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1.
Epigenomics ; 11(14): 1613-1625, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701765

RESUMO

Aim: To understand whether the anatomical location of origin plays a role in shaping the DNA methylation (DNAm) landscape of psoriatic skins. Patients & methods: A number of 108 psoriatic and 57 control skin samples were grouped based on their anatomical locations. Two group t-tests were used to identify those differentially methylated sites and regions. Target region methylation loci were validated by bisulfate conversion sequencing. The correlations of DNAm with pathological features, DNAm and gene expression were also interrogated. Results: Our analysis revealed 315 location-specific differentially methylated sites for back, 291 for the extremities and 801 for abdomen. Moreover, we observed that the extremity-specific loci cg21942490 located on HOXA9 is associated with hyperkeratosis. We further observed that HOXA5 and KIAA1949 are differential methylation regions. Conclusion: Our study shown evidence of anatomical location-dependent DNAm pattern in psoriasis skins, and thus provided new insights into the pathogenesis of this disease.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(17): 2096-2104, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dermoscopy is a useful technique for improving the diagnostic accuracy of various types of skin disorders. In China, dermoscopy has been widely accepted, and domestic researchers have made tremendous progress in the field of dermoscopy. The main purpose of this review is to summarize the current status of dermoscopy in China and identify its future directions. DATA SOURCES: Articles included in this review were obtained by searching the following databases: Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and the Web of Science. We focused on research published before 2019 with keywords including dermoscopy, dermoscopic, dermoscope and trichoscopy. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 50 studies were selected. Of these studies, 20 studies were in Chinese and 30 in English, research samples of all the studies were collected from Chinese populations. RESULTS: Since 2000, more than 380 articles about dermoscopy have been published in domestic or foreign journals. Dermoscopy can improve the diagnostic accuracy of neoplastic diseases, evaluating the therapeutic effect of treatment, and determining the treatment endpoint, and it can also assist in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory diseases and in the assessment of the severity of the disease. In addition, researches about the applications of dermoscopy during surgical treatment have been published. Training courses aiming to improve the diagnostic ability of dermatologists, either face-to-face or online, have been offered. The Chinese Skin Image Database, launched in 2017 as a work platform for dermatologists, has promoted the development of dermoscopy in China. Computer-aided diagnostic systems based on the Chinese population are ready for use. In the future, cooperation, resource sharing, talent development, image management, and computer-aided diagnosis will be important directions for the development of dermoscopy in China. CONCLUSION: Dermoscopy has been widely used and developed in China, however, it still needs to address more challenges in the future.

6.
Int Wound J ; 16(5): 1103-1111, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207094

RESUMO

Superficial skin erosion wounds are very common in the clinic, and conventional treatments are not always effective; thus, effective and novel therapy is needed. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has been recognised as a promising approach to wound healing. The purpose of this study is to show the potential clinical application of CAP for the healing of different kinds of superficial skin wounds. Seven patients with different kinds of superficial skin wounds (two patients with pyoderma gangrenosum, two patients with trauma would, one patient with giant genital wart, one patient with diabetic foot, and one patient with chronic eczema) were recruited to this study. All patients accepted and received CAP treatment every other day till the wound healed. The expected results were complete wound healing after CAP treatment. All patients achieved complete wound healing after several rounds (range from two to eight) of CAP treatment, and there was no side effect observed. CAP may provide a new and effective choice to solve the problem of the healing of superficial wounds that are not only caused by trauma but also because of eczema. CAP has certain value in the treatment of superficial skin diseases in the future.

