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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479583

RESUMO

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth-intellectual disability (OGID) syndrome caused by NSD1 pathogenic variants and characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, an intellectual disability, tall stature and/or macrocephaly. Other associated clinical features include scoliosis, seizures, renal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. However, many of the published Sotos syndrome clinical descriptions are based on studies of children; the phenotype in adults with Sotos syndrome is not yet well described. Given that it is now 17 years since disruption of NSD1 was shown to cause Sotos syndrome, many of the children first reported are now adults. It is therefore timely to investigate the phenotype of 44 adults with Sotos syndrome and NSD1 pathogenic variants. We have shown that adults with Sotos syndrome display a wide spectrum of intellectual ability with functioning ranging from fully independent to fully dependent. Reproductive rates are low. In our cohort, median height in adult women is +1.9 SD and men +0.5 SD. There is a distinctive facial appearance in adults with a tall, square, prominent chin. Reassuringly, adults with Sotos syndrome are generally healthy with few new medical issues; however, lymphedema, poor dentition, hearing loss, contractures and tremor have developed in a small number of individuals.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2049-2055, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400068

RESUMO

Histone Gene Cluster 1 Member E, HIST1H1E, encodes Histone H1.4, is one of a family of epigenetic regulator genes, acts as a linker histone protein, and is responsible for higher order chromatin structure. HIST1H1E syndrome (also known as Rahman syndrome, OMIM #617537) is a recently described intellectual disability (ID) syndrome. Since the initial description of five unrelated individuals with three different heterozygous protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in the HIST1H1E gene in 2017, we have recruited 30 patients, all with HIST1H1E PTVs that result in the same shift in frame and that cluster to a 94-base pair region in the HIST1H1E carboxy terminal domain. The identification of 30 patients with HIST1H1E variants has allowed the clarification of the HIST1H1E syndrome phenotype. Major findings include an ID and a recognizable facial appearance. ID was reported in all patients and is most frequently of moderate severity. The facial gestalt consists of a high frontal hairline and full lower cheeks in early childhood and, in later childhood and adulthood, affected individuals have a strikingly high frontal hairline, frontal bossing, and deep-set eyes. Other associated clinical features include hypothyroidism, abnormal dentition, behavioral issues, cryptorchidism, skeletal anomalies, and cardiac anomalies. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently abnormal with a slender corpus callosum a frequent finding.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1884-1894, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313512

RESUMO

Brachyolmia is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short spine-short stature, platyspondyly, and minor long bone abnormalities. We describe 18 patients, from different ethnic backgrounds and ages ranging from infancy to 19 years, with the autosomal recessive form, associated with PAPSS2. The main clinical features include disproportionate short stature with short spine associated with variable symptoms of pain, stiffness, and spinal deformity. Eight patients presented prenatally with short femora, whereas later in childhood their short-spine phenotype emerged. We observed the same pattern of changing skeletal proportion in other patients. The radiological findings included platyspondyly, irregular end plates of the elongated vertebral bodies, narrow disc spaces and short over-faced pedicles. In the limbs, there was mild shortening of femoral necks and tibiae in some patients, whereas others had minor epiphyseal or metaphyseal changes. In all patients, exome and Sanger sequencing identified homozygous or compound heterozygous PAPSS2 variants, including c.809G>A, common to white European patients. Bi-parental inheritance was established where possible. Low serum DHEAS, but not overt androgen excess was identified. Our study indicates that autosomal recessive brachyolmia occurs across continents and may be under-recognized in infancy. This condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of short femora presenting in the second trimester.

