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1.
AIDS Care ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581230

RESUMO

Understanding factors related to suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and detectable viral load (VL), especially among vulnerable populations, is needed to improve HIV outcomes. The Caribbean is highly impacted by HIV and socioeconomic inequalities, but few studies have been conducted there to explore food insecurity among people with HIV and factors associated with viral suppression in this vulnerable population. Using baseline data from a pilot intervention trial among people living with HIV and food insecurity in the Dominican Republic, we examined psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with viral suppression, ART adherence, and competing needs. Among participants (n = 115), 61% had a detectable VL; the strongest factor associated with detectable VL was having missed taking ART in the last six months due to not having food (OR = 2.68, p = 0.02). Greater odds of reporting missed ART doses due to not having food were associated with severe food insecurity (OR = 4.60, p = 0.006), clinical depression (OR = 2.76, p = 0.018), Haitian background (OR = 6.62 p = 0.017), and internalized HIV stigma (OR = 1.09, p = 0.041), while lower odds were associated with social support (OR = 0.89, p = 0.03) and having health insurance (OR = 0.27, p = 0.017). Ensuring that people with HIV and food insecurity have food to take with their ART is essential for viral suppression.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e054903, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) in the USA, particularly women, have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than the general population. Cigarette smoking among PLHIV is common (42%), and PLHIV are 6-13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than AIDS-related causes. This study sought to investigate the associations between food security status and smoking status and severity among a cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with and without HIV in the USA. DESIGN: Women enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study from 2013 to 2015. SETTING: Nine participating sites across the USA. PARTICIPANTS: 2553 participants enrolled in the Food Insecurity Sub-Study of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite cohort study of US women living with HIV and demographically similar HIV-seronegative women. OUTCOMES: Current cigarette smoking status and intensity were self-reported. We used cross-sectional and longitudinal logistic and Tobit regressions to assess associations of food security status and changes in food security status with smoking status and intensity. RESULTS: The median age was 48. Most respondents were African-American/black (72%) and living with HIV (71%). Over half had annual incomes ≤US$12 000 (52%). Food insecurity (44%) and cigarette smoking (42%) were prevalent. In analyses adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of food insecurity were associated with greater odds of current smoking compared with food-secure women. Changes in food insecurity were also associated with increased odds of smoking. Any food insecurity was associated with higher smoking intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity over time was associated with smoking in this cohort of predominantly low-income women of colour living with or at risk of HIV. Integrating alleviation of food insecurity into smoking cessation programmes may be an effective method to reduce the smoking prevalence and disproportionate lung cancer mortality rate particularly among PLHIV.


Assuntos
Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373987

RESUMO

Reliable access to safe and acceptable water in sufficient quantities (i.e., water security) is important for medication adherence and limiting pathogen exposure, yet prior studies have only considered the role of food security as a social determinant of HIV-related health. Therefore, the objective of this analysis was to assess the relationships between household water insecurity and HIV-related outcomes among adults living with HIV in western Kenya (N = 716). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Shamba Maisha (NCT02815579), a cluster randomized controlled trial of a multisectoral agricultural and asset loan intervention. Baseline data were collected from June 2016 to December 2017. We assessed associations between water insecurity and HIV-related outcomes, adjusting for clinical and behavioral confounders, including food insecurity. Each five-unit higher household water insecurity score (range: 0-51) was associated with 1.21 higher odds of having a viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL (95% CI 1.07, 1.36) and 1.26 higher odds of AIDS-defining illness (95% CI 1.11, 1.42). Household water insecurity was not associated with CD4 cell count (B: 0.27; 95% CI -3.59, 13.05). HIV treatment and support programs should consider assessing and addressing water insecurity in addition to food insecurity to optimize HIV outcomes.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent immune activation due to gut barrier dysfunction is a suspected cause of morbidity in HIV, but the impact of menopause on this pathway is unknown. METHODS: In 350 women with HIV from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, plasma biomarkers of gut barrier dysfunction (intestinal fatty acid binding protein; IFAB), innate immune activation (soluble CD14 and CD163; sCD14, sCD163), and systemic inflammation (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; IL-6, TNFR1), were measured at 674 person-visits spanning ≤2 years. RESULTS: Menopause (post- vs. pre-menopausal status) was associated with higher plasma sCD14 and sCD163 in linear mixed-effects regression adjusting for age and other covariates (B [95% CI]=161.89ng/mL [18.37, 305.41] and 65.48 ng/mL [6.64, 124.33], respectively); but not with plasma IFAB, IL-6, or TNFR1. In piece-wise linear mixed-effects regression of biomarkers on years before/after the final menstrual period, sCD14 increased during the menopausal transition by 250.71 ng/mL per year (95% CI: 16.63, 484.79; p=0.04), but not in the pre-menopausal or post-menopausal periods. CONCLUSIONS: In women with HIV, menopause may increase innate immune activation, but data did not support an influence on the gut barrier or inflammation. Clinical implications of immune activation during the menopausal transition warrants further investigation.

