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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(21): 20997-21003, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136068

RESUMO

The worldwide severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has led to the rapid spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) is widely used as the gold standard for clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, more and more infected patients are relapsing after discharge, which suggests qPCR may fail to detect the virus in some cases. In this study, we selected 74 clinical samples from 43 recovering inpatients for qPCR and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) synchronous blind detection, and established a cutoff value for ddPCR diagnosis of COVID-19. The results showed that at a cutoff value of 0.04 copies/µL, the ddPCR sensitivity and specificity are 97.6% and 100%, respectively. In addition, we also analyzed 18 retained samples from 9 discharged patients who relapsed. Although qPCR showed all 18 samples to be negative, ddPCR showed 12 to be positive, and there was only one patient with two negative samples; the other eight patients had at least one positive sample. These results indicate that ddPCR could significantly improve the accuracy of COVID-19 diagnosis, especially for discharged patients with a low viral load, and help to reduce misdiagnosis during recovery.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In addition to the association between positive fluid balance (FB) and acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery reported by former studies, this study examined the relationship between FB and progressive AKI. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational study. SETTING: University teaching, grade A tertiary hospital in Shanghai, China. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients after cardiac surgery from July-December 2016. INTERVENTIONS: Perioperative data relating to postoperative fluid intake and output were collected. AKI progression was defined as a worsening of AKI stage. FB was calculated as (fluid intake [L] - fluid output [L]/body weight [kg] × 100%). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The study comprised 1,522 patients. The incidences of AKI and progressive AKI were 33.1% (n = 504) and 18.1% (n = 91), respectively. There was an exponential increase between 24-hour FB and AKI occurrence, and an approximate "U"-shape association between 48-hour FB and AKI progression. Multivariate logistic regression showed that 24-hour FB ≥5% was an independent risk factor for AKI incidence (odds ratio [OR] 3.976; p < 0.001) and 48-hour FB <-5% or ≥3% was associated with an increase of AKI progression (FB <-5%, OR 7.078 [p = 0.031]; FB 3%-5%, OR 6.598 [p = 0.020]; FB ≥5%, OR 16.453 [p < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: An exponential increase was found between 24-hour FB and AKI occurrence and a "U"-shape association between 48-hour FB and AKI progression. Both excessively negative and positive accumulative 48-hour FB increased the risk of AKI progression, suggesting cautious monitoring and application of fluid load in clinical practice.

3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 552698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193320

RESUMO

Malaria is a public health concern worldwide, and Togo has proven to be no exception. Effective approaches to provide information on biological insights for disease elimination are therefore a research priority. Local selection on malaria pathogens is due to multiple factors including host immunity. We undertook genome-wide analysis of sequence variation on a sample of 10 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) clinical isolates from Togo to identify local-specific signals of selection. Paired-end short-read sequences were mapped and aligned onto > 95% of the 3D7 Pf reference genome sequence in high fold coverage. Data on 266 963 single nucleotide polymorphisms were obtained, with average nucleotide diversity π = 1.79 × 10-3. Both principal component and neighbor-joining tree analyses showed that the Togo parasites clustered according to their geographic (Africa) origin. In addition, the average genome-wide diversity of Pf from Togo was much higher than that from other African samples. Tajima's D value of the Togo isolates was -0.56, suggesting evidence of directional selection and/or recent population expansion. Against this background, within-population analyses identifying loci of balancing and recent positive selections evidenced that host immunity has been the major selective agent. Importantly, 87 and 296 parasite antigen genes with Tajima's D values > 1 and in the top 1% haplotype scores, respectively, include a significant representation of membrane proteins at the merozoite stage that invaded red blood cells (RBCs) and parasitized RBCs surface proteins that play roles in immunoevasion, adhesion, or rosetting. This is consistent with expectations that elevated signals of selection due to allele-specific acquired immunity are likely to operate on antigenic targets. Collectively, our data suggest a recent expansion of Pf population in Togo and evidence strong host immune selection on membrane/surface antigens reflected in signals of balancing/positive selection of important gene loci. Findings from this study provide a fundamental basis to engage studies for effective malaria control in Togo.

