Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 132
Filtrar
1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628506

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little systematic evidence exists about the effectiveness of cigar warnings. This study examined the perceived message effectiveness (PME) of warning statements about different health consequences caused by cigars. PME is a validated self-report scale of how effectively a health message discourages smoking. METHODS: We conducted an online study from April-May 2020 with adults in the United States who used cigars in the past 30 days (n=777). Participants were randomly assigned to view and rate PME (3 items, range 1 to 5) for 7 out of 37 text warning statements about different health consequences from cigar use. Linear mixed effects models evaluated the most effective warning characteristics (e.g., type of health consequence), controlling for repeated measures and participant demographics. RESULTS: Analyses showed that health consequences about the cardiovascular system (B=0.38), mouth (B=0.40), other digestive (B=0.45), respiratory system (B=0.36), and early death (B=0.36) were associated with higher PME scores than reproductive health consequences (all p-values <0.001). Similar results were found for these health consequences compared to addiction (all p-values p<0.001). We also observed that awareness of the health consequence was associated with higher PME scores (B=0.19, p<0.001) and length of the warning message (number of characters) was associated with lower PME scores (B=-0.007, p=0.03). No differences were observed between cancer and non-cancer health consequences (p=0.27) or health consequences that used plain language vs. medical jargon (p=0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence about the perceived effectiveness of different cigar health warning statements and identifies features that may strengthen statements. IMPLICATIONS: Our study with cigar smokers from across the United States provides much-needed evidence concerning the perceived effectiveness of different cigar health warning statements and features that may strengthen such statements. Mandated cigar warnings in the United States could be strengthened by including health consequences that were perceived as more effective in our study (e.g., early death), using health consequences that participants were aware of, and using short warning statements.

2.
Psychol Health ; : 1-20, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the mechanisms of action underlying behavioral interventions, researchers typically examine whether the treatment changes cognitions and whether changes in cognition predict behavior (cognitive change). This current research explores an alternative mechanism whereby the intervention increases the impact of pre-existing cognitions on behavior (cognitive activation). We tested whether cognitive change or cognitive activation explains the impact of cigarette pack messages on smoking restraint. DESIGN: The research comprised a validation experiment (N = 135) and a 4-week RCT (N = 719) with smokers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At both baseline and follow-up of the RCT, smokers self-reported threat appraisals, coping appraisals, and smoking restraint. RESULTS: Intervention messages heightened the accessibility of threat appraisals compared to control messages (validation experiment). In the RCT, smoking restraint increased among intervention participants but not controls. Trial arm showed no corresponding change in threat or coping appraisals. However, trial arm interacted with baseline health cognitions such that synergies between threat appraisal components, and between threat appraisals and coping appraisals, predicted smoking restraint for intervention participants but not for controls. CONCLUSION: Our findings support a cognitive activation process whereby health messages on cigarette packs increase the impact of pre-existing threat appraisals on smoking restraint.

3.
J Behav Med ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406549

RESUMO

The desire to engage in waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) may occur when smokers and nonsmokers conjure positive mental simulations of WTS. However, effects of these simulations on desire to smoke waterpipe tobacco and potential mediators are unexplored. This research addressed these effects among young adult waterpipe tobacco smokers and nonsmokers. Two online studies were conducted with adults ages 18-30. In Study 1, 200 smokers, 190 susceptible nonsmokers, and 182 nonsusceptible nonsmokers were randomized to mentally simulate or not WTS in the future. In Study 2, 234 smokers and 241 susceptible nonsmokers were randomized to four arms: no simulation or simulations that varied valence of experience (positive, negative or no valence provided). Main outcomes were immediate desire to smoke waterpipe tobacco, cognitive and affective attitudes, and perceived harms. In Study 1, mental simulations increased the desire to smoke waterpipe tobacco among smokers. In Study 2, asking participants to simulate WTS positively or with no valence instruction increased desire to smoke relative to negative valence instruction or no simulation. Negative simulations reduced perceived probability of smoking within a month compared to positive simulations. Effects on desire to engage in WTS were mediated by cognitive and affective attitudes among susceptible nonsmokers and by cognitive attitudes among smokers. These findings suggest that exploring when and how often mental simulations about WTS are evoked and their potency for promoting prevention and cessation of WTS merit further attention.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178113

