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1.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-8, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate agreement among radiologists in detecting and assessing prostate cancer at multiparametric MRI using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment-naïve patients underwent 3-T multipara-metric MRI between April 2012 and June 2015. Among the 163 patients evaluated, 110 underwent prostatectomy after MRI and 53 had normal MRI findings and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy results. Nine radiologists participated (three each with high, intermediate, and low levels of experience). Readers interpreted images of 58 patients on average (range, 56-60) using PI-RADSv2. Prostatectomy specimens registered to MRI were ground truth. Interob-server agreement was evaluated with the index of specific agreement for lesion detection and kappa and proportion of agreement for PI-RADS category assignment. RESULTS: The radiologists detected 336 lesions. Sensitivity for index lesions was 80.9% (95% CI, 75.1-85.9%), comparable across reader experience (p = 0.392). Patient-level specificity was experience dependent; highly experienced readers had 84.0% specificity versus 55.2% for all others (p < 0.001). Interobserver agreement was excellent for detecting index lesions (index of specific agreement, 0.871; 95% CI, 0.798-0.923). Agreement on PI-RADSv2 category assignment of index lesions was moderate (κ = 0.419; 95% CI, 0.238-0.595). For individual category assignments, proportion of agreement was slight for PI-RADS category 3 (0.208; 95% CI, 0.086-0.284) but substantial for PI-RADS category 4 (0.674; 95% CI, 0.540-0.776). However, proportion of agreement for T2-weighted PI-RADS 4 in the transition zone was 0.250 (95% CI, 0.108-0.372). Proportion of agreement for category assignment of index lesions on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images was 0.822 (95% CI, 0.728-0.903), on T2-weighted MR images was 0.515 (95% CI, 0.430-0623), and on DW images was 0.586 (95% CI, 0.495-0.682). Proportion of agreement for dominant lesion was excellent (0.828; 95% CI, 0.742-0.913). CONCLUSION: Radiologists across experience levels had excellent agreement for detecting index lesions and moderate agreement for category assignment of lesions using PI-RADS. Future iterations of PI-RADS should clarify PI-RADS 3 and PI-RADS 4 in the transition zone.

2.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 49(6): 1694-1703, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) has been in use since 2015; while interreader reproducibility has been studied, there has been a paucity of studies investigating the intrareader reproducibility of PI-RADSv2. PURPOSE: To evaluate both intra- and interreader reproducibility of PI-RADSv2 in the assessment of intraprostatic lesions using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION/SUBJECTS: In all, 102 consecutive biopsy-naïve patients who underwent prostate MRI and subsequent MR/transrectal ultrasonography (MR/TRUS)-guided biopsy. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCES: Prostate mpMRI at 3T using endorectal with phased array surface coils (TW MRI, DW MRI with ADC maps and b2000 DW MRI, DCE MRI). ASSESSMENT: Previously detected and biopsied lesions were scored by four readers from four different institutions using PI-RADSv2. Readers scored lesions during two readout rounds with a 4-week washout period. STATISTICAL TESTS: Kappa (κ) statistics and specific agreement (Po ) were calculated to quantify intra- and interreader reproducibility of PI-RADSv2 scoring. Lesion measurement agreement was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Overall intrareader reproducibility was moderate to substantial (κ = 0.43-0.67, Po = 0.60-0.77), while overall interreader reproducibility was poor to moderate (κ = 0.24, Po = 46). Readers with more experience showed greater interreader reproducibility than readers with intermediate experience in the whole prostate (P = 0.026) and peripheral zone (P = 0.002). Sequence-specific interreader agreement for all readers was similar to the overall PI-RADSv2 score, with κ = 0.24, 0.24, and 0.23 and Po = 0.47, 0.44, and 0.54 in T2 -weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), respectively. Overall intrareader and interreader ICC for lesion measurement was 0.82 and 0.71, respectively. DATA CONCLUSION: PI-RADSv2 provides moderate intrareader reproducibility, poor interreader reproducibility, and moderate interreader lesion measurement reproducibility. These findings suggest a need for more standardized reader training in prostate MRI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2.