7.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 160, 2018 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis (Ps) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. The keratinocytes of psoriatic skin defy normal apoptosis and exhibit active cell proliferation. Aberrant DNA methylation (DNAm) has been suggested relevant through regulating the expression of Ps susceptibility genes. However, it is unclear whether the biological age inferred from DNA methylome is affected. RESULTS: To address the above issue, we applied a recently developed methylation clock model to our Chinese Han population dataset, which includes DNAm data of 114 involved psoriatic skin tissues (PP) and 41 uninvolved psoriatic skin tissues (PN) from Ps patients, and 62 normal skin tissues (NN) from health controls. We first confirmed the applicability of the clock in PN and NN. We then showed that PP samples have largely unchanged DNAm age, and that no association was observed between available clinical features and DNAm age acceleration. Examination of genome-wide CpGs yielded age-associated CpGs with concordant age-association coefficients among the three groups, which was also supported by an external dataset. We also interestingly observed two clock CpGs differentially methylated between PP and PN. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest no significant alteration in DNAm age in PN and PP. Therefore, the increase in keratinocyte proliferation and alteration in DNAm caused by Ps may not affect the biological age of psoriatic skin tissue.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Psoríase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary leukonychia is a rare nail dystrophy characterized by distinctive whitening of the nail plate. Mutations in the PLCD1 gene have been identified as a major causative factor in hereditary leukonychia (HL). However, few reports have analyzed the relationship between genotype and phenotype, especially in Chinese HL patients. Our study aims to explore the typical clinical features of hereditary leukonychia cases in Chinese Han pedigree and the correlations with PLCD1 gene mutation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, two Chinese patients presented with leukonychia and koilonychia. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed to screen for the mutations in PLCD1 gene and other candidate genes for hereditary leukonychia. Parents with PLCD1 mutation were selected for Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: A novel heterozygote missense mutation in exon 9 of PLCD1 gene was identified in the proband and his mother. Whole-exome sequencing revealed both, the proband (III.5) and his mother (II.4) carrying c.1451A>G mutation, while other family members had a normal sequence of the PLCD1 gene. CONCLUSION: For the first time, a hereditary leukonychia case with PLCD1 mutation has been described in Chinese Han pedigree. This finding suggests the PLCD1 mutation maybe involved in hereditary leukonychia.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199322, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902262

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196635.].

10.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196635, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715312

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, with considerable genetic contribution. Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified a number of genomic regions for the risk of psoriasis. However, it is challenging to pinpoint the functional causal variants and then further decipher the genetic mechanisms underlying each region. In order to prioritize potential functional causal variants within psoriasis susceptibility regions, we integrated the genetic association findings and functional genomic data publicly available, i.e. histone modifications in relevant immune cells. We characterized a pervasive enrichment pattern of psoriasis variants in five core histone marks across immune cells/tissues. We discovered that genetic alleles within psoriasis association regions might influence gene expression levels through significantly affecting the binding affinities of 17 transcription factors. We established a catalog of 654 potential functional causal variants for psoriasis and suggested that they significantly overlapped with causal variants for autoimmune diseases. We identified potential causal variant rs79824801 overlay with the peaks of five histone marks in primary CD4+ T cells. Its alternative allele affected the binding affinity of transcription factor IKZF1. This study highlights the complex genetic architecture and complicated mechanisms for psoriasis. The findings will inform the functional experiment design for psoriasis.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Psoríase/genética , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Linhagem Celular , Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
Front Med ; 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29623515

RESUMO

Psoriasis (Ps) is an inflammatory skin disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies on DNA methylation (DNAm) found genetic markers that are closely associated with Ps, and evidence has shown that DNAm mediates genetic risk in Ps. In this study, Consensus Clustering was used to analyze DNAm data, and 114 Ps patients were divided into three subclassifications. Investigation of the clinical characteristics and copy number variations (CNVs) of DEFB4, IL22, and LCE3C in the three subclassifications revealed no significant differences in gender ratio and in Ps area and severity index (PASI) score. The proportion of late-onset ( ⩾ 40 years) Ps patients was significantly higher in type I than in types II and III (P = 0.035). Type III contained the smallest proportion of smokers and the largest proportion of non-smoking Ps patients (P = 0.086). The CNVs of DEFB4 and LCE3C showed no significant differences but the CNV of IL22 significantly differed among the three subclassifications (P = 0.044). This study is the first to profile Ps subclassifications based on DNAm data in the Chinese Han population. These results are useful in the treatment and management of Ps from the molecular and genetic perspectives.

