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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499596

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile and non-spore-forming bacterium, designated strain JN500902T, was isolated from the mud in a fermentation cellar used continuously over 30 years for Chinese strong-flavour baijiu production. Colonies were white, circular, convex and smooth-edged. Growth was observed at 20-40 °C (optimum, 37 °C), at pH 5.0-10 (optimum, pH 7.5), with 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl and with 0-4 % (v/v) ethanol. The Biolog assay demonstrated positive reactions of strain JN500902T in the metabolism of l-fucose and pyruvate. The predominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) consisted of C16 : 0 and C14 : 0. The major end metabolites of strain JN500902T were acetic acid and ethanol when incubated anaerobically in liquid reinforced clostridial medium. Acetate was the major organic acid end product. The complete genome size of strain JN500902T was 3 420 321 bp with 3327 identified genes. The G+C content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated strain JN500902T with the family Lachnospiraceae, having low sequence similarity (92.8 %) to the nearest type strain, Syntrophococcus sucromutans DSM 3224T and forming a clearly distinct branch. Core genome phylogenetic analysis of the isolate and 134 strains belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae also revealed that strain JN500902T was well-separated from other genera of this family as a monophyletic clade. The average nucleotide identity and amino acid identity values between strain JN500902T and 134 Lachnospiraceae strains were less than 74 and 65 %, respectively. Considering its polyphasic characteristics, strain JN500902T represents a novel genus and species within the family Lachnospiraceae, for which the name Novisyntrophococcus fermenticellae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN500902T (=CICC 24502T=JCM 33939T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Fermentação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
2.
Waste Manag ; 135: 130-139, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496309

RESUMO

Aerobic composting is a promising alternative for the recycling of rice straw (RS), and an applicable nitrogen source is necessary to improve the process. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and microbial community dynamics of RS composting using urea or protein hydrolysate from leather waste (PHL) as a nitrogen source. Results showed that PHL addition achieved a faster temperature increase rate at start-up (1.85 ℃·h-1 vs 1.07 ℃·h-1), higher volatile solid degradation efficiency (48.04% vs 46.98%), and greater germination indices (111.72% vs 89.87%) in the end products, as compared to urea. The major bacterial phyla included Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in both composting processes. Although the bacterial communities in both processes succeeded in a similar pattern according to different composting phases, PHL addition accelerated the succession rate of the microbial community. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that bacterial community composition was strongly correlated with physicochemical properties such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), NH4+, pH, temperature, and total nitrogen (TN) content. These results proved the potential of using PHL as a nitrogen source to improve the RS composting process.

3.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110449, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399451

RESUMO

Mud cellars have long been used as anaerobic bioreactors for the fermentation of Chinese strong-flavor Baijiu, where starchy raw materials (mainly sorghum) are metabolized to ethanol and various flavor compounds by multi-species microorganisms. Jiupei (fermented grains) and pit mud are two spatially linked microbial habitats in the mud cellar, yet their metabolic division of labor remains unclear. Here, we investigated the changes in environmental variables (e.g., temperature, oxygen, pH), key metabolites (e.g., ethanol, organic acids) and microbial communities in jiupei and pit mud during fermentation. Jiupei (low pH, high ethanol) and pit mud (neutral pH) provided two habitats with distinctly different environmental conditions for microbial growth. Lactic acid accumulated in jiupei, while butyric and hexanoic acids were mainly produced by microbes inhabiting the pit mud. Biomass analysis using quantitative real-time PCR showed that bacteria dominated the microbial consortia during fermentation, moreover cluster and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis showed that the bacterial communities of jiupei and pit mud were significantly divergent. The bacterial community diversity of jiupei decreased significantly during the fermentation process, and was relatively stable in pit mud. Lactobacillus dominated the jiupei bacterial community, and its relative abundance reached 98.0% at the end of fermentation. Clostridia (relative abundance: 42.9-85.5%) was the most abundant bacteria in pit mud, mainly distributed in the genus Hydrogenispora (5.3-68.4%). Fungal communities of jiupei and pit mud showed a similar succession pattern, and Kazachstania, Aspergillus and Thermoascus were the predominant genera. PICRUSt analysis demonstrated that enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of acetic and lactic acid were mainly enriched in jiupei samples, while the bacterial community in the pit mud displayed greater potential for butyric and hexanoic acid synthesis. Assays from an in vitro simulated fermentation further validated the roles of jiupei microbiota in acetic and lactic acid production, and these acids were subsequently metabolized to butyric and hexanoic acid by the pit mud microbiota. This work has demonstrated the synergistic cooperation between the microbial communities of jiupei and pit mud for the representative flavor formation of strong-flavor Baijiu.