5.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24(6): e25751, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frailty is frequently observed among people with HIV, and food insecurity is associated with frailty in the general population. Evidence is scarce on the associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with HIV who may be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of food insecurity. The goal of this study was to assess associations between food insecurity and frailty among women with and without HIV. METHODS: There were 1265 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study who participated in frailty assessments in 2017. Frailty was measured using the Fried Frailty Phenotype, and women were subsequently categorized as robust, pre-frail or frail. Food insecurity was assessed using the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module, with women categorized as having high, marginal, low or very low food security. Multinomial logistic regression models were conducted to examine cross-sectional associations between food insecurity and frailty while adjusting for socio-demographic, behavioural and HIV status covariates. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Approximately one-third (31.9%) of the women had marginal, low or very low food security, and the proportions of women who met the criteria for frailty or pre-frailty were 55.6% and 12.4% respectively. In the adjusted model, the relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty for women with very low food security versus women with high food security was 3.37 (95% CI [1.38 to 8.24], p < 0.01); the corresponding RRR of pre-frailty was 3.63 (95% CI [1.76 to 7.51], p < 0.001). Higher annual household income was associated with lower RRRs of frailty or pre-frailty (p < 0.01). Similarly, older age was associated with more frequent frailty (RRR=1.06, 95% CI [1.03 to 1.09], p < 0.001). HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with either pre-frailty (RRR=0.97, 95% CI [0.71 to 1.31]) or frailty (RRR=0.75, 95% CI [0.48 to 1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: Very low food security was associated with more frequent frailty and pre-frailty among women with and without for HIV. HIV serostatus was not associated with frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Infecções por HIV , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
J Nutr ; 151(6): 1656-1664, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household food insecurity (FI) and water insecurity (WI) are prevalent public health issues that can co-occur. Few studies have concurrently assessed their associations with health outcomes, particularly among people living with HIV. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations between FI and WI and how they relate to physical and mental health. METHODS: Food-insecure adult smallholder farmers living with HIV in western Kenya were recruited to participate in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a multisectoral agricultural and asset loan intervention. We used baseline data on experiences of FI (using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, range: 0-27) and WI (using a modified scale developed for this region, range: 0-51) in the prior month (n = 716). Outcomes included probable depression (using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist), fatigue and diarrhea in the prior month, and overall mental and physical health (using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey, range: 0-100). We first assessed Pearson correlations between FI, WI, and sociodemographic characteristics. We then developed 3 regressions for each health outcome (control variables and FI; control variables and WI; control variables, FI, and WI) and compared model fit indexes. RESULTS: Correlations between household FI, WI, and wealth were low, meaning they measure distinct constructs. FI and WI were associated with numerous physical and mental health outcomes; accounting for both resource insecurities typically provided the best model fit. For instance, when controlling for FI, each 10-point higher WI score was associated with a 6.42-point lower physical health score (P < 0.001) and 2.92 times greater odds of probable depression (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Assessing both FI and WI is important for correctly estimating their relation with health outcomes. Interventions that address food- and water-related issues among persons living with HIV concurrently will likely be more effective at improving health than those addressing a single resource insecurity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02815579.