3.
Oncotarget ; 9(73): 33804-33817, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333911

RESUMO

For prostate cancer detection on prostate multiparametric MRI (mpMRI), the Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems aim to widely improve standardization across radiologists and centers. Our goal was to evaluate CAD assistance in prostate cancer detection compared with conventional mpMRI interpretation in a diverse dataset acquired from five institutions tested by nine readers of varying experience levels, in total representing 14 globally spread institutions. Index lesion sensitivities of mpMRI-alone were 79% (whole prostate (WP)), 84% (peripheral zone (PZ)), 71% (transition zone (TZ)), similar to CAD at 76% (WP, p=0.39), 77% (PZ, p=0.07), 79% (TZ, p=0.15). Greatest CAD benefit was in TZ for moderately-experienced readers at PI-RADSv2 <3 (84% vs mpMRI-alone 67%, p=0.055). Detection agreement was unchanged but CAD-assisted read times improved (4.6 vs 3.4 minutes, p<0.001). At PI-RADSv2 ≥ 3, CAD improved patient-level specificity (72%) compared to mpMRI-alone (45%, p<0.001). PI-RADSv2 and CAD-assisted mpMRI interpretations have similar sensitivities across multiple sites and readers while CAD has potential to improve specificity and moderately-experienced radiologists' detection of more difficult tumors in the center of the gland. The multi-institutional evidence provided is essential to future prostate MRI and CAD development.

4.
Eur Radiol ; 28(10): 4407-4417, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) prior to prostate multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) can improve sensitivity and agreement between radiologists. METHODS: Nine radiologists (three each high, intermediate, low experience) from eight institutions participated. A total of 163 patients with 3-T mpMRI from 4/2012 to 6/2015 were included: 110 cancer patients with prostatectomy after mpMRI, 53 patients with no lesions on mpMRI and negative TRUS-guided biopsy. Readers were blinded to all outcomes and detected lesions per PI-RADSv2 on mpMRI. After 5 weeks, readers re-evaluated patients using CAD to detect lesions. Prostatectomy specimens registered to MRI were ground truth with index lesions defined on pathology. Sensitivity, specificity and agreement were calculated per patient, lesion level and zone-peripheral (PZ) and transition (TZ). RESULTS: Index lesion sensitivity was 78.2% for mpMRI alone and 86.3% for CAD-assisted mpMRI (p = 0.013). Sensitivity was comparable for TZ lesions (78.7% vs 78.1%; p = 0.929); CAD improved PZ lesion sensitivity (84% vs 94%; p = 0.003). Improved sensitivity came from lesions scored PI-RADS < 3 as index lesion sensitivity was comparable at PI-RADS ≥ 3 (77.6% vs 78.1%; p = 0.859). Per patient specificity was 57.1% for CAD and 70.4% for mpMRI (p = 0.003). CAD improved agreement between all readers (56.9% vs 71.8%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CAD-assisted mpMRI improved sensitivity and agreement, but decreased specificity, between radiologists of varying experience. KEY POINTS: • Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) assists clinicians in detecting prostate cancer on MRI. • CAD assistance improves agreement between radiologists in detecting prostate cancer lesions. • However, this CAD system induces more false positives, particularly for less-experienced clinicians and in the transition zone. • CAD assists radiologists in detecting cancer missed on MRI, suggesting a path for improved diagnostic confidence.