Assuntos
Consórcios Microbianos , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 337: 125492, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320771

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of biochar addition on nitrogen (N) loss and the process period during distilled grain waste (DGW) composting. Results from the five treatments (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% biochar addition) indicated that 10% biochar addition (DB10) was optimal, resulting in the lowest N loss, 25.69% vs. 40.01% in the control treatment. Moreover, the DGW composting period was shortened by approximately 14 days by biochar addition. The composition of the microbial community was not significantly altered with biochar addition in each phase, however, it did accelerate the microbial succession during DGW composting. N metabolism pathway prediction revealed that biochar addition enhanced nitrification and inhibited denitrification, and the latter phenomenon was the main reason for reducing N loss during DGW composting. Based on the above results, a potential mechanism model for biochar addition to reduce N loss during the DGW composting process was established.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Microbiota , Carvão Vegetal , Esterco , Nitrogênio , Solo
5.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(17): e0088521, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160281

RESUMO

The mud cellar creates a unique microenvironment for the fermentation of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Recent research and long-term practice have highlighted the key roles of microbes inhabiting pit mud in the formation of SFB's characteristic flavor. A positive correlation between the quality of SFB and cellar age was extracted from practice; however, the evolutionary patterns of pit mud microbiome and driving factors remain unclear. Here, based on the variation regularity analysis of microbial community structure and metabolites of samples from cellars of different ages (∼30/100/300 years), we further investigated the effects of lactate and acetate (main microbial metabolites in fermented grains) on modulating the pit mud microbiome. Esters (50.3% to 64.5%) dominated the volatile compounds identified in pit mud, and contents of the four typical acids (lactate, hexanoate, acetate, and butyrate) increased with cellar age. Bacteria (9.5 to 10.4 log10 [lg] copies/g) and archaea (8.3 to 9.1 lg copies/g) mainly constituted pit mud microbiota, respectively dominated by Clostridia (39.7% to 81.2%) and Methanomicrobia (32.8% to 92.9%). An upward trend with cellar age characterized the relative and absolute abundance of the most predominant bacterial and archaeal genera, Caproiciproducens and Methanosarcina. Correlation analysis revealed significantly (P < 0.05) positive relationships between the two genera and major metabolites. Anaerobic fermentation with acetate and lactate as carbon sources enhanced the enrichment of Clostridia, and furthermore, the relative abundance of Caproiciproducens (40.9%) significantly increased after 15-day fed-batch fermentation with lactate compared with the initial pit mud (0.22%). This work presents a directional evolutionary pattern of pit mud microbial consortia and provides an alternative way to accelerate the enrichment of functional microbes. IMPORTANCE The solid-state anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar is the most typical feature of strong-flavor baijiu (SFB). Metabolites produced by microbes inhabiting pit mud are crucial to create the unique flavor of SFB. Accordingly, craftspeople have always highlighted the importance of the pit mud microbiome and concluded by centuries of practice that the production rate of high-quality baijiu increases with cellar age. To deepen the understanding of the pit mud microbiome, we determined the microbial community and metabolites of different-aged pit mud, inferred the main functional groups, and explored the forces driving the microbial community evolution through metagenomic, metabolomic, and multivariate statistical analyses. The results showed that the microbial consortia of pit mud presented a regular and directional evolutionary pattern under the impact of continuous batch-to-batch brewing activities. This work provides insight into the key roles of the pit mud microbiome in SFB production and supports the production optimization of high-quality pit mud.