4.
Biomark Med ; 14(15): 1405-1413, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151094

RESUMO

Aim: Data from 124 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 69 healthy controls were collected. Materials & methods: ELISA was performed to detect serum FABP4 levels. Results: FABP4 level was elevated in RA patients and positively associated with 28-joint disease activity score, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Additionally, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for FABP4 was 0.685 for RA patients versus healthy controls (p = 0.001). RA patients were separated into low, moderate and high disease activity based on 28-joint disease activity score. The area under the receiver operating characteristic value was 0.877 for RA patients with high disease activity versus healthy controls (p < 0.001). Conclusion: FABP4 was associated with disease activity in RA patients.

5.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 1157-1163, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High IS level has been demonstrated to be associated with vascular calcification and lymphocyte functional disorders, which are both risk factors of CVD. Low HDL-c level is a risk factor of CVD in CKD patients. This study was designed to explore the potential relationship between IS and HDL-c levels in early stages of CKD population. METHODS: Patients of CKD stage 1-3 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Correlations between HDL-c and IS levels were investigated among various clinicopathological variables through independent samples t test and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 205 CKD patients (96 men) aged 43.27 ± 13.80 years old were included in this research. There were 96 patients (46 men) in CKD stage1 and 109 (50 men) in CKD stage 2 or stage 3. IS levels were significantly higher in CKD 2 + 3 group (1.50 ± 1.74 µg/ml vs. 0.94 ± 0.66 µg/ml, p = 0.007), while HDL-c levels were lower (1.19 ± 0.39 mmol/L vs. 1.33 ± 0.45 mmol/L, p = 0.017) compared to CKD 1 group. Among all the patients, a negative correlation was observed between IS and HDL-c levels (r = -0.244, p = 0.001). IS level was an independent risk factor for low HDL-c (<1.04 mmol/L) incidence even after controlling for potential confounders including concomitant disease, age, sex, blood pressure, BMI and laboratory biochemical test including eGFR (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.11-2.39, p = 0.013). IS and HDL-c were both risk factors for predicting CKD stage 3. CONCLUSIONS: In early CKD stages, low HDL-c level is associated with increased IS levels, which may be an important contributor in the development of dyslipidemia in CKD patients.

6.
Brain ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170925

RESUMO

Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is now recognized as an early manifestation of α-synucleinopathies. Increasing experimental studies demonstrate that manipulative lesion or inactivation of the neurons within the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus (also known as the subcoeruleus nucleus in humans) can induce RBD-like behaviours in animals. As current RBD animal models are not established on the basis of α-synucleinopathy, they do not represent the pathological substrate of idiopathic RBD and thus cannot model the phenoconversion to Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was therefore to establish an α-synucleinopathy-based RBD animal model with the potential to convert to parkinsonian disorder. To this end, we first determined the functional neuroanatomical location of the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus in wild-type C57BL/6J mice and then validated its function by recapitulating RBD-like behaviours based on this determined nucleus. Next, we injected preformed α-synuclein fibrils into the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus and performed regular polysomnographic recordings and parkinsonian behavioural and histopathological studies in these mice. As a result, we recapitulated RBD-like behaviours in the mice and further showed that the α-synucleinopathy and neuron degeneration identified within the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus acted as the neuropathological substrates. Subsequent parkinsonian behavioural studies indicated that the α-synucleinopathy-based RBD mouse model were not stationary, but could further progress to display parkinsonian locomotor dysfunction, depression-like disorder, olfactory dysfunction and gastrointestinal dysmotility. Corresponding to that, we determined α-synuclein pathology in the substantia nigra pars compacta, olfactory bulb, enteral neuroplexus and dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve, which could underlie the parkinsonian manifestations in mice. In conclusion, we established a novel α-synucleinopathy-based RBD mouse model and further demonstrated the phenoconversion of RBD to Parkinson's disease in this animal model.

