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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144705

RESUMO

Glyphosate is the active component of several commercial formulations as in Roundup®. The present study was investigated the toxic effects of pure glyphosate or Roundup® on the liver and small intestine of chick embryos. On day 6, a total of 180 fertile eggs injected with deionized water (control group), 10 mg pure glyphosate, or 10 mg of the active ingredient glyphosate in Roundup®/kg egg mass. The results showed an increase in relative weights of the liver in embryos that treated with Roundup®. Furthermore, oxidative stress was observed in the embryos treated with glyphosate or Roundup®, increased total superoxide dismutase, and content of malondialdehyde in the liver and intestine; moreover, decrease of glutathione peroxidase in the liver with increased in the intestine compared with the control. Besides, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase was increased in Roundup® group compared with other groups. Moreover, histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine tissues were observed in treated groups. Suppression of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP1A4, CYP1B1, and MDR1 mRNA expression after exposed to Roundup®. Furthermore, inhibition of CYP1A4 in the duodenum, CYP1A4, and MRP2 in the jejunum in embryos exposed to glyphosate or Roundup®. In addition, glyphosate treatment caused an increase of CYP3A5, CYP1C1, and IFNY mRNA expression in the jejunum and CYP1A2 expression in the ileum, while IFN-Y gene increase in embryos treated with Roundup®. In conclusion, in ovo exposure to glyphosate caused histopathological alterations and induced oxidative stress in the liver and small intestines. Moreover, the expression of cytochrome P450, MDR1, and MRP2 transporters was also modulated in the liver and small intestines for chick embryos.

2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 126, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the value of layer-specific strain analysis by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) for evaluating left ventricular (LV) systolic function and synchrony in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. METHODS: A total of 34 MHD patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Dynamic images were collected at the LV apical long-axis, the four- and two- chamber, and the LV short-axis views at the basal, middle, and apical segments. The layer-specific speckle tracking (LST) technique was used to analyze the longitudinal strain (LS) and circumferential strain (CS) of LV sub-endocardium, mid-myocardium, sub-epicardium, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), the LV 17 segment time to peak LS (TTP), and the peak strain dispersion (PSD). The differences in these parameters were compared between control and MHD groups, and the correlation between PSD and each LS parameter was examined. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the efficacy of three myocardial layer LS and CS in the assessment of LV systolic dysfunction in MHD patients. RESULTS: MHD patients had comparable left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), but significantly smaller LV GLS, GCS, and three-layer LS and CS compared to the control group. The three myocardial layer LS of the basal segment, middle segment, and apex segment was significantly reduced in the MHD patients compared to the normal subjects, while the three myocardial layer CS of the basal segment, middle segment, and apex segment was significantly reduced in the MHD patients compared to the normal subjects, except for the sub-endocardium of the middle and apex segment. MHD patients had significantly higher TTP of LV 17 segments and PSD compared to controls, and had delayed peak time in most segments. In addition, PSD of MHD patients was positively correlated with sub-endocardial and mid-myocardial LS and GLS, but not with sub-epicardial LS. The area under the curves (AUCs) of sub-endocardial, mid-myocardial, and sub-epicardial LS in MHD patients were 0.894, 0.852, and 0.870, respectively; the AUCs of sub-epicardial, mid-myocardial, and sub-endocardial CS were 0.852, 0.837, and 0.669, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LST may detect early changes of all three-layer LS and CS and PSD in MHD patients, and is therefore a valuable tool to diagnose LV systolic dysfunction in MHD patients.