Assuntos
Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Argila/microbiologia , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Microbiota , Vinho/análise , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/genética , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos/instrumentação , Vinho/microbiologia
6.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103766, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875202

RESUMO

Daqu, a brick-shaped product spontaneously fermented under an open environment, has been regarded as the starter of fermentation, raw enzyme preparation and raw materials for baijiu production. However, its contribution in baijiu fermentation has not been fully elaborated yet. Here, the effects of daqu microbiota on baijiu fermentation were investigated under both field-scale and lab-scale conditions. In field-scale baijiu fermentation, the dominant daqu microbes (average relative abundance>10.0%), including unclassified_Leuconostocaceae, Thermoascus, and Thermomyces, tended to dominate the early stage (0-7 d). However, the rare daqu microbes (average relative abundance <0.1%, e.g., Kazachstania) tended to dominate the middle and late stages (11-40 d). In addition, some genera showed differences in species diversity between daqu and fermented grains. The average relative abundance of Lactobacillus was over 75% during baijiu fermentation, and most of them were affiliated with Lactobacillus acetotolerans, while Lactobacillus crustorum dominated the Lactobacillus OTUs in daqu. The similar patterns were also observed during lab-scale baijiu fermentation. The results of function prediction showed the enriched metabolic pathways were associated with glycolysis and long-chain fatty acid esters in baijiu fermentation. These results improved the understanding of daqu microbiota function during baijiu fermentation and provided a basic theory to support the regulation of baijiu production.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Microbiota , China , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillus/classificação , Lactobacillus/genética
7.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110037, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648263

RESUMO

As a widely used Asian starter culture, the quality of daqu can significantly affect the organoleptic characteristics of the final products, yet the microbial metabolic network involved in flavor development remains unclear. This study aims to investigate that network based on the dynamics of physicochemical properties, microbial community, and volatile compounds in medium-temperature daqu (MT-daqu) during spontaneous fermentation. Analyses using the metagenomic data set facilitated the gene repertoire overview of this ecosystem, indicating that Lactobacillales (mainly Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus), Mucorales (mainly Lichtheimia), and Eurotiales (mainly Aspergillus, Rasamsonia and Byssochlamys) were the potential predominant populations successively responsible for the production of lytic enzymes and flavor precursors/compounds in MT-daqu. Flavor-relevant pathways were found to exist in multiple species, but only bacteria showed the potential to participate in butane-2,3-diol (e.g. Weissella, Lactobacillus, and Staphylococcus) and butanoate (Thermoactinomyces) metabolism, and only fungi were potentially involved in biosynthesis of guaiacol (Byssochlamys) and 4-vinylguaiacol (Aspergillus). Furthermore, a combined analysis revealed that the acidic thermal environment present in early phases was mainly due to the catabolic activities of Lactobacillales and Lichtheimia, which could contribute to the effective self-domestication of microbiota. The study helps elucidate the different metabolic roles of microorganisms and disclose the formation mechanism of daqu's partial functions, namely providing various aromatic substances/precursors and enzymes.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Microbiota , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Microbiota/genética , Temperatura
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(12): 4096-4107, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190291

RESUMO

Chinese traditional liquor, a major type of global distilled spirits, offers a unique flavor system acquired across thousands of years of development. Owing to the various raw brewing materials, types of koji, fermentation vessels, and processes used during liquor production, significant differences can occur in the content of flavor chemical components, such as esters, alcohols, aromatics, ketones, nitrogen compounds, acids, and aldehydes in the resulting liquor. Therefore, the liquor can be characterized on the basis of four basic flavors: sauce-, strong-, light-, and rice-aroma, and eight derivative flavors: feng-, sesame-, chi-, te-, mixed-, laobaigan-, herbal-, and fuyu-aroma. In this review, we describe the production and development process of Chinese traditional liquor in detail; summarize the flavor types, flavor chemical composition characteristics, and research progress related to this liquor; and discuss the influence of trace chemical components on liquor flavor, with the aim of laying a theoretical foundation for stabilizing the quality and increasing the yield of traditional liquor.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , China , Fermentação , Humanos , Paladar
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(8): 3544-3553, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jiuqu are vital saccharifying and fermenting agents for Chinese fermented foods. Natural ventilation during Jiuqu fermentation causes changes in temperature, oxygen and moisture content, resulting in mass and heat gradients from the outer to inner areas of Jiuqu blocks. In the present study, microbiota stratification in Jiuqu was investigated by single molecule real-time sequencing and culture isolation. The contributors of Bacillus to amylase activity of Jiuqu and the dynamics of their biomass during Jiuqu fermentation were also analyzed. RESULTS: The dominant orders, genera and species between the inner and outer layers of Huangjiu qu (HJQ) were similar, although they displayed greater variance in two layers of Baijiu qu (BJQ). Bacillus possessed the highest diversity (including 27 species) in Jiuqu. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus megaterium were most prevalent in HJQ, whereas B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus cereus were dominant in BJQ. Isolates of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis and B. cereus exhibited high activities of amylase and glucoamylase. Quantification of Bacillus members possessing genes of α-amylase revealed that B. cereus and B. licheniformis were the most dominant microbes to secret α-amylase in Jiuqu and their biomass were increasing during Jiuqu fermentation. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the microbial distribution in different layers of Jiuqu and clarifies the Bacillus species processing the activity of α-amylase. These results will help industries control the quality of Jiuqu by rationally selecting starters and optimizing their microbiota. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Oryza/microbiologia , Amilases/genética , Amilases/metabolismo , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/enzimologia , Bacillus/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos
10.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1397, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316481