7.
Theranostics ; 10(26): 11950-11962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204322

RESUMO

Rationale: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been the focus of many studies because of their abilities to modulate immune responses, angiogenesis, and promote tumor growth and metastasis. Our previous work showed that gastric cancer MSCs (GCMSCs) promoted immune escape by secreting of IL-8, which induced programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in GC cells. Mounting evidence has revealed that PD-L1 expression is related to intrinsic tumor cell properties. Here, we investigated whether GCMSCs maintained a pool of cancer stem cells (CSCs) through PD-L1 signaling and the specific underlying molecular mechanism. Methods: Stem cell surface markers, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, migration and sphere formation abilities were tested to evaluate the stemness of GC cells. PD-L1-expressing lentivirus and PD-L1 specific siRNA were used to analyze the effects of PD-L1 on GC cells stemness. Annexin V/PI double staining was used to assess apoptosis of GC cells induced by chemotherapy. Co-Immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Mass spectrometry were employed to determine the PD-L1 binding partner in GC cells. PD-L1Negative and PD-L1Positive cells were sorted by flow cytometry and used for limiting dilution assays to verify the effect of PD-L1 on tumorigenic ability in GC cells. Results: The results showed that GCMSCs enhanced the CSC-like properties of GC cells through PD-L1, which led to the resistance of GC cells to chemotherapy. PD-L1 associated with CTCF to contribute to the stemness and self-renewal of GC cells. In vivo, PD-L1Positive GC cells had greater stemness potential and tumorigenicity than PD-L1Negative GC cells. The results also indicated that GC cells were heterogeneous, and that PD-L1 in GC cells had different reactivity to GCMSCs. Conclusions: Overall, our data indicated that GCMSCs enriched CSC-like cells in GC cells, which gives a new insight into the mechanism of GCMSCs prompting GC progression and provides a potential combined therapeutic target.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140216

RESUMO

RATIONALE: It has been reported that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) are prone to developing ventricular arrhythmias. Moreover, the Sigma-1 receptor not only plays a crucial role in MDD but has also been shown to have antiarrhythmic properties. The Sigma-1 receptor is a common receptor related to depression and ventricular arrhythmias. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the effects of the Sigma-1 receptor on depression and ventricular repolarization-related ion remodeling in MDD rats. METHODS: MDD was induced in rats by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and 28 days later, the rats were subjected to behavior tests. Protein expression was measured by western blotting, and cardiac morphological changes were observed by Masson staining. Electrophysiological measurement of the myocardium was performed with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: Compared with the control rats, the MDD rats exhibited lower transient outward potassium current (Ito) and L-type calcium current (ICa-L) amplitudes. On the other hand, a trend of depolarization of Ito and hyperpolarization of ICa-L was observed in the MDD rats. Thus, we investigated the effect of fluvoxamine, a Sigma-1 receptor agonist, on Ito and ICa-L. Fluvoxamine enhanced Ito and altered its current kinetics, as shown by acceleration of activation and recovery from inactivation. In contrast, fluvoxamine inhibited the Ca2+ by hyperpolarizing the steady-state activation of ICa-L. All these effects were blocked by BD1047. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results indicate that Sigma-1 receptor modulates the functions of Ito and ICa-L to possibly exert antiarrhythmic effects.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to compare safety and effectiveness of vedolizumab to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-antagonist therapy in ulcerative colitis in routine practice. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study (May 2014 to December 2017) of ulcerative colitis patients treated with vedolizumab or TNF-antagonist therapy. Propensity score weighted comparisons for development of serious adverse events and achievement of clinical remission, steroid-free clinical remission, and steroid-free deep remission. A priori determined subgroup comparisons in TNF-antagonist-naïve and -exposed patients, and for vedolizumab against infliximab and subcutaneous TNF-antagonists separately. RESULTS: A total of 722 (454 vedolizumab, 268 TNF antagonist) patients were included. Vedolizumab-treated patients were more likely to achieve clinical remission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.651; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.229-2.217), steroid-free clinical remission (HR, 1.828; 95% CI, 1.135-2.944), and steroid-free deep remission (HR, 2.819; 95% CI, 1.496-5.310) than those treated with TNF antagonists. Results were consistent across subgroup analyses in TNF-antagonist-naïve and -exposed patients, and for vedolizumab vs infliximab and vs subcutaneous TNF-antagonist agents separately. Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in the risk of serious adverse events (HR, 0.899; 95% CI, 0.502-1.612) or serious infections (HR, 1.235; 95% CI, 0.608-2.511) between vedolizumab-treated and TNF-antagonist-treated patients. However, in TNF-antagonist-naïve patients, vedolizumab was less likely to be associated with serious adverse events than TNF antagonists (HR, 0.192; 95% CI, 0.049-0.754). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of ulcerative colitis with vedolizumab is associated with higher rates of remission than treatment with TNF-antagonist therapy in routine practice, and lower rates of serious adverse events in TNF-antagonist-naïve patients.