7.
AIDS Behav ; 25(3): 847-855, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989575

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI) is an understudied risk factor for depression among perinatal women in sub-Saharan Africa. We therefore explored the longitudinal relationship between FI and depressive symptoms among a cohort of perinatal women of mixed HIV status (n = 371) in Kenya (NCT02974972, NCT02979418). Using longitudinal linear and logistic regressions with random effects, we assessed bivariate and adjusted associations between maternal FI and depressive symptoms. HIV status was also assessed as a potential effect modifier. At baseline, 58% of pregnant women had probable depression (CES-D score > 16) and 84% were severely food insecure. In adjusted analyses, severely food-insecure women had 5.90 greater odds (95% CI 2.32, 15.02, p < 0.001) of having probable depression and scored 4.58 points higher on the CES-D scale (SE: 1.04, p < 0.001) relative to food-secure women. HIV status did not modify the association between FI and depressive symptoms. Interventions to reduce FI may reduce perinatal depression, benefiting mothers and their infants.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Apoio Social
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(5): e112-e119, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on antiretroviral therapy, but its relationship with immune dysregulation, a hallmark of HIV infection and comorbidity, is unknown. METHODS: In 241 women participating in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were characterized by flow cytometry to identify cell subsets, comprising surface markers of activation (%CD38+HLADR+), senescence (%CD57+CD28-), exhaustion (%PD-1+), and co-stimulation (%CD57- CD28+) on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess the relationships of food insecurity with immune outcomes, accounting for repeated measures at ≤3 study visits and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: At the baseline study visit, 71% of participants identified as non-Hispanic Black, 75% were virally suppressed, and 43% experienced food insecurity. Food insecurity was associated with increased activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased senescence of CD8+ T cells, and decreased co-stimulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (all P < .05), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, substance use, smoking, HIV viral load, and CD4 count. In stratified analyses, the association of food insecurity with CD4+ T-cell activation was more pronounced in women with uncontrolled HIV (viral load >40 copies/mL and CD4 <500 cells/mm3) but remained statistically significant in those with controlled HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity may contribute to the persistent immune activation and senescence in women with HIV on antiretroviral therapy, independently of HIV control. Reducing food insecurity may be important for decreasing non-AIDS-related disease risk in this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Ativação Linfocitária , Carga Viral
9.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(10): 425-435, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941054

RESUMO

Food insecurity (FI) contributes to HIV-related morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms whereby FI negatively impacts HIV health are untested. We tested the hypothesis that FI leads to poor HIV clinical outcomes through nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. We analyzed data from Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) among 1803 women living with HIV (WLWH) (8225 person-visits) collected from 2013 to 2015 biannually from nine sites across the United States participating in the WIHS. FI was measured with the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes included HIV viral nonsuppression, CD4 cell counts, and physical health status (PHS). We used longitudinal logistic and linear regression models with random effects to examine associations adjusting for covariates and path analysis to test nutritional, mental health, and behavioral paths. Increasing severity of FI was associated with unsuppressed viral load, lower CD4 counts, and worse PHS (all p < 0.05). Report of FI 6 months earlier was independently associated with most outcomes after adjusting for concurrent FI. For viral nonsuppression, the nutritional and behavioral paths accounted for 2.09% and 30.66% of the total effect, with the mental health path operating via serial mediation through the behavioral path. For CD4 count, the mental health and behavioral paths accounted for 15.21% and 17.0% of the total effect, respectively. For PHS, depressive symptoms accounted for 60.2% of the total effect. In conclusion, FI is associated with poor health among WLWH through different paths depending on the outcome. Interventions should target FI and its behavioral and mental health mechanisms to improve HIV outcomes.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Insegurança Alimentar , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e113, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248873