RESUMO

Poor health and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) contribute substantially to the shortened lifespan of individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Increasing physical activity has demonstrated value; however, there are limited interventions that are accessible and adequately address motivational challenges. This paper reports on an open trial of Physical Activity Can Enhance Life (PACE-Life), a motivational theory-based manualized multicomponent walking intervention. The primary aim was to examine the feasibility of implementing PACE-Life through meeting the recruitment target (n=14), attendance and adherence rates, and participant feedback. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of PACE-Life on intermediate targets (autonomous motivation and satisfaction of autonomy, relatedness, and competence needs), proximal outcomes (Fitbit steps/day and minutes spent walking), the primary outcome (CRF), and secondary outcomes (loneliness, symptoms, resting heart rate, blood pressure, weight, body mass index, and hip and waist circumference). Seventeen participants with SSDs enrolled in a 24-week open trial. Assessments occurred at baseline, midpoint, post-test, and one-month follow-up. The recruitment target was exceeded, the group attendance rate was 34%, Fitbit adherence rate was 54%, and participant feedback indicated satisfaction with the intervention as well as a positive group environment. There was a large improvement in the primary outcome of CRF with 77% of participants achieving clinically significant improvement at post-test. Small and medium effect size increases were observed in autonomous motivation and satisfaction of autonomy, relatedness, and competence needs. Fitbit data and secondary outcomes generally remained unchanged or worsened during the intervention. Results from this open trial indicate that PACE-Life leads to meaningful changes in CRF among people with SSDs.

5.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 309-321, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This review highlights the scope and significance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with a focus on biobehavioral aspects and critical avenues for research. METHODS: A narrative review of the published research literature was undertaken, highlighting major empirical findings emerging during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Interactions among biological, behavioral, and societal processes were prominent across all regions of the globe during the first year of the COVID-19 emergency. Affective, cognitive, behavioral, socioeconomic, and technological factors all played a significant role in the spread of infection, response precautions, and outcomes of mitigation efforts. Affective symptoms, suicidality, and cognitive dysfunction have been widely described consequences of the infection, the economic fallout, and the necessary public health mitigation measures themselves. The impact of COVID-19 may be especially serious for those living with severe mental illness and/or chronic medical diseases, given the confluence of several adverse factors in a manner that appears to have syndemic potential. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has made clear that biological and behavioral factors interact with societal processes in the infectious disease context. Empirical research examining mechanistic pathways from infection and recovery to immunological, behavioral, and emotional outcomes is critical. Examination of how emotional and behavioral factors relate to the pandemic-both as causes and as effects-can provide valuable insights that can improve management of the current pandemic and future pandemics to come.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Medo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Racismo/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Suicídio/psicologia
6.
J Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Premature mortality in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) is largely due to high rates of chronic health conditions. Although exercise has been shown to improve health in this population, scalable and accessible interventions are limited. AIM: To examine the impact of Physical Activity Can Enhance Life (PACE-Life), a novel walking intervention, on physical activity, and on secondary outcomes of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical health, autonomous motivation, social support, and quality of life. METHOD: Sixteen individuals with SSDs were enrolled in a 10-week open trial. The intervention included walking groups, home-based walks, Fitbit use, and goal-setting and if-then plans. Within-group effect sizes were calculated to represent changes from baseline to post-test and 1-month follow-up. RESULTS: Participants increased self-reported weekly walking minutes and decreased daily hours spent sitting; however, Fitbit-recorded exercise behavior changed only minimally. There were also improvements in secondary outcomes including autonomous motivation and hip circumference. CRF improved only minimally, and findings were relatively unchanged with outliers removed from the full sample. CONCLUSIONS: This open trial demonstrates modest improvements in key parameters of exercise behavior and physical health from participating in PACE-Life. Future research should assess the efficacy of this intervention in a randomized controlled trial.