13.
J Gene Med ; 19(1-2)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27976820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, whereas schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with substantial comorbidity. Although these two disorders manifest with apparently unrelated phenotypes, there is some evidence suggesting that they share common genetic factors. METHODS: We implemented a genetic analysis incorporating pleiotropy and annotation to genome-wide association summary statistics data for approximately 120 000 psoriasis and schizophrenia samples, as well as whole blood expression quantitative trait loci in 5311 samples. RESULTS: We observed a significant pleiotropic effect between psoriasis and schizophrenia (p = 5.92 × 10-43 ). We characterized an enrichment of whole blood expression quantitative trait loci in genome-wide association data for psoriasis and schizophrenia (q1 /q0  > 1.5, p < 10-77 ) and we revealed that common variants for both diseases were more likely to confer expression quantitative trait loci effects (q1 /q0  = 4.197, SE = 0.183). Through joint analysis of the associations in the combined psoriasis and schizophrenia data set, we identified a potential susceptibility PTPN1 gene for psoriasis, which may affect the risk of psoriasis through modulation of the function of TYK2 kinase. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study highlight the expression quantitative trait loci enrichment and pleiotropy in psoriasis and schizophrenia, and also suggest a possible key role of the PTPN1 gene in the etiology of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/genética , Psoríase/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , Psoríase/diagnóstico , Psoríase/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Clin Epigenetics ; 8: 131, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation and altered keratinocyte differentiation and inflammation and is caused by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Previous studies have revealed that DNA methylation (DNAm) and genetic makers are closely associated with psoriasis, and strong evidences have shown that DNAm can be controlled by genetic factors, which attracted us to evaluate the relationship among DNAm, genetic makers, and disease status. METHODS: We utilized the genome-wide methylation data of psoriatic skin (PP, N = 114) and unaffected control skin (NN, N = 62) tissue samples in our previous study, and we performed whole-genome genotyping with peripheral blood of the same samples to evaluate the underlying genetic effect on skin DNA methylation. Causal inference test (CIT) was used to assess whether DNAm regulate genetic variation and gain a better understanding of the epigenetic basis of psoriasis susceptibility. RESULTS: We identified 129 SNP-CpG pairs achieving the significant association threshold, which constituted 28 unique methylation quantitative trait loci (MethQTL) and 34 unique CpGs. There are 18 SNPs were associated with psoriasis at a Bonferoni-corrected P < 0.05, and these 18 SNPs formed 93 SNP-CpG pairs with 17 unique CpG sites. We found that 11 of 93 SNP-CpG pairs, composed of 5 unique SNPs and 3 CpG sites, presented a methylation-mediated relationship between SNPs and psoriasis. The 3 CpG sites were located on the body of C1orf106, the TSS1500 promoter region of DMBX1 and the body of SIK3. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that DNAm of some genes can be controlled by genetic factors and also mediate risk variation for psoriasis in Chinese Han population and provided novel molecular insights into the pathogenesis of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição Otx/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas/genética , Psoríase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , China/etnologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Genet Genomics ; 43(9): 549-554, 2016 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614704

RESUMO

Human height is a highly heritable trait in which multiple genes are involved. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified that COL11A1 is an important susceptibility gene for human height. To determine whether the variants of COL11A1 are associated with adult and children height, we analyzed splicing and coding single-nucleotide variants across COL11A1 through exome-targeted sequencing and two validation stages with a total 20,426 Chinese Han samples. A total of 105 variants were identified by exome-targeted sequencing, of which 30 SNPs were located in coding region. The strongest association signal was Chr1_103380393 with P value of 4.8 × 10(-7). Chr1_103380393 also showed nominal significance in the validation stage (P = 1.21 × 10(-6)). Combined analysis of 16,738 samples strengthened the original association of chr1_103380393 with adult height (Pcombined = 3.1 × 10(-8)), with an increased height of 0.292sd (standard deviation) per G allele (95% CI: 0.19-0.40). There was no evidence (P = 0.843) showing that chr1_103380393 altered child height in 3688 child samples. Only the group of 12-15 years showed slight significance with P value of 0.0258. This study firstly shows that genetic variants of COL11A1 contribute to adult height in Chinese Han population but not to children height, which expand our knowledge of the genetic factors underlying height variation and the biological regulation of human height.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Colágeno Tipo XI/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
16.
Nat Genet ; 48(7): 740-6, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27213287