3.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168896

RESUMO

In this study, the phenolic profiles and bioactivities of five representative cultivars of okra collected in China were investigated. Noticeable variations of phenolic compounds and their bioactivities were observed among these different cultivars of okra. The contents of total flavonoids (TFC) in "Shuiguo", "Kalong 8", "Kalong 3", "Wufu", and "Royal red" ranged from 1.75 to 3.39 mg RE/g DW, of which "Shuiguo" showed the highest TFC. Moreover, five individual phenolic compounds were found in okra by high performance liquid chromatography analysis, including isoquercitrin, protocatechuic acid, quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside, quercetin, and rutin, while isoquercitrin and quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside were detected as the main phenolic compounds in okra. Moreover, all tested okra exhibited significant antioxidant activities (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging capacity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power) and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes (lipase, α-glucosidase, and α-amylase). Indeed, "Shuiguo" exhibited much better antioxidant activities and inhibitory activities on digestive enzymes, which might be attributed to its high TFC. Results suggested that okra, especially "Shuiguo", could be developed as natural antioxidants and inhibitors against hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in the fields of functional foods and pharmaceuticals, which could meet the increasing demand for high-quality okra with health-promoting properties in China.

4.
Exp Dermatol ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155290

RESUMO

Subcutaneous mast cells (MCs) are vulnerable to mechanical stimulation from external environment. Thus, MCs immune function could be modulated by their mechanosensitivity. This property has been identified as the trigger mechanism of needling acupuncture, a traditional oriental therapy. Previously we have demonstrated the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a stress-responsive signalling molecule, from mechanical-perturbed MCs. The current work explores its underlying mechanisms. We noticed that propagation of intracellular free Ca2+ occurred among HMC-1 cells in response to 50% hypotonic shock. Additionally, amplifying cascade of ATP-induced ATP release was observed in RBL-2H3 cells stimulated by medium displacement, which could be mimicked by exogenous ATP (exoATP). Secondary ATP liberation induced by low level (50 nmol/L) of exoATP was reduced by inhibiting ecto-ATPase-dependent ADP production with ARL67156, or blocking P2 receptors with suramin or PPADS, or with specific P2Y13 receptor antagonist MRS2211, or siRNA. Secondary ATP release induced by higher dose (200 µmol/L) of exoATP, sufficient to stimulate P2X7 receptor, was attenuated by suramin, PPADS or specific P2X7 receptor antagonist BBG, or siRNA. Finally, RT-PCR confirmed mRNA expression of P2Y13 and P2X7 in RBL-2H3 cells. Additionally, such secondary ATP release was attenuated by DPCPX, specific antagonist of adenosine A1 receptor, but not by MRS2179, specific inhibitor of P2Y1 receptor. In summary, mechanosensitive ATP release from MCs is facilitated by paracrine/autocrine stimulation of P2Y13 and P2X7 receptors. This multi-receptor combination could mediate transmission of information from a local site to distal areas, enabling communication with multiple surrounding cells to coordinate and synchronize their function.

5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7403842, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190677

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy outcome of lamellar keratoplasty combined with amniotic membrane transplantation for the treatment of corneal perforations. Methods: In this retrospective, noncomparative, and interventional case series, 13 eyes of 13 patients with corneal perforation were included. All eyes were treated with lamellar keratoplasty combined with amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal reconstruction. Age, underlying etiology, location, size of corneal ulcer, size of corneal perforation, hospitalization days and follow-up time, and corneal confocal microscopy were investigated. Aqueous leakage, anterior chamber formation, epithelial healing time, and visual acuity (VA) were monitored after operation. Results: The cause of corneal perforation (n = 13) was classified as infectious (n = 13) was classified as infectious (n = 13) was classified as infectious (. Conclusion: Lamellar keratoplasty combined with amniotic membrane transplantation may be an alternative, safe, and effective surgical therapy in the treatment of corneal perforations in the absence of a fresh donor cornea. We recommend this surgery to treat with the size of corneal perforation of <4 mm in diameter no matter peripheral or central corneal perforation, especially who had immune-related diseases.