7.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 576749, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633551

RESUMO

Socioeconomic status (SES)-related health disparities persist for numerous chronic diseases, with lower-SES individuals exhibiting greater risk of morbidity and mortality compared to their higher-SES counterparts. One likely contributor is disparities in health messaging efforts, which are currently less effective for motivating health behavior change among those lower in SES. Drawing on communication neuroscience and social neuroscience research, we describe a conceptual framework to improve health messaging effectiveness in lower SES communities. The framework is based on evidence that health-message-induced activity in the ventral striatum (VS) and subdivisions of the medial pre-frontal cortex (MPFC) predicts behavior change. Additionally, we draw from social neuroscience work showing that activity in these regions during valuation and the processing of self-related vs. social information, differs as a function of SES. Bringing together these previously disparate lines of work, we argue that health messages emphasizing the benefits to close others (vs. the self) of engaging in behavior change will be more effective among lower SES individuals. We also outline a research agenda based on our framework. Ultimately, we hope that this framework utilizing a "brain-as-predictor" approach generates novel insights about the neural underpinnings of message-induced behavior change among lower SES individuals, and helps to close the gap in SES-based health disparities by harnessing the power of neuroimaging.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210045, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625509

RESUMO

Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is required to communicate the risks of tobacco constituents to the public. Few studies have addressed how FDA media campaigns can effectively communicate about cigarette smoke constituents. Objective: To examine whether messages about cigarette smoke constituents are effective in reducing smoking intentions and behaviors among adults who smoke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial enrolled participants who were aged between 18 and 65 years, were English speakers, were living in the United States, and who smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and now smoked every day or some days. Participants received daily messages via email for 15 days. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 message conditions or a control group and reported their previous-day smoking behaviors daily. Follow-up surveys were conducted on days 16 and 32. Data were collected from June 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed from April to September 2018. Interventions: The 3 groups were (1) constituent plus engagement messages (eg, "Cigarette smoke contains arsenic. This causes heart damage.") that included the FDA as the source and engagement text (eg, "Within 3 months of quitting, your heart and lungs work better. Ready to be tobacco free? You can quit. For free nicotine replacement, call 1-800-QUIT-NOW"); (2) constituent-only messages that did not list the FDA as the source or include engagement text; and (3) a control condition with messages about littering cigarette butts. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the change in quit intentions (range, 1-4, with higher scores indicating stronger intentions) from pretest to day 16. Secondary outcome measures included daily smoking behaviors and quit attempts. Results: A total of 789 participants (mean [SD] age, 43.4 [12.9] years; 483 [61.2%] women; 578 [73.3%] White; 717 [90.9%] non-Hispanic) were included in the study. The mean (SD) quit intention score was 2.5 (0.9) at pretest. Mean (SE) change in quit intention score from pretest to day 16 was 0.19 (0.07) points higher in the constituent plus engagement condition than in the control condition (P = .005) and 0.23 (0.07) points higher in the constituent-only condition compared with the control condition (P = .001). Participant reports of cigarettes smoked, forgone, and butted out were similar across study conditions at baseline and did not differ significantly at days 16 and 32 across study conditions. Viewing more messages was associated with an estimated decrease of 0.15 (SE, 0.01) cigarettes smoked per day per message viewed overall across conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal test of cigarette constituent campaign messages in a national sample of adults who currently smoke. Messages about cigarette smoke constituents, with or without engagement text and source information, increased participants' intentions to quit, lending support to FDA efforts to educate consumers about such constituents. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03339206.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Intenção , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Amônia/efeitos adversos , Arsênio/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Urânio/efeitos adversos
9.
Health Psychol ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914997