Assuntos
Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 48(2): 482-490, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29341356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate imaging reporting and data system version 2 (PI-RADSv2) recommends a sector map for reporting findings of prostate cancer mulitparametric MRI (mpMRI). Anecdotally, radiologists may demonstrate inconsistent reproducibility with this map. PURPOSE: To evaluate interobserver agreement in defining prostate tumor location on mpMRI using the PI-RADSv2 sector map. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Thirty consecutive patients who underwent mpMRI between October, 2013 and March, 2015 and who subsequently underwent prostatectomy with whole-mount processing. FIELD STRENGTH: 3T mpMRI with T2 W, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] and b-2000), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE). ASSESSMENT: Six radiologists (two high, two intermediate, and two low experience) from six institutions participated. Readers were blinded to lesion location and detected up to four lesions as per PI-RADSv2 guidelines. Readers marked the long-axis of lesions, saved screen-shots of each lesion, and then marked the lesion location on the PI-RADSv2 sector map. Whole-mount prostatectomy specimens registered to the MRI served as ground truth. Index lesions were defined as the highest grade lesion or largest lesion if grades were equivalent. STATISTICAL TEST: Agreement was calculated for the exact, overlap, and proportion of agreement. RESULTS: Readers detected an average of 1.9 lesions per patient (range 1.6-2.3). 96.3% (335/348) of all lesions for all readers were scored PI-RADS ≥3. Readers defined a median of 2 (range 1-18) sectors per lesion. Agreement for detecting index lesions by screen shots was 83.7% (76.1%-89.9%) vs. 71.0% (63.1-78.3%) overlap agreement on the PI-RADS sector map (P < 0.001). Exact agreement for defining sectors of detected index lesions was only 21.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14.4-27.7%) and rose to 49.0% (42.4-55.3%) when overlap was considered. Agreement on defining the same level of disease (ie, apex, mid, base) was 61.4% (95% CI 50.2-71.8%). DATA CONCLUSION: Readers are highly likely to detect the same index lesion on mpMRI, but exhibit poor reproducibility when attempting to define tumor location on the PI-RADSv2 sector map. The poor agreement of the PI-RADSv2 sector map raises concerns its utility in clinical practice. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2018;48:482-490.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Próstata/patologia , Prostatectomia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 24(1): 46-53, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317377

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has utility in detecting post-radiotherapy local recurrence. We conducted a multireader study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mpMRI for local recurrence after low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy. METHODS: A total of 19 patients with biochemical recurrence after LDR brachytherapy underwent 3T endorectal coil mpMRI with T2-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with pathologic confirmation. Prospective reads by an experienced prostate radiologist were compared with reads from 4 radiologists of varying experience. Readers identified suspicious lesions and rated each MRI detection parameter. MRI-detected lesions were considered true-positive with ipsilateral pathologic confirmation. Inferences for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), kappa, and index of specific agreement were made with the use of bootstrap resampling. RESULTS: Pathologically confirmed recurrence was found in 15 of 19 patients. True positive recurrences identified by mpMRI were frequently located in the transition zone (46.7%) and seminal vesicles (30%). On patient-based analysis, average sensitivity of mpMRI was 88% (standard error [SE], 3.5%). For highly suspicious lesions, specificity of mpMRI was 75% (SE, 16.5%). On lesion-based analysis, the average PPV was 62% (SE, 6.7%) for all lesions and 78.7% (SE, 10.3%) for highly suspicious lesions. The average PPV for lesions invading the seminal vesicles was 88.8% (n=13). The average PPV was 66.6% (SE, 5.8%) for lesions identified with T2-weighted imaging, 64.9% (SE, 7.3%) for DCE, and 70% (SE, 7.3%) for DWI. CONCLUSION: This series provides evidence that mpMRI after LDR brachytherapy is feasible with a high patient-based cancer detection rate. Radiologists of varying experience demonstrated moderate agreement in detecting recurrence.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meios de Contraste , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Doses de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Radiology ; 285(3): 859-869, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727501