6.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 71, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare clinical syndrome with high mortality rate. The diagnosis of HLH draws on a constellation of clinical and laboratory abnormalities including extremely high serum ferritin levels. However, no biomarker has been firmly established as a clinically useful prognostic tool in HLH patients. We aimed to perform a retrospective analysis of two independent cohorts to explore the prognostic value of discharge serum ferritin for newly diagnosed adult HLH patients who recently started treatment. The prognostic value of serum ferritin levels at discharge (will be called as post-treatment ferritin level) was initially evaluated in a "test cohort" of 161 previously untreated consecutive adult HLH patients. It was then validated in a second cohort of 68 consecutive previously untreated patients (validation cohort). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that significantly high post-treatment serum ferritin levels (>1050 µg/L) were associated with a higher risk of death and poor overall survival in the test cohort (hazard ratio (HR): 3.176, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.468-6.869, P = 0.003), and the validation cohort (HR: 13.412, 95%CI 1.716-104.816, P = 0.013). At 6-month follow-up period in the test cohort, patients with a > 81% decrease in the serum ferritin level had a significantly higher probability of survival when compared with the patients with ≥14% increase in the serum ferritin level (94% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed on the analysis of the decrease in the serum ferritin level in the validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the serum ferritin level can be used as an independent prognostic marker in the adult HLH patients.

7.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(3): 66-76, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068835

RESUMO

The discovery of new members of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposons is expected based on the increasing availability of genome sequencing data. Here, we identified a new DD35E family termed Traveler (TR). Phylogenetic analyses of its DDE domain and full-length transposase showed that, although TR formed a monophyletic clade, it exhibited the highest sequence identity and closest phylogenetic relationship with DD34E/Tc1. This family displayed a very restricted taxonomic distribution in the animal kingdom and was only detected in ray-finned fish, anura, and squamata, including 91 vertebrate species. The structural organization of TRs was highly conserved across different classes of animals. Most intact TR transposons had a length of ∼1.5 kb (range 1,072-2,191 bp) and harbored a single open reading frame encoding a transposase of ∼340 aa (range 304-350 aa) flanked by two short-terminal inverted repeats (13-68 bp). Several conserved motifs, including two helix-turn-helix motifs, a GRPR motif, a nuclear localization sequence, and a DDE domain, were also identified in TR transposases. This study also demonstrated the presence of horizontal transfer events of TRs in vertebrates, whereas the average sequence identities and the evolutionary dynamics of TR elements across species and clusters strongly indicated that the TR family invaded the vertebrate lineage very recently and that some of these elements may be currently active, combining the intact TR copies in multiple lineages of vertebrates. These data will contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary history of Tc1/mariner transposons and that of their hosts.

8.
Mol Cell ; 77(3): 669-680.e4, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004470

RESUMO

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the three related peptides urocortins 1-3 (UCN1-UCN3) are endocrine hormones that control the stress responses by activating CRF1R and CRF2R, two members of class B G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we present two cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of UCN1-bound CRF1R and CRF2R with the stimulatory G protein. In both structures, UCN1 adopts a single straight helix with its N terminus dipped into the receptor transmembrane bundle. Although the peptide-binding residues in CRF1R and CRF2R are different from other members of class B GPCRs, the residues involved in receptor activation and G protein coupling are conserved. In addition, both structures reveal bound cholesterol molecules to the receptor transmembrane helices. Our structures define the basis of ligand-binding specificity in the CRF receptor-hormone system, establish a common mechanism of class B GPCR activation and G protein coupling, and provide a paradigm for studying membrane protein-lipid interactions for class B GPCRs.

9.
Bioorg Chem ; 97: 103648, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065882

RESUMO

Natural protoberberine alkaloids were first identified and characterized as potent, selective and cellular active lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) inhibitors. Due to our study, isoquinoline-based tetracyclic scaffold was identified as the key structural element for their anti-LSD1 activity, subtle changes of substituents attached to the core structure led to dramatic changes of the activity. Among these protoberberine alkaloids, epiberberine potently inhibited LSD1 (IC50 = 0.14 ± 0.01 µM) and was highly selective to LSD1 over MAO-A/B. Furthermore, epiberberine could induce the expression of CD86, CD11b and CD14 in THP-1 and HL-60 cells, confirming its cellular activity of inducing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells differentiation. Moreover, epiberberine prolonged the survival of THP-1 cells bearing mice and inhibited the growth of AML cells in vivo without obvious global toxicity. These findings give the potential application of epiberberine in AML treatment, and the isoquinoline-based tetracyclic scaffold could be used for further development of LSD1 inhibitors.