RESUMO

Efficacious translational research in health psychology relies on specifying why intervention strategies change health behaviors and when, for what behaviors, and for whom, do these strategies promote change. Whereas interventions' mechanism of action (the why question) has attracted considerable attention, there is a need to conceptualize and integrate factors that moderate intervention effectiveness. Intervention effects on health behaviors are a function of 2 change processes: how effectively interventions change mechanisms of action (target engagement), and how effectively those mechanisms change behavior (target validity). We outline the Operating Conditions Framework (OCF) to articulate theoretical linkages between mechanisms and moderators and begin the process of specifying circumstances that promote target engagement and target validity. A review of 46 meta-analyses of behavioral interventions offers impetus for the OCF by revealing that heterogeneity of effect sizes is frequent, substantial, and largely unexplained in traditional moderator analyses. We present an approach to moderation grounded on the distinction between 2 foci-engagement moderation and validity moderation-and reveal that little is known about variation in how interventions change targets and how changing targets promotes behavior change. The OCF addresses this need by maintaining researchers' focus on mechanisms of behavior change but doing so while embracing the conditional nature of these processes. Because the OCF prioritizes consideration of contextual factors at the outset of a research program, early-phase translational research will be critical in specifying operating conditions and, ultimately, generating guidelines regarding why, when, for whom, and for what behaviors are intervention strategies effective. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

10.
Health Psychol ; 39(12): 1109-1124, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940529

RESUMO

Objective: Appetitive risk behaviors (ARB), including tobacco use, alcohol consumption, consumption of calorie dense/nutrient-poor foods, and sexual risk behavior contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. Affective states that arise from a wide array of unrelated circumstances (i.e., incidental affect) may carry over to influence ARB. A meta-analysis is needed to systematically examine causal evidence for the role of incidental affect (including specific emotions) in influencing ARB. Method: Integrating effect sizes from 91 published and unpublished experimental studies that include both an incidental-affect induction and neutral-control condition (k = 271 effect sizes: k = 183 negative affect, k = 78 positive affect), this meta-analysis examines how negative and positive affective states influenced ARB and related health cognitions (e.g., intentions, evaluations, craving, perceived control). Results: Negative affective states reliably increased ARB, in analyses where all negative affective states were analyzed (d = .29) and in stratified analyses of just negative mood (d = .30) and stress (d = .48). These effects were stronger among study populations coded as clinically at risk. Positive affective states generally did not influence ARB or related health cognitions, except in the presence of a craving cue. Design issues of extant literature largely precluded conclusions about the effects of specific positive and negative affective states. Conclusion: Taken together, findings suggest the importance of strategies to attenuate negative affect incidental to ARB to facilitate healthier behavioral patterns, especially among clinically at-risk individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722469