11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 514, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culex pipiens pallens poses a serious threat to human health because of its widespread distribution, high carrier capacity for several arboviruses, frequent human-biting, and growth in urban environments. Pyrethroid insecticides have been mainly used to control adult Cx. pipiens pallens during outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases. Unfortunately, mosquitoes have developed resistance, rendering the insecticides ineffective. Cuticular resistance is the primary mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Previously, we revealed that cuticular protein of low complexity CPLCG5 is a major cuticular protein associated with deltamethrin resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens, which is enriched in the cuticle of mosquitoes' legs and participates in pyrethroid resistance by forming a rigid matrix. However, the regulatory mechanisms of its transcription remain unknown. RESULTS: First, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of FTZ-F1 (encoding Fushi tarazu-Factor 1) was ~ 1.8-fold higher in the deltamethrin-resistant (DR) than deltamethrin-susceptible (DS) strains at 24 h post-eclosion (PE) and ~ 2.2-fold higher in the DR strain than in the DS strain at 48 h PE. CPLCG5 and FTZ-F1 were co-expressed in the legs, indicating that they might play an essential role in the legs. Dual luciferase reporter assays and EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift experiments) revealed that FTZ-F1 regulates the transcription of CPLCG5 by binding to the FTZ-F1 response element (- 870/- 864). Lastly, knockdown of FTZ-F1 not only affected CPLCG5 expression but also altered the cuticle thickness and structure of the legs, increasing the susceptibility of the mosquitoes to deltamethrin in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that FTZ-F1 regulates the expression of CPLCG5 by binding to the CPLCG5 promoter region, altering cuticle thickness and structure, and increasing the susceptibility of mosquitoes to deltamethrin in vivo. This study revealed part of the mechanism of cuticular resistance, providing a deeper understanding of insecticide resistance.

12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9563851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083492

RESUMO

Objective: The present study examined the role of PPARß/δ in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The effect of PPARß/δ on HCC development was analyzed using PPARß/δ-overexpressed liver cancer cells and PPARß/δ-knockout mouse models. Results: PPARß/δ (-/-) mice were susceptible to diethylnitrosamine- (DEN-) induced HCC (87.5% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.05). In addition, PPARß/δ-overexpressed HepG2 cells had reduced proliferation, migration, and invasion capabilities accompanied by increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, differential gene expression profiling uncovered that the levels of serine/threonine-protein kinase (SGK-1) mRNA and its encoded protein were reduced in PPARß/δ-overexpressed HepG2 cells. Consistently, elevated SGK-1 levels were found in PPARß/δ (-/-) mouse livers as well as PPARß/δ-knockdown human SMMC-7721 HCC cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays further revealed the binding of PPARß/δ to the SGK-1 regulatory region in HepG2 cells. Conclusions: Due to the known tumor-promoting effect of SGK1, the present data suggest that PPARß/δ-deactivated SGK1 is a novel pathway for inhibiting liver carcinogenesis.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The involvement of gastrointestinal tract is rare in sarcoidosis. Endoscopic and histologic evaluation likely provides diagnostic clue in sarcoidosis patients. The aims were to assess the frequency of abnormal endoscopy and histology in patients with sarcoidosis undergoing endoscopic evaluation and to characterize the endoscopic and histologic features in sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: This was a retrospective study that included 230 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a tertiary care center. The endoscopic and pathology reports were assessed, and serum angiotensin converting enzyme analysis was performed. RESULTS: Of 230 patients, 63 upper endoscopies and 142 colonoscopies were performed. The most common indication for upper endoscopy was abdominal pain (36.8%) while colonoscopy was most frequently performed for colorectal cancer screening (58.2%). There were 25 upper gastrointestinal biopsies performed (biopsy rate 39.7%) with a diagnostic yield of 92.0% abnormal biopsies, of which the main findings were esophageal tissue eosinophilia, gastritis and duodenal villous blunting. There were 99 lower gastrointestinal biopsies (biopsy rate 64.1%) with a diagnostic yield of 68.7% abnormal biopsies for adenocarcinoma, adenoma, inflammation, low-grade dysplasia, or polyp. Only one gastric biopsy revealed evidence of non-necrotizing granulomas. Of note, patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy were more likely to have underlying gastrointestinal comorbidities (62.5%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with sarcoidosis undergoing endoscopic evaluation have high histologic abnormalities with a low probability of characteristic histologic (i.e. granulomas, Schaumann and asteroid bodies) findings.