RESUMO

AIMS: Psychotropic prescription rates continue to increase in the United States (USA). Few studies have investigated whether social-structural factors may play a role in psychotropic medication use independent of mental illness. Food insecurity is prevalent among people living with HIV in the USA and has been associated with poor mental health. We investigated whether food insecurity was associated with psychotropic medication use independent of the symptoms of depression and anxiety among women living with HIV in the USA. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a nationwide cohort study. Food security (FS) was the primary explanatory variable, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. First, we used multivariable linear regressions to test whether FS was associated with symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CESD] score), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD-7 score) and mental health-related quality of life (MOS-HIV Mental Health Summary score; MHS). Next, we examined associations of FS with the use of any psychotropic medications, including antidepressants, sedatives and antipsychotics, using multivariable logistic regressions adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education and alcohol and substance use. In separate models, we additionally adjusted for symptoms of depression (CESD score) and anxiety (GAD-7 score). RESULTS: Of the 905 women in the sample, two-thirds were African-American. Lower FS (i.e. worse food insecurity) was associated with greater symptoms of depression and anxiety in a dose-response relationship. For the psychotropic medication outcomes, marginal and low FS were associated with 2.06 (p < 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-3.13) and 1.99 (p < 0.01; 95% CI = 1.26-3.15) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use, respectively, before adjusting for depression and anxiety. The association of very low FS with any psychotropic medication use was not statistically significant. A similar pattern was found for antidepressant and sedative use. After additionally adjusting for CESD and GAD-7 scores, marginal FS remained associated with 1.93 (p < 0.05; 95% CI = 1.16-3.19) times higher odds of any psychotropic medication use. Very low FS, conversely, was significantly associated with lower odds of antidepressant use (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42; p < 0.05; 95% CI = 0.19-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Marginal FS was associated with higher odds of using psychotropic medications independent of depression and anxiety, while very low FS was associated with lower odds. These complex findings may indicate that people experiencing very low FS face barriers to accessing mental health services, while those experiencing marginal FS who do access services are more likely to be prescribed psychotropic medications for distress arising from social and structural factors.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(6): 1517-1523, 2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is a well-established determinant of suboptimal, self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but few studies have investigated this association using objective adherence measures. We examined the association of food insecurity with levels of ART concentrations in hair among women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed longitudinal data collected semiannually from 2013 through 2015 from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multisite, prospective, cohort study of WLHIV and controls not living with HIV. Our sample comprised 1944 person-visits from 677 WLHIV. Food insecurity was measured using the US Household Food Security Survey Module. ART concentrations in hair, an objective and validated measure of drug adherence and exposure, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection for regimens that included darunavir, atazanavir, raltegravir, or dolutegravir. We conducted multiple 3-level linear regressions that accounted for repeated measures and the ART medication(s) taken at each visit, adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: At baseline, 67% of participants were virally suppressed and 35% reported food insecurity. In the base multivariable model, each 3-point increase in food insecurity was associated with 0.94-fold lower ART concentration in hair (95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.99). This effect remained unchanged after adjusting for self-reported adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity was associated with lower ART concentrations in hair, suggesting that food insecurity may be associated with suboptimal ART adherence and/or drug absorption. Interventions seeking to improve ART adherence among WLHIV should consider and address the role of food insecurity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Nutr ; 149(8): 1393-1403, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity, which disproportionately affects marginalized women in the United States, is associated with depressive symptoms. Few studies have examined relations of food insecurity with other mental health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of food insecurity with symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study of women with or at risk of HIV in the United States. METHODS: Participants were 2553 women with or at risk of HIV, predominantly African American/black (71.6%). Structured questionnaires were conducted during April 2013-March 2016 every 6 mo. Food security (FS) was the primary predictor, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. We measured longitudinal outcomes for GAD (GAD-7 score and a binary GAD-7 screener for moderate-to-severe GAD). Only cross-sectional data