RESUMO

The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been shown to be associated with numerous diseases. However, it remains a challenge to pinpoint the causal variants for these associations because of the extreme complexity of the region. We thus sequenced the entire 5-Mb MHC region in 20,635 individuals of Han Chinese ancestry (10,689 controls and 9,946 patients with psoriasis) and constructed a Han-MHC database that includes both variants and HLA gene typing results of high accuracy. We further identified multiple independent new susceptibility loci in HLA-C, HLA-B, HLA-DPB1 and BTNL2 and an intergenic variant, rs118179173, associated with psoriasis and confirmed the well-established risk allele HLA-C*06:02. We anticipate that our Han-MHC reference panel built by deep sequencing of a large number of samples will serve as a useful tool for investigating the role of the MHC region in a variety of diseases and thus advance understanding of the pathogenesis of these disorders.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Psoríase/genética , Butirofilinas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/genética , Humanos , Psoríase/epidemiologia
17.
Pancreas ; 45(8): 1136-44, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)/p53 signaling pathway in injury to the intestinal mucosal barrier during severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). METHODS: Both sham operation and SAP groups had 3 subgroups analyzed 3, 6, or 12 hours after the SAP induction. The concentrations of amylase, endotoxin, diamine oxidase, tumor necrosis factor α, and phospho-p38MAPK, p53, and caspase-3 and the messenger RNA levels of zonula occludens protein-1 and occludin in the intestine were measured. Immunohistochemical staining was used to determine the expression of zonula occludens protein-1 and occludin. Pathological changes of the pancreas and intestine were also assessed. Then, rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups-sham operation group, SAP group, 3 groups treated with different concentrations of p38MAPK-inhibitor SB203580-and the abovementioned experiment was repeated and analyzed 6 hours after the SAP induction. RESULTS: The phospho-p38MAPK reached a peak value at 6 hours after the SAP induction with obvious pathological injury to the pancreas and intestine. Treatment with SB203580 led to a less damage to the pancreatic and intestinal tissues. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that SAP activates the p38MAPK/p53 signaling pathway and induces injury to the intestinal mucosal barrier, which can be alleviated by inhibiting the p38MAPK/p53 pathway.


Assuntos
Pancreatite , Doença Aguda , Animais , Ratos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53 , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
18.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 6(6): 1503-11, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27172182

RESUMO

We aimed to elucidate the cell types, tissues, and pathways influenced by common variants in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We applied a nonparameter enrichment statistical approach, termed SNPsea, in 181 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been identified to be associated with the risk of SLE through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Eastern Asian and Caucasian populations, to manipulate the critical cell types, tissues, and pathways. In the two most significant cells' findings (B lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes), we subjected the GWAS association evidence in the Han Chinese population to an enrichment test of expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) sites and DNase I hypersensitivity, respectively. In both Eastern Asian and Caucasian populations, we observed that the expression level of SLE GWAS implicated genes was significantly elevated in xeroderma pigentosum B cells (P ≤ 1.00 × 10(-6)), CD14+ monocytes (P ≤ 2.74 × 10(-4)) and CD19+ B cells (P ≤ 2.00 × 10(-6)), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) (P ≤ 9.00 × 10(-6)). We revealed that the SLE GWAS-associated variants were more likely to reside in expression QTL in B lymphocytes (q1/q0 = 2.15, P = 1.23 × 10(-44)) and DNase I hypersensitivity sites (DHSs) in CD14+ monocytes (q1/q0 = 1.41, P = 0.08). We observed the common variants affected the risk of SLE mostly through by regulating multiple immune system processes and immune response signaling. This study sheds light on several immune cells and responses, as well as the regulatory effect of common variants in the pathogenesis of SLE.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 41(6): 413-421, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia have a greater risk for psoriasis than a typical person. This suggests that there might be a shared genetic etiology between the 2 conditions. We aimed to characterize the potential shared genetic susceptibility between schizophrenia and psoriasis using genome-wide marker genotype data. METHODS: We obtained genetic data on individuals with psoriasis, schizophrenia and control individuals. We applied a marker-based coheritability estimation procedure, polygenic score analysis, a gene set enrichment test and a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression model to estimate the potential shared genetic etiology between the 2 diseases. We validated the results in independent schizophrenia and psoriasis cohorts from Singapore. RESULTS: We included 1139 individuals with psoriasis, 744 with schizophrenia and 1678 controls in our analysis, and we validated the results in independent cohorts, including 441 individuals with psoriasis (and 2420 controls) and 1630 with schizophrenia (and 1860 controls). We estimated that a large fraction of schizophrenia and psoriasis risk could be attributed to common variants (h2SNP = 29% ± 5.0%, p = 2.00 × 10-8), with a coheritability estimate between the traits of 21%. We identified 5 variants within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene region, which were most likely to be associated with both diseases and collectively conferred a significant risk effect (odds ratio of highest risk quartile = 6.03, p < 2.00 × 10-16). We discovered that variants contributing most to the shared heritable component between psoriasis and schizophrenia were enriched in antigen processing and cell endoplasmic reticulum. LIMITATIONS: Our sample size was relatively small. The findings of 5 HLA gene variants were complicated by the complex structure in the HLA region. CONCLUSION: We found evidence for a shared genetic etiology between schizophrenia and psoriasis. The mechanism for this shared genetic basis likely involves immune and calcium signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Psoríase/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Análise de Regressão , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
20.
Front Genet ; 7: 3, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26870082

RESUMO

Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo.

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