14.
Mol Plant ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075506

RESUMO

Several photorespiratory bypasses have been introduced into plants and shown to improve photosynthesis by increasing chloroplastic CO2 concentrations or optimizing energy balance. We recently reported that an engineered GOC bypass could increase photosynthesis and productivity in rice. However, grain yield of the GOC plants was unstable, fluctuating at the different cultivation seasons due to the varying seed setting rate. In this study, we designed a synthetic photorespiratory shortcut (the GCGT bypass) consisting of genes encoding Oryza sativa glycolate oxidase and Escherichia coli catalase, glyoxylate carboligase, and tartronic semialdehyde reductase. The GCGT bypass was guided by an optimized chloroplast transit peptide that targeted rice chloroplasts and redirected 75% of carbon from glycolate metabolism to the Calvin cycle, identical to the native photorespiration pathway. GCGT transgenic plants exhibited significantly increased biomass production and grain yield, which was mainly attributed to enhanced photosynthesis due to the increased chloroplastic CO2 concentration. Despite the increases in biomass production and grain yield, GCGT transgenic plants showed a reduced seed setting rate, a phenotype previously reported for the GOC plants. Integrative transcriptomic, physiological, and biochemical assays revealed that the photosynthetic carbohydrates were not transported to grains in an efficient manner, which then resulted in the decreased seed setting rate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the GCGT photorespiratory shortcut confers higher yield by promoting photosynthesis in rice, mainly by increasing chloroplastic CO2 concentrations.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078944

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) capped with metal nanoparticles (NPs) show multifunctional and synergistic properties, which are important for applications in the fields of catalysis, photonics, and electronics. Conventional colloidal syntheses of this class of hybrid structures require complex sequential seeded growth, where each section requires its own set of growth conditions, and methods for preparing such wires are not universal. Here, we report a new and general method for synthesizing metal-semiconductor nanohybrids based on particle catalysts, prepared by scanning probe block copolymer lithography, and chemical vapor deposition. In this process, metallic heterodimer NPs were used as catalysts for NW growth to form semiconductor NWs capped with metallic particles (Au, Ag, Co, Ni). Interestingly, the growth processes for NWs on NPs are regioselective and controlled by the chemical composition of the metallic heterodimer used. Using a systematic experimental approach, paired with density functional theory calculations, we were able to postulate three different growth modes, one without precedent.

16.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001817

RESUMO

This article is concerned with the problem of recursive state estimation for a class of multirate multisensor systems with distributed time delays under the round-robin (R-R) protocol. The state updating period of the system and the sampling period of the sensors are allowed to be different so as to reflect the engineering practice. An iterative method is presented to transform the multirate system into a single-rate one, thereby facilitating the system analysis. The R-R protocol is introduced to determine the transmission sequence of sensors with the aim to alleviate undesirable data collisions. Under the R-R protocol scheduling, only one sensor can get access to transmit its measurement at each sampling time instant. The main purpose of this article is to develop a recursive state estimation scheme such that an upper bound on the estimation error covariance is guaranteed and then locally minimized through adequately designing the estimator parameter. Finally, simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed estimator design scheme.

17.
Cell Rep ; 33(2): 108252, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053358

RESUMO

Osteogenic suppressors such as Sclerostin not only regulate skeletal development and regeneration but also serve as anti-osteoporosis drug targets. However, very few druggable suppressors have been identified due to limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing osteogenesis. Here, we show that fibroblast activation protein (Fap), a serine protease inhibited by the bone growth factor Osteolectin, is an osteogenic suppressor. Genetic deletion of Fap significantly ameliorates limb trabecular bone loss during aging. Pharmacological inhibition of Fap significantly promotes bone formation and inhibits bone resorption in wild-type mice by differentially regulating canonical Wnt and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways. Pharmacological inhibition of Fap promotes osteoblast differentiation, inhibits osteoclast differentiation, and significantly attenuates osteoporosis in ovariectomized mice. Epistasis analyses in zebrafish show that Osteolectin functions as an endogenous inhibitor of Fap to promote vertebrae mineralization. Taken together, we identify Fap as an important osteogenic suppressor and a potential drug target to treat osteoporosis.