RESUMO

Combustible tobacco users appear to be at greater risk for serious complications from COVID-19. This study examined cigar smokers' perceived risk of COVID-19, quit intentions, and behaviors during the current pandemic. We conducted an online study between 23 April 2020 to 7 May 2020, as part of an ongoing study examining perceptions of different health effects of cigars. All participants used cigars in the past 30 days (n = 777). Three-quarters of the sample (76.0%) perceived they had a higher risk of complications from COVID-19 compared to non-smokers. The majority of participants (70.8%) intended to quit in the next six months due to COVID-19, and almost half of the sample (46.5%) reported making a quit attempt since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Far more participants reported increasing their tobacco use since COVID-19 started (40.9%) vs. decreasing their tobacco use (17.8%). Black or African American participants, participants who reported using a quitline, and participants with higher COVID-19 risk perceptions had higher intentions to quit using tobacco due to COVID-19, and higher odds of making a quit attempt since COVID-19 started. More research is needed to understand how tobacco users are perceiving COVID-19 risks and changing their tobacco use behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Fumar Charutos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Estados Unidos
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 258: 113008, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Doctors are generally thought of as very intelligent and capable. This perception has upsides-doctors are afforded respect and esteem-but it may also have downsides, such as neglecting the mental and physical health of physicians. Two studies examine how Americans "typecast" doctors as Godlike "thinkers" who help others, rather than as vulnerable "feelers" who might themselves need help. METHOD AND RESULTS: Study 1 examines how a representative sample of Americans (N = 681) view the mental capacities of doctors compared to other targets (including patients, other workers, and God). Result show that people see physicians as highly capable of the thinking-related capacities of thinking, remembering, self-control, and planning (equal to that of God), but less capable of the feeling-related capacities of experiencing fear, pain, embarrassment, and hunger. Study 2 (N = 451) examines whether physician typecasting impacts other domains. People believe that, relative to the average working professional, physicians are better able to ignore physical and mental health issues, and physician job performance is less impacted by bodily and emotional limitations. DISCUSSION: We discuss implications for medical practice, especially the growing epidemic of physician burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Médicos , Emoções , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Estados Unidos
13.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(8): 726-737, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to promote health behavior change based on self-determination theory (SDT). The review aimed to (a) quantify the impact of SDT interventions on health behaviors, (b) test mediation by theoretically specified variables (autonomous motivation and perceived competence), and (c) identify moderators of intervention effectiveness. METHOD: Computerized searches and additional strategies identified 56 articles that yielded 65 independent tests of SDT interventions. Random effects meta-analysis and metaregressions were conducted via STATA; meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) was used to test mediation. RESULTS: The sample-weighted average effect size for SDT interventions was d+ = .23, and there were significant effects for physical activity, sedentary behavior, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation (.16 ≥ d+ ≥ .29). Effect sizes exhibited both publication bias and small sample bias but remained significantly different from zero, albeit of smaller magnitude, after correction for bias (d+ ≥ .15). MASEM indicated that autonomous motivation and perceived competence mediated intervention effects on behavior. Metaregression analyses indicated that features of the sample, intervention, or methodology generally did not moderate effect sizes. CONCLUSION: The present review indicates that SDT interventions have a significant but small effect on health behavior change and suggests several directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Metanálise como Assunto , Autonomia Pessoal , Psicoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes
14.
Health Psychol ; 39(7): 600-616, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281824