RESUMO

Butyrate, one of the key aroma compounds in Luzhou-flavor baijiu, is synthesized through two alternative pathways: butyrate kinase (buk) and butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase (but). A lack of knowledge of butyrate-producing microorganisms hinders our ability to understand the flavor formation mechanism of baijiu. Here, temporal dynamics of microbial metabolic profiling in fermented grains (FG) was explored via PICRUSt based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. We found Bacilli and Bacteroidia were the major potential butyrate producers in buk pathway at the beginning of fermentation, while later Clostridia dominated the two pathways. Clone library analysis also revealed that Clostridia (~73% OTUs) was predominant in buk pathway throughout fermentation, followed by Bacilli and Bacteroidia, and but pathway was merely possessed by Clostridia. Afterward, Clostridia-specific 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated Clostridium might be the major butyrate-producing genus in two pathways, which was subsequently evaluated using culture approach. Seventeen Clostridium species were isolated from FG based on 16S rRNA gene sequence-guided medium prediction method. Profiles of short-chain fatty acids and but and buk genes in these species demonstrated phylogenetic and functional diversities of butyrate-producing Clostridium in FG. These findings add to illustrate the diversity of potential butyrate producers during brewing and provide a workflow for targeting functional microbes in complex microbial community.

11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 297: 41-50, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878841

RESUMO

Butyrate and its derivates pertain to the key aroma contributors of strong-flavour baijiu, a kind of Chinese liquors, that is produced from grains by solid-state multispecies anaerobic fermentation in a mud cellar. Microbes inhabiting in the fermentation pit mud largely determines baijiu's flavour and quality. In order to shed light on the microbial functional groups driving butyrate production in pit mud, clone library analysis was firstly performed and the results demonstrated that Clostridia (relative abundance: 50%) and Bacilli (37%) were major groups possessing butyrate kinase (buk) pathway and Clostridia (98%) dominated butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) pathway. According to Clostridial specific-16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis, we found the resilience character of Clostridial community in pit mud. Amongst Clostridial groups, 32.0% of the sequences were grouped into Clostridiales incertae sedis, followed by Heliobacteriaceae (18.3%) and Clostridiaceae 1 (8.4%). Moreover, Hydrogenispora, Sedimentibacter and Clostridium were the top three abundant genera. Relative abundance of Hydrogenispora was higher in the late days of fermentation, while Sedimentibacter exhibited higher proportion in the early days. Different from the previous studies using universal bacterial primer sets, Hydrogenispora was first reported as one dominant genus in pit mud. As for the reported potential butyrate producer Clostridium, nineteen species were obtained and ten of them were first isolated from the pit mud. Amongst them, buk was identified in eleven species by PCR analysis, while but was identified in the other seven, indicating the species-specific butyrate synthesis pathways of Clostridium. This study provides a perspective on targeting and isolating specific functional microbes in baijiu microbiota with the gene sequence-based medium prediction method.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Clostridium/enzimologia , Clostridium/genética , Fermentação , Microbiologia do Solo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Bacillus/enzimologia , Bacillus/genética , Butiratos/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(3): 859-865, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735112