18.
Mov Disord ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There was a paucity of follow-up studies in the disease progression of early-onset PD patients with Parkin mutations (Parkin-EOPD). Here we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the progression of motor and cognitive features of Parkin-EOPD patients. METHODS: Genetic analysis was performed via target sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Thirty patients carrying homozygous or compound heterozygous Parkin mutations with at least 2 follow-up revisions were investigated as the Parkin-EOPD group. Fifty-two patients with at least 2 follow-up revisions, who did not have any known causative PD mutations, GBA or LRRK2 risk variants, a heterozygous Parkin mutation or 2 Parkin mutations without a segregation test, were defined as the genetically undefined EOPD (GU-EOPD) group. A linear mixed-effect model was implemented to evaluate longitudinal changes in motor symptoms and cognition. RESULTS: At baseline, the Parkin-EOPD group had a lower Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (UPDRS-III) (off-medication) than the GU-EOPD group, without significant differences in cognition. A longitudinal study showed the estimated progression rate per year (standard error) of the UPDRS-III score (off-medication) was lower in the Parkin-EOPD group (0.203 [0.3162] points per year) than in the GU-EOPD group (1.056 [0.3001] points per year). The difference in the UPDRS-III score rate between the 2 groups was 0.853 (0.4183) (P = 0.042). The Parkin-EOPD group showed better maintenance of spatial processing ability compared with the GU-EOPD group (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Parkin-EOPD patients showed a slower deterioration of motor symptoms and a better spatial processing ability than GU-EOPD patients, which suggests that subtyping according to genetic features can help predict PD progression. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

19.
Gut Microbes ; 12(1): 1-13, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054632

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum is a Gram-negative oral commensal anaerobe which has been increasingly implicated in various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, GI cancers. The oral cavity harbors a diverse group of Fusobacterium, and it is postulated that F. nucleatum in the GI tract originate from the mouth. It is not known, however, if all oral Fusobacterium translocate to the GI sites with equal efficiencies. Therefore, we amplified 16S rRNA genes of F. nucleatum and F. periodonticum, two closely related oral species from matched saliva, gastric aspirates, and colon or ileal pouch aspirates of three patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and three healthy controls, and saliva alone from seven patients with either active IBD or IBD in remission. The 16S rRNA gene amplicons were cloned, and the DNA sequences determined by Sanger sequencing. The results demonstrate that fusobacterial community composition differs more significantly between the oral and GI sites than between different individuals. The oral communities demonstrate the highest level of variation and have the richest pool of unique sequences, with certain nodes/strains enriched in the GI tract and others diminished during translocation. The gastric and colon/pouch communities exhibit reduced diversity and are more closely related, possibly due to selective pressure in the GI tract. This study elucidates selective translocation of oral fusobacteria to the GI tract. Identification of specific transmissible clones will facilitate risk assessment for developing Fusobacterium-implicated GI disorders.

20.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; : 1-10, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030420

RESUMO

Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reflects a perceived sense of physical and mental well-being over time, encompassing both physical health and psychosocial health. Although these two health concepts have been often examined as a whole, few studies have explored the possibility of mixed profiles. We designed this study to identify Chinese adolescents' HRQOL profiles and their associations with happiness, physical activity, and fitness. Method: 544 high-school students completed validated Chinese-version questionnaires assessing HRQOL, happiness, and physical activity behavior while their fitness level was evaluated based on China National Fitness Test Program. A two-step cluster analysis and MANOVAs were conducted. Results: We identified four distinct clusters: low HRQOL, psychosocial health-oriented, physical health-oriented, and high HRQOL. There were significant differences among clusters in happiness, physical activity, and fitness, with "high HRQOL" group being the most adaptive cluster while "low HRQOL" group the least. Both psychosocial health-oriented and physical health-oriented clusters demonstrated dimension-related features. Conclusion: Health-related quality of life in Chinese adolescents is a multidimensional construct. Although its physical and psychosocial functioning are often interacted, different dimensions have unique but specified roles. Particularly, physical functioning might not only be associated with physical and health condition but also with positive emotion, especially when psychosocial satisfaction is lacking. It is important to pay specific attention to the interactions among the dimensions and how the interactions combine and function together to influence adolescents' behavior.

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