10.
Inflammation ; 43(1): 32-43, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894450

RESUMO

Air pollution events frequently occur in China during the winter. Most investigations of pollution studies have focused on the physical and chemical properties of PM2.5. Many of these studies have indicated that PM2.5 exacerbates asthma or eosinophil inflammation. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between bacterial loads in PM2.5, and especially pathogenic bacteria and childhood asthma. Airborne PM2.5 samples from heavily polluted air were collected in Hangzhou, China between December 2014 and January 2015. PM2.5 and ovalbumin (OVA) were intratracheally administered twice in 4-week intervals to induce the allergic pulmonary inflammation in adolescent C57/BL6 mice. PM2.5 exposure caused neutrophilic alveolitis and bronchitis. In the presence of OVA, the levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17 were significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) after PM2.5 exposure, while eosinophil infiltration and mucin secretion were also induced. In addition to adjuvant effects on OVA-induced allergic inflammation, PM2.5 exposure also led to the maturation of dendritic cells. These results suggest that PM2.5 exposure may aggravate lung eosinophilia and that PM2.5-bound microbial can exacerbate allergic and inflammatory lung diseases.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113368, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676097

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) released from the processes of livestock production has a negative impact on the health of animals and workers. Herein, the concentration, major chemical components, morphology and microbiological compositions of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5, particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) in a broiler breeding house were investigated. The results showed that the PM2.5 distribution in the chicken house was affected by the illumination, draught fans, chicken frame structure and activity of the chickens in the broiler breeding house. Component analysis showed that organic carbon (OC) accounted for the largest proportion, and followed by element carbon (EC), SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Na+, K+ and Ca2+. Ultrastructural observations revealed that the shape of PM2.5 had a round, rectangular, chain-like and irregular shape. The concentration of endotoxin was approximately 0.3 EU/m3. Microbiological analysis showed that at the genus level, the pathogenic bacteria included Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Enterococcus, Parabacteroides, Escherichia and Megamonas. The abundant harmful fungi were Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Wallemia, and Fusarium. Through redundancy analysis (RDA) analysis, we determined that OC, EC, Na+, K+, and NH4+ had strong correlations with Brachybacterium, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Escherichia, Scopulariopsis and Microascus. SO42- was closely related to Scopulariopsis and Salinicoccus. Salinicoccus was also strongly correlated with NO3-. Our results indicated that feed, faeces, and outside soot are contributed to the increase in PM2.5 concentration in the chicken house, while the sources of the dominant bacterial and fungi might be feed, faeces, suspended outside soil and cereal crops.

12.
Sci Total Environ ; 708: 134921, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771854

RESUMO

The microorganisms contained in PM2.5 from livestock houses can spread over long distances through airborne transmission. As such, the potential bacterial pathogens and fungal allergens within can pose a formidable threat to nearby residents' health and the overall environment. However, little is known about the microbial assemblage contained in PM2.5 from pig houses. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing was employed to analyze the bacterial and fungal assemblage contained in PM2.5 from a nursery pig house across four seasons, respectively. The results showed that alpha diversity was higher in summer and autumn compared to the spring and winter. The bacterial and fungal assemblage varied according to season. At the phylum level, the dominant bacteria and fungi were Firmicutes and Basidiomycota, respectively, across the four seasons. At the genus level, a total of five potential bacterial pathogen and 20 potential fungal allergen genera were identified across the samples. The most abundant bacterial pathogen and fungal allergen genera were observed in summer and autumn, respectively, but neither had a significant correlation with PM2.5 concentration. Moreover, microbial diversity and the relative abundance of fungal allergen genera were positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity. It can be concluded that microbial diversity and assemblage varied significantly among the seasons in a nursery pig house, and this can be useful in exploring the potential risks of PM2.5 from pig houses across all four seasons.