4.
Clin Genet ; 95(6): 693-703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859559

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterised by distinctive facial features, heart defects, variable degrees of intellectual disability and other phenotypic manifestations. Although the mode of inheritance is typically dominant, recent studies indicate LZTR1 may be associated with both dominant and recessive forms. Seeking to describe the phenotypic characteristics of LZTR1-associated NS, we searched for likely pathogenic variants using two approaches. First, scrutiny of exomes from 9624 patients recruited by the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDDs) study uncovered six dominantly-acting mutations (p.R97L; p.Y136C; p.Y136H, p.N145I, p.S244C; p.G248R) of which five arose de novo, and three patients with compound-heterozygous variants (p.R210*/p.V579M; p.R210*/p.D531N; c.1149+1G>T/p.R688C). One patient also had biallelic loss-of-function mutations in NEB, consistent with a composite phenotype. After removing this complex case, analysis of human phenotype ontology terms indicated significant phenotypic similarities (P = 0.0005), supporting a causal role for LZTR1. Second, targeted sequencing of eight unsolved NS-like cases identified biallelic LZTR1 variants in three further subjects (p.W469*/p.Y749C, p.W437*/c.-38T>A and p.A461D/p.I462T). Our study strengthens the association of LZTR1 with NS, with de novo mutations clustering around the KT1-4 domains. Although LZTR1 variants explain ~0.1% of cases across the DDD cohort, the gene is a relatively common cause of unsolved NS cases where recessive inheritance is suspected.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(9): 2004-2008, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079626

RESUMO

1q24q25 deletions cause a distinctive phenotype including proportionate short stature, microcephaly, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features and intellectual disability. We present a mother and son who have a 672 kb microdeletion at 1q24q25. They have the typical skeletal features previously described but do not have any associated intellectual disability. We compare the genes within our patients' deletion to those in the deletions of previously reported cases. This indicates two genes that may be implicated in the intellectual disability usually associated with this deletion syndrome; PIGC and C1orf105. In addition, our cases provide supporting evidence to recent published work suggesting that the skeletal features may be linked to the microRNAs miR199 and miR214, encoded within intron 14 of the Dynamin-3 gene.

6.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900417

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS; OMIM 615879), also known as the DNMT3A-overgrowth syndrome, is an overgrowth intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2014 with a report of 13 individuals with constitutive heterozygous DNMT3A variants. Here we have undertaken a detailed clinical study of 55 individuals with de novoDNMT3A variants, including the 13 previously reported individuals. An intellectual disability and overgrowth were reported in >80% of individuals with TBRS and were designated major clinical associations. Additional frequent clinical associations (reported in 20-80% individuals) included an evolving facial appearance with low-set, heavy, horizontal eyebrows and prominent upper central incisors; joint hypermobility (74%); obesity (weight ³2SD, 67%); hypotonia (54%); behavioural/psychiatric issues (most frequently autistic spectrum disorder, 51%); kyphoscoliosis (33%) and afebrile seizures (22%). One individual was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia in teenage years. Based upon the results from this study, we present our current management for individuals with TBRS.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(5): 273-279, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307788

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 (PCH10) is a progressive autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that has been recently described in association with cleavage and polyadenylation factor I subunit 1 (CLP1) mutations. To date, all reported cases have the same homozygous missense mutation in the CLP1 gene suggesting a founder mutation. CLP1 is an RNA kinase involved in tRNA splicing and maturation. There is evidence that the mutation is associated with functionally impaired kinase activity and subsequent defective tRNA processing. Through whole exome sequencing, we identified the same mutation in an extended family of Turkish origin. Both children presented with severe psychomotor delay, progressive microcephaly, and constipation. However, intrafamilial phenotypic variability is suggested due to the variability in their brain abnormalities and clinical features.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Linhagem , Fosfotransferases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Prenat Diagn ; 38(1): 33-43, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096039