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, obligately anaerobic, non-motile, spore-forming and binary fission encapsulated bacterium, designated strain JN500901T, was isolated from a mud cellar which has been continuously used for the fermentation of Chinese strong-flavour baijiu for over 100 years. Growth of JN500901Toccurred at pH 4.5-8.0 (optimum, pH 5.0), 20-40 °C (37 °C), 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl and 0-10 % (v/v) ethanol. The Biolog assay revealed that strain JN500901T metabolized d-fructose, l-fucose, isomaltulose and l-rhamnose among the 95 studied carbon sources. p-Cresol was the predominant volatile metabolite in the fermentation broth of strain JN500901T incubated in liquid reinforced clostridial medium under anaerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain JN500901T belongs to Clostridiumsensu stricto, and shared the highest sequence similarity to Clostridiumcarboxidivorans DSM 15243T (94.2 %), followed by Clostridiumscatologenes DSM 757T (94.1 %). The dominant cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0 FAME (36.6 %), C19 : 0 cyc 9,10 DMA (19.8 %) and C16 : 1 cis 9 DMA (11.8 %). The complete genome of strain JN500901T contained a circular chromosome of 2.812 Mb with 2611 genes and 31.0 mol% G+C content. Comparative genome analysis of the strain JN500901T, Clostridiumcarboxidivorans DSM 15243T and Clostridiumscatologenes DSM 757T revealed 74.5 and 74.8 % average nucleotide identity, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses presented here, strain JN500901T is considered to be a novel species of the genus Clostridiumsensustricto, for which the name Clostridium fermenticellae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN500901T (=CICC 24501T=JCM 32827T).


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Clostridium/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29793098

RESUMO

The objective of the current work was to evaluate the spectrum-effect relationships between high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Rubia cordifolia L. extract (RCE), and to identify active components of RCE. Chemical fingerprints of ten batches of RC from various sources were obtained by HPLC, and similarity and hierarchical clustering analyses were carried out. Pharmacodynamic assays were performed in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of RCE. The spectrum-effect relationships between chemical fingerprints and the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of RCE were established by gray correlation analysis. UPLC-ESI-MS was used to identify the structures of potential active components, by reference standards comparison. The results showed that a close correlation existed between chemical fingerprints with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, and alizarin, 6-hydroxyrubiadin, purpurin and rubiadin might be the active constituents of RCE. In addition, RCE attenuated pathological changes in adjuvant-induced arthritis. The current findings provide a strong basis for combining chemical fingerprints with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in assessing the spectrum-effect relationships of RCE.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubia/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 83(23)2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970223

RESUMO

"Daqu" is a saccharifying and fermenting agent commonly used in the traditional solid-state fermentation industry (e.g., baijiu and vinegar). The patterns of microbial community succession and flavor formation are highly similar among batches, yet the mechanisms promoting temporal succession in the Daqu microbial ecology remain unclear. Here, we first correlated temporal profiles of microbial community succession with environmental variables (temperature, moisture, and titratable acidity) in medium temperature Daqu (MT-Daqu) throughout fermentation. Temperature dynamics significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with the quick succession of MT-Daqu microbiota in the first 12 d of fermentation, while the community structure was relatively stable after 12 d. Then, we explored the effect of temperature on the MT-Daqu community assembly. In the first 4 d of fermentation, the rapid propagation of most bacterial taxa and several fungal taxa, including Candida, Wickerhamomyces, and unclassified Dipodascaceae and Saccharomycetales species, significantly increased MT-Daqu temperature to 55°C. Subsequently, sustained bio-heat generated by microbial metabolism (53 to 56°C) within MT-Daqu inhibited the growth of most microbes from day 4 to day 12, while thermotolerant taxa, including Bacillus, unclassified Streptophyta, Weissella, Thermoactinomyces, Thermoascus, and Thermomyces survived or kept on growing. Furthermore, temperature as a major driving force on the shaping of MT-Daqu microbiota was validated. Lowering the fermentation temperature by placing the MT-Daqu in a 37°C incubator resulted in decreased relative abundances of thermotolerant taxa, including Bacillus, Thermoactinomyces, and Thermoascus, in the MT-Daqu microbiota. This study revealed that bio-heat functioned as a primary endogenous driver promoting the formation of functional MT-Daqu microbiota.IMPORTANCE Humans have mastered the Daqu preparation technique of cultivating functional microbiota on starchy grains over thousands of years, and it is well known that the metabolic activity of these microbes is key to the flavor production of Chinese baijiu. The pattern of microbial community succession and flavor formation remains highly similar between batches, yet mechanistic insight into these patterns and into microbial population fidelity to specific environmental conditions remains unclear. Our study revealed that bio-heat was generated within Daqu bricks in the first 4 d of fermentation, concomitant with rapid microbial propagation and metabolism. The sustained bio-heat may then function as a major endogenous driving force promoting the formation of the MT-Daqu microbiota from day 4 to day 12. The bio-heat-driven growth of thermotolerant microorganisms might contribute to the formation of flavor metabolites. This study provides useful information for the temperature-based modulation of microbiota function during the fermentation of Daqu.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Vinho/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , China , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Temperatura , Vinho/análise
15.
J Microencapsul ; 33(6): 554-562, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27686628