RESUMO

Purpose To validate the dominant pulse sequence paradigm and limited role of dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 for prostate multiparametric MR imaging by using data from a multireader study. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant retrospective interpretation of prospectively acquired data was approved by the local ethics committee. Patients were treatment-naïve with endorectal coil 3-T multiparametric MR imaging. A total of 163 patients were evaluated, 110 with prostatectomy after multiparametric MR imaging and 53 with negative multiparametric MR imaging and systematic biopsy findings. Nine radiologists participated in this study and interpreted images in 58 patients, on average (range, 56-60 patients). Lesions were detected with PI-RADS version 2 and were compared with whole-mount prostatectomy findings. Probability of cancer detection for overall, T2-weighted, and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging PI-RADS scores was calculated in the peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) by using generalized estimating equations. To determine dominant pulse sequence and benefit of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated as the ratio of odds of cancer of two consecutive scores by logistic regression. Results A total of 654 lesions (420 in the PZ) were detected. The probability of cancer detection for PI-RADS category 2, 3, 4, and 5 lesions was 15.7%, 33.1%, 70.5%, and 90.7%, respectively. DW imaging outperformed T2-weighted imaging in the PZ (OR, 3.49 vs 2.45; P = .008). T2-weighted imaging performed better but did not clearly outperform DW imaging in the TZ (OR, 4.79 vs 3.77; P = .494). Lesions classified as PI-RADS category 3 at DW MR imaging and as positive at DCE imaging in the PZ showed a higher probability of cancer detection than did DCE-negative PI-RADS category 3 lesions (67.8% vs 40.0%, P = .02). The addition of DCE imaging to DW imaging in the PZ was beneficial (OR, 2.0; P = .027), with an increase in the probability of cancer detection of 15.7%, 16.0%, and 9.2% for PI-RADS category 2, 3, and 4 lesions, respectively. Conclusion DW imaging outperforms T2-weighted imaging in the PZ; T2-weighted imaging did not show a significant difference when compared with DW imaging in the TZ by PI-RADS version 2 criteria. The addition of DCE imaging to DW imaging scores in the PZ yields meaningful improvements in probability of cancer detection. © RSNA, 2017 An earlier incorrect version of this article appeared online. This article was corrected on July 27, 2017. Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Meios de Contraste , Guias como Assunto , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Radiol Res Pract ; 2014: 903747, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25374680

RESUMO

Purpose. To determine to what extent an inflatable endorectal coil (ERC) affects whole prostate (WP) volume and shape during prostate MRI. Materials and Methods. 79 consecutive patients underwent T2W MRI at 3T first with a 6-channel surface coil and then with the combination of a 16-channel surface coil and ERC in the same imaging session. WP volume was assessed by manually contouring the prostate in each T2W axial slice. PSA density was also calculated. The maximum anterior-posterior (AP), left-right (LR), and craniocaudal (CC) prostate dimensions were measured. Changes in WP prostate volume, PSA density, and prostate dimensions were then evaluated. Results. In 79 patients, use of an ERC yielded no significant change in whole prostate volume (0.6 ± 5.7%, P = 0.270) and PSA density (-0.2 ± 5.6%, P = 0.768). However, use of an ERC significantly decreased the AP dimension of the prostate by -8.6 ± 7.8% (P < 0.001), increased LR dimension by 4.5 ± 5.8% (P < 0.001), and increased the CC dimension by 8.8 ± 6.9% (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Use of an ERC in prostate MRI results in the shape deformation of the prostate gland with no significant change in the volume of the prostate measured on T2W MRI. Therefore, WP volumes calculated on ERC MRI can be reliably used in clinical workflow.

9.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 25(4): 733-40, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24969181