13.
Mob DNA ; 10: 45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788035

RESUMO

Background: The Tc1/mariner superfamily might represent the most diverse and widely distributed group of DNA transposons. Several families have been identified; however, exploring the diversity of this superfamily and updating its classification is still ongoing in the life sciences. Results: Here we identified a new family of Tc1/mariner transposons, named Incomer (IC), which is close to, but distinct from the known family DD34E/Tc1. ICs have a total length of about 1.2 kb, and harbor a single open reading frame encoding a ~ 346 amino acid transposase with a DD36E motif and flanked by short terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) (22-32 base pairs, bp). This family is absent from prokaryotes, and is mainly distributed among vertebrates (141 species of four classes), including Agnatha (one species of jawless fish), Actinopterygii (132 species of ray-finned fish), Amphibia (four species of frogs), and Mammalia (four species of bats), but have a restricted distribution in invertebrates (four species in Insecta and nine in Arachnida). All ICs in bats (Myotis lucifugus, Eptesicus fuscus, Myotis davidii, and Myotis brandtii) are present as truncated copies in these genomes, and most of them are flanked by relatively long TIRs (51-126 bp). High copy numbers of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) derived from ICs were also identified in bat genomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ICs are more closely related to DD34E/Tc1 than to other families of Tc1/mariner (e.g., DD34D/mariner and DD × D/pogo), and can be classified into four distinct clusters. The host and IC phylogenies and pairwise distance comparisons between RAG1 genes and all consensus sequences of ICs support the idea that multiple episodes of horizontal transfer (HT) of ICs have occurred in vertebrates. In addition, the discovery of intact transposases, perfect TIRs and target site duplications of ICs suggests that this family may still be active in Insecta, Arachnida, frogs, and fish. Conclusions: Exploring the diversity of Tc1/mariner transposons and revealing their evolutionary profiles will help provide a better understanding of the evolution of DNA transposons and their impact on genomic evolution. Here, a newly discovered family (DD36E/Incomer) of Tc1/mariner transposons is described in animals. It displays a similar structural organization and close relationship with the known DD34E/Tc1 elements, but has a relatively narrow distribution, indicating that DD36E/IC might have originated from the DD34E/Tc1 family. Our data also support the hypothesis of horizontal transfer of IC in vertebrates, even invading one lineage of mammals (bats). This study expands our understanding of the diversity of Tc1/mariner transposons and updates the classification of this superfamily.

15.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 744-752, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679431

RESUMO

Context: Liuweibuqi (LWBQ) capsule has been reported to influence symptoms of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, specific function of LWBQ capsules in COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome remains elusive.Objective: This study investigates effect of LWBQ capsules on STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression and pulmonary function in stable COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome.Materials and methods: Totally, 429 patients diagnosed with stable COPD and lung-qi deficiency syndrome were treated with starch capsules (each time for 9 capsules), or different doses: low (each dose for 8 capsules and 1 LWBQ capsules), medium (each time for 6 capsules and 3 LWBQ capsules), or high (each time for 9 LWBQ capsules) of LWBQ capsules for 30 days, 3 times a day. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC% and DLco%pred were evaluated by pulmonary function meter. STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression was assessed by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, and serum concentrations of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-6 by ELISA.Results: Spearman rank correlation analysis and ROC curve showed that STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 affected pulmonary functions and curative effect of stable COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome. After LWBQ capsule treatment, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and DLco%pred elevated; STAT4/STAT6, MMP-9/TIMP-1, IFN-γ and IL-6 expression declined whereas IL-4 expression increased (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that FEV1/FVC was negatively correlated with STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expression in COPD patients.Conclusions: LWBQ capsules play a beneficial role in pulmonary function of stable COPD with lung-qi deficiency syndrome via STAT4/STAT6 and MMP-9/TIMP-1.