RESUMO

Objective: Skin cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and rates are increasing because of global warming. This article reports a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of behavioral interventions to reduce exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The review aimed to (a) quantify the magnitude of intervention effects on indoor tanning, sun exposure, and sunscreen use, and (b) determine which intervention strategies maximize behavior change. Method: Out of 17,437 records identified via literature searches, 190 independent tests (N = 89,365) met the inclusion criteria. Sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics, and change techniques were coded, and random effects meta-analyses and metaregressions were conducted. Results: The sample-weighted average effect size across all studies was d+ = .193 (95% confidence interval, CI [.161, .226]), and there were significant effects on indoor tanning, sun exposure, and sunscreen use (d+ = .080, .149, and .196, respectively). However, there was evidence of publication bias, and trim and fill analyses indicated that the corrected effects for sun exposure and sunscreen use were of very small magnitude (d+ ~ .06) and were not significantly different from zero for indoor tanning (d+ = -.011, 95% CI [-.096, .074]). Metaregression analyses identified several intervention strategies that predicted effect sizes. For instance, interventions delivered individually that promoted alternatives to tanning were associated with larger effect sizes for indoor tanning. Conclusion: Interventions to date have had only a modest impact on behavioral exposure to UVR. The present findings offer new insights into how the effectiveness of future interventions can be improved. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Banho de Sol/normas , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Health Psychol ; 39(4): 269-280, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted meta-analyses and meta-analytic structural equation modeling of longitudinal studies among cancer survivors to (a) quantify associations between psychosocial predictors and physical activity, (b) test how psychosocial predictors combine to influence physical activity, and (c) identify study, demographic, and clinical characteristics that moderate associations. METHOD: Eligible studies used a longitudinal, observational design, included a sample of cancer survivors, and measured both a psychosocial predictor at baseline and physical activity at a later time-point. Of 2,431 records located through computerized searches, 25 independent tests (N = 5,897) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-analytic structural equation modeling were conducted. RESULTS: Eight psychosocial predictors of physical activity were identified. Self-efficacy (r+ = 0.26) and intentions (r+ = 0.33) were the strongest predictors in bivariate analyses. The structural equation models included attitudes, injunctive norms, self-efficacy, intentions, and physical activity (k = 22, N = 4,385). The model with the best fit, χ2(2) = 0.11, p = .95, root mean square error of approximation = .00, comparative fit index = 1.00, Tucker-Lewis index = 1.00, indicated that all specified paths were significant. Intentions were the strongest predictor of physical activity (ß = 0.27, p < .001), and attitudes and self-efficacy were strong predictors of intentions (both ßs = 0.29, ps < .001). Few significant moderators were observed. CONCLUSION: This review indicates that self-efficacy and intentions are direct predictors of physical activity in cancer survivors. Further, attitudes and norms predict physical activity through intentions. Findings inform intervention development to increase physical activity engagement among cancer survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(12): 948-959, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accelerating advances in health behavior change requires releasing the brake, as well as applying the throttle. This paper discusses six challenges or "brakes" that have slowed progress. PURPOSE/METHODS/RESULTS: We engage with six issues that limit investigators' ability to delineate and test the strategy-target and target-behavior relations that underlie effective interventions according to the experimental medicine approach. We discuss the need for guidance on how to identify the relevant mechanism of action (target) in an intervention and whether a periodic table of health behavior constructs might aid investigators. Experimental and correlational analyses (prospective surveys and behavior change techniques) have been used to test the validity of targets, and we present evidence that there is little agreement among the findings from different research designs. Whereas target engagement is typically analyzed in terms of increasing scores on constructs that impel behavior change, we discuss the role of impeding targets and the benefits of adopting a broader construal of potential targets and approaches to engagement. There is presently a paucity of competitive tests regarding which strategies best engage targets and we discuss empirical criteria and conceptual developments that could enhance the evidence base. Finally, we highlight the need to take "context" or conditional intervention effects more seriously by leveraging the interplay between questions about why interventions work and questions about when and for whom they work. CONCLUSION: Candid appraisal of the challenges facing research on health behavior change can generate new opportunities for theoretical development and offer direction and cumulative impetus for empirical work.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Medicina do Comportamento , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Comportamental/normas , Medicina do Comportamento/métodos , Medicina do Comportamento/normas , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde/normas
17.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 105: 212-219, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415864