RESUMO

To evaluate the role of power Doppler in the identification and differentiation between acute renal transplant rejection and acute tubular necrosis (ATN), we studied 67 live donor renal transplant recipients. All patients were examined by spectral and power Doppler sonography. Assessment of cortical perfusion (CP) by power Doppler was subjective, using our grading score system: P0 (normal CP); homogenous cortical blush extending to the capsule, P1 (reduced CP); cortical vascular cut-off at interlobular level, P2 (markedly reduced CP); scattered cortical color flow at the interlobar level. Renal biopsies were performed during acute graft dysfunction. Pathological diagnoses were based on Banff classification 1997. The Mann- Whitney test was used to test the difference between CP grades with respect to serum creatinine (SCr), and resistive index (RI). For 38 episodes of acute graft rejection grade I, power Doppler showed that CP was P1 and RI ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. For 21 episodes of acute graft rejection grade II, power Doppler showed that CP was P1, with RI ranging from 0.88 to >1. Only one case of grade III rejection had a CP of P2. Twelve biopsies of ATN had CP of P0 and RI ranging from 0.80 to 0.89 There was a statistically significant correlation between CP grading and SCr (P <0.01) as well as between CP grading and RI (P <0.05). CP grading had a higher sensitivity in the detection of early acute rejection compared with RI and cross-sectional area measurements. We conclude that power Doppler is a non-invasive sensitive technique that may help in the detection and differentiation between acute renal transplant rejection and ATN, particularly in the early post-transplantation period.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Necrose Tubular Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Circulação Renal , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Necrose Tubular Aguda/etiologia , Necrose Tubular Aguda/fisiopatologia , Doadores Vivos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Radiographics ; 33(4): 1125-43, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23842975

RESUMO

Cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract are uncommon and usually benign. These cysts have different anatomic origins and may be associated with a variety of genitourinary abnormalities and symptoms. Various complications may be associated with these cysts, such as urinary tract infection, pain, postvoiding incontinence, recurrent epididymitis, prostatitis, and hematospermia, and they may cause infertility. Understanding the embryologic development and normal anatomy of the lower male genitourinary tract can be helpful in evaluating these cysts and in tailoring an approach for developing a differential diagnosis. There are two main groups of cysts of the lower male genitourinary tract: intraprostatic cysts and extraprostatic cysts. Intraprostatic cysts can be further classified into median cysts (prostatic utricle cysts, müllerian duct cysts), paramedian cysts (ejaculatory duct cysts), and lateral cysts (prostatic retention cysts, cystic degeneration of benign prostatic hypertrophy, cysts associated with tumors, prostatic abscess). Extraprostatic cysts include cysts of the seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and Cowper duct. A variety of pathologic conditions can mimic these types of cysts, including ureterocele, defect resulting from transurethral resection of the prostate gland, bladder diverticulum, and hydroureter and ectopic insertion of ureter. Accurate diagnosis depends mainly on the anatomic location of the cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasonography (US) are excellent for detecting and characterizing the nature and exact anatomic origin of these cysts. In addition, transrectal US can play an important therapeutic role in the management of cyst drainage and aspiration, as in cases of prostatic abscess.


Assuntos
Cistos/diagnóstico , Cistos/embriologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/diagnóstico , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/embriologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 40 Suppl 1: S48-59, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23649462

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among American men. Imaging of localized and recurrent prostate cancer is challenging since conventional imaging techniques are limited. New imaging techniques such as multiparametric MRI and PET with targeted tracers have been investigated extensively in the last decade. As a result, the role of novel imaging techniques for the detection of localized and recurrent prostate cancer has recently expanded. In this review, novel functional and molecular imaging techniques used in the management of localized and recurrent prostate cancer are discussed.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
12.
Urology ; 81(4): 723-6, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23465152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical relevance of small, asymptomatic, noninfection residual stone fragments (≤5 mm) after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), evaluated using spiral noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present retrospective study included 75 patients who underwent PNL and were proved to have a single residual caliceal stone ≤5 mm as evaluated postoperatively by NCCT. All patients were free of urinary tract infections. The outcome of these residual fragments (RFs) were reassessed ≥12 months later using NCCT. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 36.2 ± 20.1 months (range 12-96). Of the 75 evaluated patients, 25 (33.3%) passed the stones spontaneously during the follow-up period, 22 (29.35%) had stable asymptomatic RFs, 25 (33.3%) showed regrowth of the RFs, and 3 patients (4%) presented with slippage of the stones into the ureter. Asymptomatic patients with stable RFs elected to continue follow-up. For the remaining patients, 14 (18.7%) and 9 (12%) were referred to shock wave lithotripsy and PNL, respectively. The 3 patients with ureteral stones were treated with ureteroscopy. Only the RF size (>3 mm) correlated significantly with RF growth or ureteral obstruction (odds ratio 1.882, 95% confidence interval 0.919-3.854; P = .05). CONCLUSION: Small RFs (≤5 mm) after PNL, as assessed by NCCT, should be expected to require active intervention in one third of the patients at intermediate follow-up. A small, single, RF (≤3 mm), as assessed by NCCT, can be considered clinically insignificant.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Adulto Jovem
13.
Radiographics ; 32(4): 1031-46, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786992