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rare genetic disorders resulting in prenatal or neonatal death are genetically heterogeneous, but testing is often limited by the availability of fetal DNA, leaving couples without a potential prenatal test for future pregnancies. We describe our novel strategy of exome sequencing parental DNA samples to diagnose recessive monogenic disorders in an audit of the first 50 couples referred. METHOD: Exome sequencing was carried out in a consecutive series of 50 couples who had 1 or more pregnancies affected with a lethal or prenatal-onset disorder. In all cases, there was insufficient DNA for exome sequencing of the affected fetus. Heterozygous rare variants (MAF < 0.001) in the same gene in both parents were selected for analysis. Likely, disease-causing variants were tested in fetal DNA to confirm co-segregation. RESULTS: Parental exome analysis identified heterozygous pathogenic (or likely pathogenic) variants in 24 different genes in 26/50 couples (52%). Where 2 or more fetuses were affected, a genetic diagnosis was obtained in 18/29 cases (62%). In most cases, the clinical features were typical of the disorder, but in others, they result from a hypomorphic variant or represent the most severe form of a variable phenotypic spectrum. CONCLUSION: We conclude that exome sequencing of parental samples is a powerful strategy with high clinical utility for the genetic diagnosis of lethal or prenatal-onset recessive disorders. © 2017 The Authors Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Pais , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
J Med Genet ; 54(7): 479-488, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28119487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cohesinopathies are rare neurodevelopmental disorders arising from a dysfunction in the cohesin pathway, which enables chromosome segregation and regulates gene transcription. So far, eight genes from this pathway have been reported in human disease. STAG1 belongs to the STAG subunit of the core cohesin complex, along with five other subunits. This work aimed to identify the phenotype ascribed to STAG1 mutations. METHODS: Among patients referred for intellectual disability (ID) in genetics departments worldwide, array-comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH), gene panel, whole-exome sequencing or whole-genome sequencing were performed following the local diagnostic standards. RESULTS: A mutation in STAG1 was identified in 17 individuals from 16 families, 9 males and 8 females aged 2-33 years. Four individuals harboured a small microdeletion encompassing STAG1; three individuals from two families had an intragenic STAG1 deletion. Six deletions were identified by array-CGH, one by whole-exome sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing found de novo heterozygous missense or frameshift STAG1 variants in eight patients, a panel of genes involved in ID identified a missense and a frameshift variant in two individuals. The 17 patients shared common facial features, with wide mouth and deep-set eyes. Four individuals had mild microcephaly, seven had epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: We report an international series of 17 individuals from 16 families presenting with syndromic unspecific ID that could be attributed to a STAG1 deletion or point mutation. This first series reporting the phenotype ascribed to mutation in STAG1 highlights the importance of data sharing in the field of rare disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Síndrome , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
J Med Genet ; 53(12): 820-827, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27439707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterozygous copy number variants (CNVs) or sequence variants in the contactin-associated protein 2 gene CNTNAP2 have been discussed as risk factors for a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Bi-allelic aberrations in this gene are causative for an autosomal-recessive disorder with epilepsy, severe intellectual disability (ID) and cortical dysplasia (CDFES). As the number of reported individuals is still limited, we aimed at a further characterisation of the full mutational and clinical spectrum. METHODS: Targeted sequencing, chromosomal microarray analysis or multigene panel sequencing was performed in individuals with severe ID and epilepsy. RESULTS: We identified homozygous mutations, compound heterozygous CNVs or CNVs and mutations in CNTNAP2 in eight individuals from six unrelated families. All aberrations were inherited from healthy, heterozygous parents and are predicted to be deleterious for protein function. Epilepsy occurred in all affected individuals with onset in the first 3.5 years of life. Further common aspects were ID (severe in 6/8), regression of speech development (5/8) and behavioural anomalies (7/8). Interestingly, cognitive impairment in one of two affected brothers was, in comparison, relatively mild with good speech and simple writing abilities. Cortical dysplasia that was previously reported in CDFES was not present in MRIs of six individuals and only suspected in one. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying novel homozygous or compound heterozygous, deleterious CNVs and mutations in eight individuals from six unrelated families with moderate-to-severe ID, early onset epilepsy and behavioural anomalies, we considerably broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum associated with bi-allelic aberrations in CNTNAP2.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/metabolismo , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Síndrome
12.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153757, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124303

