for acute on chronic kidney injury. Genetic studies identified two novel mutations. Twenty patients were retrospectively identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 25 years (range 2-70); eight were <20 years, seven were 20-40 years and five were >40 years. Five of the 20 patients were deceased, 3 after end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Twelve have normal renal function, one had CKD stage 3, one had severe kidney disease and one was on dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency presents in a wide spectrum in all age groups. Patients can be completely asymptomatic and kidney disease may be incorrectly attributed to other conditions. Outcome is poor in late diagnosis and there is a high prevalence of ESRD. Patients with unexplained renal stone disease or deterioration in kidney function should be considered for screening. Identification and surveillance of patients in the UK can improve. There is now a rare disease registry with meetings organized that include patients, families and health care providers to improve awareness.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27398219

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a rare but increasingly recognised condition, emerging as a clinical entity following the observation of the associations of autoimmune pancreatitis. IgG4-RD is characterised by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs and raised serum IgG4 levels. Clinical manifestations of IgG4 disease classically include autoimmune pancreatitis, lacrimal or salivary gland infiltration (formerly known as Mikulicz disease) and retroperitoneal fibrosis. More rarely, IgG4 disease can cause pituitary hypophysitis. Although most frequently described in middle-aged males, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease remain largely undefined. Nevertheless, an understanding of the wide variety of clinical manifestations of this multi-system condition is undeniably important given the often excellent outcomes following treatment. We describe an unusual presentation of IgG4 disease with isolated diabetes insipidus secondary to pituitary hypophysitis. The patient in question subsequently developed chest pain secondary to mediastinal lymphadenopathy and tubulo-interstitial nephritis leading to renal dysfunction. He was successfully treated with oral steroids and had regular follow-up, and remains well at follow-up 2 years later. LEARNING POINTS: IgG4 disease, although rare, is increasing in prevalence largely due to increased recognition of its clinical manifestations, including autoimmune pancreatitis, lacrimal or salivary gland infiltration, retroperitoneal fibrosis and, more rarely, lymphocytic hypophysitis presenting as diabetes insipidus.IgG4 disease is highly treatable, and symptoms may show complete resolution with administration of steroids, highlighting the importance of correct and timely diagnosis.Causes of lymphocytic hypophysitis are varied and not distinguishable radiologically. Given the difficulty in biopsying the pituitary, careful attention must be paid to the systemic clinical presentation to provide clues as to the underlying disorder.

18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20152015 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26123453

RESUMO

An Afro-Caribbean woman presented with worsening breathlessness, weight loss, lethargy and fevers, developing a bilateral florid erythematous rash on her legs. She was recently diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy was found on thoracic CT imaging. She was tachycardic and investigations revealed pancytopenia, eosinophilia, raised serum ACE, acute kidney injury and deranged liver function tests. Biopsy of the lymphadenopathy revealed mixed lymphoid cells and liver biopsy revealed extramedullary haematopoiesis, with hypercellular marrow found on bone marrow biopsy. Cardiac MRI was normal, excluding cardiac sarcoid. The patient developed status epilepticus and phenytoin was started. She subsequently developed skin desquamation, in keeping with toxic epidermal necrosis. Skin biopsies revealed atypical granulomas and multinucleated giant cells, which subsequently resolved on steroid treatment. This case highlights an overlap syndrome, with an unclear diagnosis between sarcoidosis, drug reaction or rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms and/or hypereosinophilic syndrome and Still's disease. Hence varied serological and clinical features can complicate the distinction between diagnoses.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Exantema/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Pele/patologia , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/complicações , Síndrome de Hipersensibilidade a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Eosinofilia/complicações , Eosinofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Exantema/tratamento farmacológico , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/complicações , Síndrome Hipereosinofílica/diagnóstico , Fígado/patologia , Doenças Linfáticas , Linfócitos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/diagnóstico , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/etiologia , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/complicações , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/diagnóstico , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/complicações , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/diagnóstico
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