RESUMO

In this work, maltodextrin-grafted-cinnamic acid (MD-g-CA) was synthesised and used as wall material to improve the stability of purple sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPa) via microencapsualtion. MD-g-CA was prepared through esterification in a two-step convenient synthesis procedure and characterised using infra-red (IR) spectroscopy. The IR data indicated the typical ester carbonyl stretching at around 1721 cm-1. Moreover, MD-g-CA could give about 40% inhibition of DPPH radical and present excellent UV-absorption, which were notably better than that of native MD. Maltodextrin (MD) and MD-g-CA were used to prepare PSPa microcapsules by spray drying. The stability of PSPa was evaluated by UV-Vis analysis. The microcapsules produced by MD-g-CA showed a spheres-like appearance with some cracks. Storage tests revealed that the degradation rate of PSPa embedded by MD-g-CA was much lower than that of free PSPa under the same condition. Thus, MD-g-CA could be used as an effective wall material to improve stability of anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Cinamatos , Polissacarídeos , Cápsulas , Cinamatos/síntese química , Cinamatos/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Polissacarídeos/síntese química , Polissacarídeos/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 62(43): 10422-30, 2014 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25289884

RESUMO

A new colorimetric sensor array was developed for the discrimination of 12 high-alcoholic Chinese base liquors from Luzhou Co., Ltd., and 15 commercial Chinese liquor of different brands as well as flavor types. Seventeen volatile compounds within four chemical groups were determined as markers in the base liquor by GC-MS analysis and factor analysis method (FAM). A specialized colorimetric sensor array composed of 20 sensitive dots was fabricated accordingly to obtain sensitive interaction with different types of volatile markers. Discrimination of the liquor samples was subsequently performed using chemometric and statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The results suggested that facile identification of either base liquors with high-alcoholic volume or commercial liquors of the same flavor types could be achieved by analysis of the color change profiles. The response of the sensor improved significantly in comparison with those that rely on nonspecific interactions, and no misclassification was observed for both liquor samples using two chemometric methods. Besides, it was also found that the discrimination is closely related to the characteristic flavor compounds (esters, aldehydes, and acids) and alcoholic strength in liquors, and its performance was even comparable with that of GC-MS.


Assuntos
Colorimetria/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Cor , Análise Discriminante
17.
Genome Announc ; 2(5)2014 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25342677

RESUMO

The complex microbiota of pit mud of solid-state fermentation reactors used for the production of Chinese liquor is responsible for producing one of the oldest distillates in the world. We apply a deep-sequencing approach to characterize the microbiota from pits that have been in use for up to 440 years.