were available for outcomes measuring perceived stress (PSS-10 score) and PTSD (PCL-C score and a binary PCL-C screener for PTSD). We examined associations of FS with the outcomes through use of multivariable linear and logistic regression, including lagged associations with GAD outcomes. RESULTS: After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related factors including HIV serostatus, current marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with increasingly higher GAD-7 scores, and with 1.41 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.80; P < 0.01), 2.03 (95% CI: 1.59, 2.61; P < 0.001), and 3.23 (95% CI: 2.43, 4.29; P < 0.001) times higher odds of screening positive for moderate-to-severe GAD, respectively. Low and very low FS at the previous visit (6 mo earlier) were independently associated with GAD outcomes at current visit. Associations of FS with PSS-10 and PCL-C scores exhibited similar dose-response relations. Very low FS was associated with 1.93 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.24; P < 0.05) times higher odds of screening positive for PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity may be associated with a range of poor mental health outcomes among women in the United States with or at risk of HIV.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Nutr ; 149(2): 240-248, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity and mental health negatively affect the lives of women in the United States. Participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) provided the opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with depression and mental well-being over time. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between current and persistent food insecurity and depression among women at risk of or living with HIV in the United States. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from the WIHS, a prospective cohort study in women at risk of or living with HIV from multiple sites in the United States. Participants completed 6 semiannual assessments from 2013 to 2016 on food security (FS; high, marginal, low, and very low) and mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms and mental well-being). We used multiple regression analysis to estimate the association between these variables. RESULTS: Among 2551 participants, 44% were food insecure and 35% reported depressive symptoms indicative of probable depression. Current marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with 2.1-, 3.5-, and 5.5-point (all P < 0.001) higher depression scores, respectively. In models adjusting for both current and previous FS, previous marginal, low, and very low FS were associated with 0.2-, 0.93-, and 1.52-point higher scores, respectively (all P < 0.001). Women with very low FS at both time points (persistent food insecurity) had a 6.86-point higher depression score (P < 0.001). In the mental health models, there was a dose-response relation between current FS and worse mental health even when controlling for previous FS (all P < 0.001). Previous low FS was associated with worse mental health. These associations did not differ by HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity placed women at risk of depression and poor mental well-being, but the risk was substantially higher for women experiencing persistent food insecurity. Future interventions to improve women's mental health call for multilevel components that include addressing food insecurity.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
14.
Addiction ; 114(1): 127-136, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and substance use. We aimed to investigate this relationship using longitudinal data among women with or at risk for HIV in the United States. DESIGN: Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine sites across the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2553 women with or at risk for HIV. MEASUREMENTS: Semi-annual structured interviews were conducted during April 2013-March 2016. Food security (FS) was the primary predictor, measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Outcomes were: any illicit substance use except cannabis; licit or illicit cannabis use; stimulant use (crack, cocaine, or methamphetamine); opioid use (heroin or methadone in a non-prescribed way); and prescription drug misuse (prescription narcotics, amphetamines, or tranquilizers in a non-prescribed way) since the last visit. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects to examine longitudinal associations of current and previous FS with the outcomes simultaneously, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, HIV serostatus, physical health and health insurance. FINDINGS: Average number of visits was 4.6. At baseline, 71% of participants were HIV-seropositive, 44% reported marginal, low, or very low FS, and 13% were using illicit substances. In adjusted analyses, current low and very low FS were significantly associated with 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 2.46; P = 0.039] and 2.48 (95% CI = 1.52, 4.04; P < 0.001) higher odds of any illicit substance use, compared to high FS, and also with higher odds of cannabis, stimulant and opioid use, exhibiting a consistent dose-response relationship. Marginal, low, and very low FS at the previous visit were associated with 1.66 (95% CI = 1.08, 2.54; P = 0.020), 1.77 (95% CI = 1.14, 2.74; P = 0.011), and 2.28 (95% CI = 1.43, 3.64; P < 0.001) higher odds of current illicit substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Food insecurity appears to be longitudinally associated with substance use among US women with or at risk for HIV.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Infect Dis ; 219(3): 429-436, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165648