RESUMO

The current meta-analysis explored relationships between functional outcomes in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and different domains of neurocognition and social cognition. Literature searches were conducted in PsycINFO, PubMed, and ProQuest to identify articles reporting correlations between cognition domains and functional outcomes. Of 1361 articles identified, 166 met all inclusion criteria (12,868 participants; 518 correlations). Fifty-three random-effects meta-analyses yielded mean correlation estimates for relationships between neurocognition and social cognition and functional outcomes. Overall, associations between social cognition and neurocognition, and functional outcomes demonstrated significant small-to-medium effect sizes. Social cognition explained more unique variance in functioning than neurocognition (7.3% vs. 4.4%; 9.2% total average variance). Social cognition also mediated the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcomes. A significant proportion of the variance in the relationships between cognition and functional outcomes remained unexplained. These findings suggest that integrated interventions targeting both neurocognition and social cognition may optimally improve functional outcomes. Standardized measurement of cognition and functioning, longitudinal studies, and tests of additional moderators (e.g., first episode samples) in future research were identified as important future directions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Humanos
18.
Ann Behav Med ; 53(12): 1020-1031, 2019 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People often fail to translate their intentions into health behaviors. PURPOSE: The present research examined a new potential moderator of intention-behavior relations, namely, how realistic or unrealistic are respective goal intentions. Goal realism was defined as the degree to which intentions are aligned with expectations (i.e., predicted performance). METHODS: A validation study (N = 81) examined our novel goal realism measure. Study 1 (N = 246) tested goal importance, fantasy proneness, and pathways thinking as predictors of realistic goal setting using a cross-sectional questionnaire design. Moderation of the intention-behavior relation was tested in prospective surveys of cervical cancer screening (Study 2, N = 854), physical activity (Study 3, N = 237), and performance of a suite of 15 health behaviors (Study 4, N = 378). RESULTS: The validation study offered preliminary evidence concerning the convergent and predictive validity of the goal realism measure. Study 1 showed that goal importance, fantasy proneness, and pathways thinking interacted to predict how realistic were intentions to perform 11 health behaviors. In Study 2, realistic intentions better predicted women's attendance for cervical cancer screening compared with unrealistic intentions. Study 3 confirmed this finding for a frequently performed behavior (physical activity). In Study 4, multilevel modeling of longitudinal data for 15 health behaviors again revealed a significant goal realism × intention interaction. Greater realism was associated with improved prediction of behavior by intention. The interaction term remained significant even when past behavior, perceived behavioral control, and other predictors were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings offer new insights into the factors that lead to more realistic intentions and demonstrate that goal realism influences how effectively intentions are translated into action.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intenção , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/normas , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero
19.
Health Psychol ; 38(10): 855-865, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259596

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials designed to promote smoking cessation among cancer survivors to (a) assess how effective interventions are at increasing quit rates, and (b) determine which intervention strategies are associated with effect sizes. METHODS: Out of 10,848 records that were located using computerized searches and informal sources, 21 interventions met the inclusion criteria for the review. We developed a bespoke taxonomy of 36 categories of techniques designed to change smoking behavior, and coded sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics. Random effects meta-analysis and metaregressions were conducted. RESULTS: The sample-weighted average effect size for smoking cessation was d+ = .030, and was not significantly different from zero (95%CI = -.042 to .101). Effect sizes exhibited both publication bias and small sample bias. Metaregressions indicated that, out of the many potential moderators that were tested, just a single intervention feature was associated with effect sizes. Interventions delivered solely by nurses exhibited larger effects compared to interventions from other sources. CONCLUSION: The present review indicates that current smoking cessation interventions for cancer survivors are ineffective. High-quality and effective interventions are needed. We offer suggestions regarding promising intervention strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Humanos
20.
Health Psychol ; 38(6): 467-482, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a meta-analysis of physical activity interventions among cancer survivors to (a) quantify the magnitude of intervention effects on physical activity and (b) determine what combination of intervention strategies maximizes behavior change. METHOD: Out of 32,626 records that were located using computerized searches, 138 independent tests (N = 13,050) met the inclusion criteria for the review. We developed a bespoke taxonomy of 34 categories of techniques designed to promote psychological change, and categorized sample, intervention, and methodological characteristics. Random effects meta-analysis and metaregressions were conducted; effect size data were also submitted to meta-analysis with classification and regression trees (i.e., meta-CART). RESULTS: The sample-weighted average effect size for physical activity interventions was d+ = .35, equivalent to an increase of 1,149 steps per day. Effect sizes exhibited both publication bias and small sample bias but remained significantly different from zero, albeit of smaller magnitude (d+ ≥ .20), after correction for bias. Meta-CART indicated that the major difference in effectiveness was attributable to supervised versus unsupervised programs (d+ = .49 vs. .26). Greater contact time was associated with larger effects in supervised programs. For unsupervised programs, establishing outcome expectations, greater contact time, and targeting overweight or sedentary participants each predicted greater program effectiveness, whereas prompting barrier identification and providing workbooks were associated with smaller effect sizes. CONCLUSION: The present review indicates that interventions have a small but significant effect on physical activity among cancer survivors and offers insights into how the effectiveness of future interventions might be improved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...