RESUMO

Genitourinary schistosomiasis is produced by Schistosoma haematobium, a species of fluke that is endemic to Africa and the Middle East, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality in those regions. It also may be seen elsewhere, as a result of travel or immigration. S haematobium, one of the five fluke species that account for most human cases of schistosomiasis, is the only species that infects the genitourinary system, where it may lead to a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs. In the early stages, it primarily involves the bladder and ureters; later, the kidneys and genital organs are involved. It rarely infects the colon or lungs. A definitive diagnosis of genitourinary schistosomiasis is based on findings of parasite ova at microscopic urinalysis. Clinical manifestations and radiologic imaging features also may be suggestive of the disease, even at an early stage: Hematuria, dysuria, and hemospermia, early clinical signs of an established S haematobium infection, appear within 3 months after infection. At imaging, fine ureteral calcifications that appear as a line or parallel lines on abdominopelvic radiographs and as a circular pattern on axial images from computed tomography (CT) are considered pathognomonic of early-stage schistosomiasis. Ureteritis, pyelitis, and cystitis cystica, conditions that are characterized by air bubble-like filling defects representing ova deposited in the ureter, kidney, and bladder, respectively, may be seen at intravenous urography, intravenous ureteropyelography, and CT urography. Coarse calcification, fibrosis, and strictures are signs of chronic or late-stage schistosomiasis. Such changes may be especially severe in the bladder, creating a predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma. Genital involvement, which occurs more often in men than in women, predominantly affects the prostate and seminal vesicles.


Assuntos
Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/parasitologia , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Urogenitais Masculinas/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquistossomose Urinária/parasitologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 35(3): 337-42, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21586926

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to prospectively assess the utility of quantitative enhancement washout method in the differentiation of benign solid renal masses from various subtypes of malignant masses using multidetector computed tomography. METHODS: In a prospective investigation from January 2009 to May 2010, 97 patients with solid renal masses underwent CT scan examination with unenhanced, arterial, parenchymal, and delayed phases. The following features were analyzed: the maximum attenuation value in each phase, attenuation difference (enhancement) of the mass in each phase from the unenhanced phase (ΔH), and parenchymal and delayed phases' washout. Of these patients, 82 (85%) underwent unilateral radical nephrectomy, 15 (15%) underwent partial nephrectomy. Group comparison was performed with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The masses included in our study were 45 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCCs); 18 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, 16 papillary (PRCC), 14 oncocytomas, and 4 minimal fat containing angiomyolipomas. In the arterial phase, the CCRCC was the most enhancing type and could be differentiated from other renal masses (benign or malignant) with high sensitivity and specificity. In the parenchymal phase, the CCRCCs demonstrated the highest washout. Chromophobe renal cell carcinomas showed the second highest washout in this phase. Benign lesions and PRCCs did not exhibit significant washout in this phase. In the delayed phase, the malignant lesions (with the exception of PRCCs) showed the highest washout. Benign lesions showed significant washout but less than malignant lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Multiphasic multidetector CT utilizing arterial-phase attenuation and quantitative enhancement washout method could help in the preoperative differentiation of various types of solid renal masses.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia , Estudos Prospectivos , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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