RESUMO

We report molecular genetic analysis of 42 affected individuals referred with a diagnosis of aniridia who previously screened as negative for intragenic PAX6 mutations. Of these 42, the diagnoses were 31 individuals with aniridia and 11 individuals referred with a diagnosis of Gillespie syndrome (iris hypoplasia, ataxia and mild to moderate developmental delay). Array-based comparative genomic hybridization identified six whole gene deletions: four encompassing PAX6 and two encompassing FOXC1. Six deletions with plausible cis-regulatory effects were identified: five that were 3' (telomeric) to PAX6 and one within a gene desert 5' (telomeric) to PITX2. Sequence analysis of the FOXC1 and PITX2 coding regions identified two plausibly pathogenic de novo FOXC1 missense mutations (p.Pro79Thr and p.Leu101Pro). No intragenic mutations were detected in PITX2. FISH mapping in an individual with Gillespie-like syndrome with an apparently balanced X;11 reciprocal translocation revealed disruption of a gene at each breakpoint: ARHGAP6 on the X chromosome and PHF21A on chromosome 11. In the other individuals with Gillespie syndrome no mutations were identified in either of these genes, or in HCCS which lies close to the Xp breakpoint. Disruption of PHF21A has previously been implicated in the causation of intellectual disability (but not aniridia). Plausibly causative mutations were identified in 15 out of 42 individuals (12/32 aniridia; 3/11 Gillespie syndrome). Fourteen of these mutations presented in the known aniridia genes; PAX6, FOXC1 and PITX2. The large number of individuals in the cohort with no mutation identified suggests greater locus heterogeneity may exist in both isolated and syndromic aniridia than was previously appreciated.


Assuntos
Aniridia/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX6/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(5): 638-44, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306644

RESUMO

Sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) are frequently diagnosed, both prenatally and postnatally, but the highly variable childhood outcomes can leave parents at a loss on whether, when and how to disclose genetic status. In two complementary studies, we detail current parental practices, with a view to informing parents and their clinicians. Study 1 surveyed detailed qualitative data from focus groups of parents and affected young people with either Trisomy X or XYY (N=34 families). These data suggested that decisions to disclose were principally affected by the child's level of cognitive, social and emotional functioning. Parents reported that they were more likely to disclose when a child was experiencing difficulties. In Study 2, standardised data on cognitive, social and emotional outcomes in 126 children with an SCT and 63 sibling controls highlighted results that converged with Study 1: logistic regression analyses revealed that children with the lowest levels of functioning were more likely to know about their SCT than those children functioning at a higher level. These effects were also reflected in the likelihood of parents to disclose to unaffected siblings, schools and general practitioners. In contrast, specific trisomy type and the professional category of the clinician providing the original diagnosis did not affect likelihood of disclosure. Our study emphasises the complex weighing up of costs and benefits that parents engage in when deciding whether to disclose a diagnosis.


Assuntos
Atitude , Pais/psicologia , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/psicologia , Trissomia , Revelação da Verdade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos dos Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
14.
Hum Mutat ; 37(2): 148-54, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26507355

RESUMO

Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is a multiple malformation syndrome comprising microcephaly, craniofacial anomalies, hearing loss, dysmorphic features, and, in some cases, esophageal atresia. Haploinsufficiency of a spliceosomal GTPase, U5-116 kDa/EFTUD2, is responsible. Here, we review the molecular basis of MFDM in the 69 individuals described to date, and report mutations in 38 new individuals, bringing the total number of reported individuals to 107 individuals from 94 kindreds. Pathogenic EFTUD2 variants comprise 76 distinct mutations and seven microdeletions. Among point mutations, missense substitutions are infrequent (14 out of 76; 18%) relative to stop-gain (29 out of 76; 38%), and splicing (33 out of 76; 43%) mutations. Where known, mutation origin was de novo in 48 out of 64 individuals (75%), dominantly inherited in 12 out of 64 (19%), and due to proven germline mosaicism in four out of 64 (6%). Highly penetrant clinical features include, microcephaly, first and second arch craniofacial malformations, and hearing loss; esophageal atresia is present in an estimated ∼27%. Microcephaly is virtually universal in childhood, with some adults exhibiting late "catch-up" growth and normocephaly at maturity. Occasionally reported anomalies, include vestibular and ossicular malformations, reduced mouth opening, atrophy of cerebral white matter, structural brain malformations, and epibulbar dermoid. All reported EFTUD2 mutations can be found in the EFTUD2 mutation database (http://databases.lovd.nl/shared/genes/EFTUD2).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Expressão Gênica , Haploinsuficiência , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Disostose Mandibulofacial/patologia , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Processamento de RNA , Spliceossomos/genética
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(4): 949-57, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698168