18.
Planta Med ; 80(11): 896-901, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25029173

RESUMO

Pachyrhizus erosus seeds have a high protein content and are used in China due to their cytotoxic effect. Here we report the biological and pharmacological activity of the protein extracts from P. erosus seeds. A novel ribosome-inactivating protein, pachyerosin, from P. erosus seeds was successively purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-sepharose FF, and Sephacryl S-200. Pachyerosin showed to be a type I ribosome-inactivating protein with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.19. It strongly inhibited protein synthesis of rabbit reticulocyte lysate with an IC50 of 0.37 ng/mL and showed N-glycosidase activity on rat liver ribosomes with an EC50 of 85.9 pM. The N-terminal 27 amino acids of pachyerosin revealed a 60.71% sequence identity with abrin A from the seeds of Abrus precatorius. With the aim of targeting the delivery of pachyerosin, immunotoxin was prepared by conjugating pachyerosin with anti-human AFP monoclonal antibodies SM0736. The immunotoxin pachyerosin-SM0736 efficiently inhibited the growth of the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 with an IC50 of 0.050 ± 0.004 nM, 2360 times lower than that of pachyerosin and 430 times lower than that of the immunotoxin against human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901. These results imply that pachyerosin may be used as a new promising anticancer agent.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Pachyrhizus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Imunotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Imunotoxinas/farmacologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Proteínas Inativadoras de Ribossomos Tipo 1/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Alinhamento de Sequência
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 28(2): 541-8, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22806849

RESUMO

A plant-esterase extracted from wheat flour and purified with a PEG1000/NaH(2)PO(4) aqueous two-phase system was characterized for its catalytic characteristics. The optimal condition for plant-esterase to catalyze 1-naphthyl acetate was at 30°C, pH 6.5. It kept stability at 20°C during 120 min and at pH 5.5 during 60 h. The effects of metal ions, chemical modification reagents and pesticides on plant-esterase activity were investigated. It was found that Ba(2+) and Pb(2+) at concentrations of 20 mM significantly inhibited the activity of plant-esterase while Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Fe(2+) at the same concentration enhanced the enzyme activity. Chemical modification reagents significantly influenced the activity of plant-esterase. Particularly, PMSF (4.5 mM) and N-bromosuccinimide (11 mM) inhibited by 5.40-19.87% of the enzyme activity. It is implied that serine and tryptophan are related to the enzyme activity. Plant-esterase were displayed concentration-dependent inhibition by dichlorvos, carbofuran and carbendazim (IC50 = 0.31-63.12 ppm). All these results indicated that catalytic efficiency of plant-esterase strongly depends on reaction conditions, activity effectors and amino acid residues at the active site. It makes meaningful guidance on further design of sensing material in monitoring pesticides.


Assuntos
Esterases/metabolismo , Farinha , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Bromosuccinimida/farmacologia , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Carbofurano/farmacologia , Catálise , Diclorvós/farmacologia , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Esterases/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
PLoS One ; 7(7): e39544, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22792181

RESUMO

Effective immobilization and transportation are vital to the life-saving acute medical care needed when treating critically injured people. However, the most common types of stretchers used today are wrought with problems that can lead to further medical complications, difficulty in employment and rescue, and ineffective transitions to hospital treatment. Here we report a novel first aid stretcher called the "emergency carpet", which solves these problems with a unique design for spine injured patients. Polyurethane composite material, obtained by a novel process of manually mixing isocyanate and additives, can be poured into a specially designed fabric bag and allowed to harden to form a rigid human-shaped stretcher. The effectiveness of the emergency carpet was examined in the pre-hospital management of victims with spinal fractures. Additionally, it was tested on flat ground and complex terrain as well as in the sea and air. We demonstrated that the emergency carpet can be assembled and solidified on the scene in 5 minutes, providing effective immobilization to the entire injured body. With the protection of the emergency carpet, none of the 20 patients, who were finally confirmed to have spinal column fracture or dislocation, had any neurological deterioration during transportation. Furthermore, the carpet can be handled and transported by multiple means under differing conditions, without compromising immobilization. Finally, the emergency carpet allows the critically injured patient to receive multiple examinations such as X-ray, CT, and MRI without being removed from the carpet. Our results demonstrate that the emergency carpet has ideal capabilities for immobilization, extrication, and transportation of the spine injured patients. Compared with other stretchers, it allows for better mobility, effective immobilization, remarkable conformity to the body, and various means for transportation. The emergency carpet is promising for its intrinsic advantages in the pre-hospital management of accident victims.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Imobilização , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Macas (Leitos) , Ambulâncias , Primeiros Socorros/instrumentação , Humanos , Radiografia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
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