RESUMO

Background: Chronic inflammation is associated with AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining conditions. Limited research has considered how food insecurity influences chronic inflammation among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We examined whether food insecurity was associated with higher levels of inflammation among women living with HIV (WWH) in the United States. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data collected in 2015 from 421 participants on antiretroviral therapy from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. The exposure was any food insecurity. The outcome was inflammation, measured by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necroses factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) levels. We conducted multivariable linear regressions, adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and nutritional factors. Results: Nearly one-third of participants (31%) were food insecure and 79% were virally suppressed (<20 copies/mL). In adjusted analyses, food insecurity was associated with 1.23 times the level of IL-6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.44) and 1.13 times the level of TNFR1 (95% CI, 1.05-1.21). Findings did not differ by HIV control (virally suppressed with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/mm3 or not) in adjusted stratified analyses. Conclusion: Food insecurity was associated with elevated inflammation among WWH regardless of HIV control. Findings support the need for programs that address food insecurity among WWH.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
AIDS Behav ; 22(12): 3869-3878, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948333

RESUMO

Food insecurity, internalized HIV stigma, and depressive symptoms are independently associated with poor HIV outcomes. Food insecurity, stigma, and depression may be interrelated among women living with HIV (WLHIV). We hypothesized that food insecurity would be independently associated with internalized stigma and depressive symptoms among WLHIV in the United States (US), and would partially account for associations between stigma and depressive symptoms. We tested hypotheses using regression models and partial correlation analysis with cross-sectional data among 1317 WLHIV from the Women's Interagency HIV Study. In adjusted models, greater food insecurity was associated with internalized HIV stigma and depressive symptoms (all p < 0.05), exhibiting dose-response relationships. Food insecurity accounted for 23.2% of the total shared variance between depressive symptoms and internalized stigma. Food insecurity is associated with depressive symptoms and internalized HIV stigma among US WLHIV, and may play a role in the negative cycle of depression and internalized stigma.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
AIDS Behav ; 21(12): 3473-3477, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119474

RESUMO

Women in the general population experience more food insecurity than men. Few studies have examined food insecurity's impact on HIV treatment outcomes among women. We examined the association between food insecurity and HIV outcomes in a multi-site sample of HIV-infected women in the United States (n = 1154). Two-fifths (40%) of participants reported food insecurity. In an adjusted multivariable Tobit regression model, food insecurity was associated with 2.08 times higher viral load (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 4.15) and lower CD4+ counts (- 42.10, CI: - 81.16, - 3.03). Integration of food insecurity alleviation into HIV programs may improve HIV outcomes in women.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação , Carga Viral , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75(5): e132-e141, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28328551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low proportion of CD28CD8 T cells that express CD57 is associated with increased mortality in HIV infection. The effect of increasing body mass index (BMI) changes in the proportion of CD57CD28CD8 T cells among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy is unknown. SETTING: In a US cohort of HIV-infected women, we evaluated associations of BMI and waist circumference with 3 distinct CD8 T cell phenotypes: % CD28CD57CD8 T cells, % CD57 of CD28CD8 T cells, and % CD28 of all CD8 T cells. METHODS: Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to estimate beta coefficients for each of 3 T-cell phenotypes. Covariates included HIV parameters (current and nadir CD4, current viral load), demographics (age, race, income, and study site), and lifestyle (tobacco and alcohol use) factors. RESULTS: Of 225 participants, the median age was 46 years and 50% were obese (BMI >30 m/kg). Greater BMI and waist circumference were both associated with higher % CD28CD57CD8 T cells and % CD57 of all CD28CD8 T cells in multivariable analysis, including adjustment for HIV viral load (all P < 0.05). The association between greater BMI and the overall proportion of CD28 CD8 cells in fully adjusted models (0.078, 95% confidence interval: -0.053 to 0.209) was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis, greater BMI and waist circumference are associated with greater expression of CD57 on CD28CD8 T cells and a greater proportion of CD57CD28 CD8 T cells. These findings may indicate that increasing BMI is immunologically protective in HIV-infected women. Future research is needed to understand the prognostic importance of these associations on clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Antígenos CD57/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/imunologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Saúde da Mulher
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