RESUMO

Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis is a pseudoautosomal dominantly-inherited skeletal dysplasia ascribed to haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene caused by deletions, point mutations, or partial duplications of the gene, or to heterozygous deletions upstream or downstream of the intact SHOX gene involving conserved non-coding cis-regulatory DNA elements that show enhancer activity. Recently, two SHOX conserved non-coding element duplications, one upstream and one downstream, were reported in patients referred with idiopathic short stature. To further evaluate the role of these duplications in SHOX-related disorders, we describe seven patients (five with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and two with short stature) all of whom have duplications of part of the upstream or downstream conserved non-coding element regions, identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. In addition, we show data from 32 patients with an apparently identical downstream duplication that includes a proposed putative regulatory element (identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or array comparative genome hybridization), which results in a variable phenotype from normal to mild Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. These additional data provide further evidence that duplications of upstream and downstream long range cis-regulatory DNA elements can result in a SHOX-related phenotype.


Assuntos
Duplicação Cromossômica , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Nanismo/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Proteína de Homoeobox de Baixa Estatura , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(10): 2231-7, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26079862

RESUMO

De novo mutations (DNM) in SYNGAP1, encoding Ras/Rap GTPase-activating protein SynGAP, have been reported in individuals with nonsyndromic intellectual disability (ID). We identified 10 previously unreported individuals with SYNGAP1 DNM; seven via the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) Study, one through clinical analysis for copy number variation and the remaining two (monozygotic twins) via a research multi-gene panel analysis. Seven of the nine heterozygous mutations are likely to result in loss-of-function (3 nonsense; 3 frameshift; 1 whole gene deletion). The remaining two mutations, one of which affected the monozygotic twins, were missense variants. Each individual carrying a DNM in SYNGAP1 had moderate-to-severe ID and 7/10 had epilepsy; typically myoclonic seizures, absences or drop attacks. 8/10 had hypotonia, 5/10 had significant constipation, 7/10 had wide-based/unsteady gait, 3/10 had strabismus, and 2/10 had significant hip dysplasia. A proportion of the affected individuals had a similar, myopathic facial appearance, with broad nasal bridge, relatively long nose and full lower lip vermilion. A distinctive behavioral phenotype was also observed with aggressive/challenging behavior and significant sleep problems being common. 7/10 individuals had MR imaging of the brain each of which was reported as normal. The clinical features of the individuals reported here show significant overlap with those associated with 6p21.3 microdeletions, confirming that haploinsufficiency for SYNGAP1 is responsible for both disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Constipação Intestinal/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/patologia , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/genética , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Haploinsuficiência , Luxação do Quadril/diagnóstico , Luxação do Quadril/genética , Luxação do Quadril/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/diagnóstico , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Fenótipo , Estrabismo/diagnóstico , Estrabismo/genética , Estrabismo/patologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
17.
J Hum Genet ; 59(9): 484-7, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25007883

RESUMO

Parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH, MIM 168470) is a humoral factor, structurally and functionally related to parathyroid hormone, which mediates multiple effects on chondrocyte, osteoblast and osteoclast function. Mutations and copy number imbalances of the PTHLH locus and in the gene encoding its receptor, PTHR1, result in a variety of skeletal dysplasias including brachydactyly type E, Eiken syndrome, Jansen metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and Blomstrand type chondrodysplasia. Here we describe three individuals with duplications of the PTHLH locus, including two who are mosaic for these imbalances, leading to a hitherto unrecognized syndrome characterized by acro-osteolysis, cortical irregularity of long bones and metadiaphyseal enchondromata.


Assuntos
Acro-Osteólise/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Duplicação Gênica , Mutação , Proteína Relacionada ao Hormônio Paratireóideo/genética , Acro-Osteólise/patologia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Síndrome de Hajdu-Cheney/genética , Síndrome de Hajdu-Cheney/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Síndrome
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 23(12): 3200-11, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24463883

RESUMO

In severe early-onset epilepsy, precise clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis is complex, as many metabolic and electro-physiological processes have been implicated in disease causation. The clinical phenotypes share many features such as complex seizure types and developmental delay. Molecular diagnosis has historically been confined to sequential testing of candidate genes known to be associated with specific sub-phenotypes, but the diagnostic yield of this approach can be low. We conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on six patients with severe early-onset epilepsy who had previously been refractory to molecular diagnosis, and their parents. Four of these patients had a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara Syndrome (OS) and two patients had severe non-syndromic early-onset epilepsy (NSEOE). In two OS cases, we found de novo non-synonymous mutations in the genes KCNQ2 and SCN2A. In a third OS case, WGS revealed paternal isodisomy for chromosome 9, leading to identification of the causal homozygous missense variant in KCNT1, which produced a substantial increase in potassium channel current. The fourth OS patient had a recessive mutation in PIGQ that led to exon skipping and defective glycophosphatidyl inositol biosynthesis. The two patients with NSEOE had likely pathogenic de novo mutations in CBL and CSNK1G1, respectively. Mutations in these genes were not found among 500 additional individuals with epilepsy. This work reveals two novel genes for OS, KCNT1 and PIGQ. It also uncovers unexpected genetic mechanisms and emphasizes the power of WGS as a clinical tool for making molecular diagnoses, particularly for highly heterogeneous disorders.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Canal de Potássio KCNQ2/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Patologia Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/genética , Dissomia Uniparental , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Dis Child ; 96(10): 954-9, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20656736

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) are found on amniocentesis in 2.3-3.7 per 1000 same-sex births, yet there is a limited database on which to base a prognosis. Autism has been described in postnatally diagnosed cases of Klinefelter syndrome (XXY karyotype), but the prevalence in non-referred samples, and in other trisomies, is unclear. The authors recruited the largest sample including all three SCTs to be reported to date, including children identified on prenatal screening, to clarify this issue. DESIGN: Parents of children with a SCT were recruited either via prenatal screening or via a parental support group, to give a sample of 58 XXX, 19 XXY and 58 XYY cases. Parents were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and completed questionnaires about the communicative development of children with SCTs and their siblings (42 brothers and 26 sisters). RESULTS: Rates of language and communication problems were high in all three trisomies. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were found in 2/19 cases of XXY (11%) and 11/58 XYY (19%). After excluding those with an ASD diagnosis, communicative profiles indicative of mild autistic features were common, although there was wide individual variation. CONCLUSIONS: Autistic features have not previously been remarked upon in studies of non-referred samples with SCTs, yet the rate is substantially above population levels in this sample, even when attention is restricted to early-identified cases. The authors hypothesise that X-linked and Y-linked neuroligins may play a significant role in the aetiology of communication impairments and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Trissomia , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/psicologia , Educação Especial , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Terapia da Linguagem , Masculino , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Psicometria , Fonoterapia
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 18(12): 1310-4, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20648051

RESUMO

Mesomelic dysplasia Kantaputra type (MDK) is characterized by marked mesomelic shortening of the upper and lower limbs originally described in a Thai family. To identify the cause of MDK, we performed array CGH and identified two microduplications on chromosome 2 (2q31.1-q31.2) encompassing ∼481 and 507 kb, separated by a segment of normal copy number. The more centromeric duplication encompasses the entire HOXD cluster, as well as the neighboring genes EVX2 and MTX2. The breakpoints of the duplication localize to the same region as the previously identified inversion of the mouse mutant ulnaless (Ul), which has a similar phenotype as MDK. We propose that MDK is caused by duplications that modify the topography of the locus and as such result in deregulation of HOXD gene expression.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Animais , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Fíbula/anormalidades , Deformidades do Pé/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Rádio (Anatomia)/anormalidades , Trissomia/genética , Ulna/anormalidades
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