17.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1134-1145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561304

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) from layer house has adverse effect on people and chicken respiratory health, which can further influence animal performance and reduce production efficiency. However, little study focus on the respiratory inflammation induced by PM2.5 from layer house and the underlying mechanism also unclear. In this study, human adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 cell) was subjected to the PM2.5 from layer house to evaluate the inflammation reaction caused by PM2.5 and explore the role of Nrf2 and autophagy in regulating the inflammation. Results showed that the viability of A549 cell decreased in a time - and concentration - dependent manner after PM2.5 treatment. TNFα, IL6, and IL8 increased significantly treated with PM2.5 at 12 h. RNA sequencing indicated differentially expressed genes were enriched in immune system process, oxidative stress (OS), endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), and autophagy. Further studies showed TLR4 - NFκB p65 signal pathway involved in the inflammation reaction caused by PM2.5. The overexpression of Nrf2 decreased the level of TNFα, IL6, IL8 markedly as well as the level of NFκB p65 and NFκB pp65. OS and ERS were also limited under overactivation of Nrf2 in PM2.5 treated cells. Autophagy induced by PM2.5 promoted the inflammation through increasing the level of NFκB p65 and NFκB pp65. Autophagy deficient strengthened the expression of Nrf2. Collectively, our study revealed Nrf2 prevents inflammation caused by layer house PM2.5 stimulation, however, autophagy exerts a promotive role in TLR4 - NFκB p65 mediating inflammation in A549 cell.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 188, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Holobionts comprising nitrogen-fixing diazotrophs and phytoplankton or zooplankton are ubiquitous in the pelagic sea. However, neither the community structure of plankton-associated diazotrophs (PADs) nor their nitrogenase transcriptional activity are well-understood. In this study, we used nifH gene Illumina sequencing and quantitative PCR to characterize the community composition and nifH expression profile of PADs with > 100 µm size fraction in the euphotic zone of the northern South China Sea. RESULTS: The results of DNA- and RNA-derived nifH gene revealed a higher alpha-diversity in the active than in the total community. Moreover, the compositional resemblance among different sites was less for active than for total communities of PADs. We characterized the 20 most abundant OTUs by ranking the sum of sequence reads across 9 sampling stations for individual OTUs in both nifH DNA and RNA libraries, and then assessed their phylogenetic relatedness. Eight of the 20 abundant OTUs were phylogenetically affiliated with Trichodesmium and occurred in approximately equal proportion in both the DNA and RNA libraries. The analysis of nifH gene expression level showed uneven attribute of the abundance and nitrogenase activities by the remaining 12 OTUs. Taxa belonging to cluster III and Betaproteobacteria were present at moderate abundance but exhibited negligible nitrogenase transcription activity. Whereas, the abundances of Richelia, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were low but the contribution of these groups to nitrogenase transcription was disproportionately high. CONCLUSIONS: The substantial variation in community structure among active dizatrophic fractions compared to the total communities suggests that the former are better indicators of biological response to environmental changes. Altogether, our study highlights the importance of rare PADs groups in nitrogen fixation in plankton holobionts, evidenced by their high level of nitrogenase transcription.

20.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1776-1784, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453655

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the potential toxic effects of pure glyphosate or Roundup® on hatchability, serum biochemistry and histopathological observation of the liver and kidney of newly hatched chicks. On day six, a total of 225 fertile eggs were obtained from Huafeng breeder hens. The eggs were randomly divided into three treatments: (a) the control group injected with deionized water, (b) the glyphosate group injected 10 mg pure glyphosate/Kg egg mass and (c) the Roundup group injected 10 mg the active ingredient glyphosate in Roundup® /Kg egg. The results showed a decrease of hatchability rate in chicks treated with Roundup® (66%). In addition, no significant change was observed in body weights, yolk sac weight and relative weight organs except the liver and kidney were significantly increased with groups treated with glyphosate and Roundup® compared to the control group. The results showed that serum protein profiles were linearly significantly increased of serum phosphor, uric acid, aspirate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in groups treated with Roundup® , as well as the serum concentrations of triglyceride altered after treatment with glyphosate. Furthermore, oxidative stress was observed in the treated chicks, the glyphosate and Roundup® induced changes of the content of malondialdehyde in both the liver and kidney, moreover decrease of glutathione peroxidase, total superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in the kidney tissue and serum. Additionally, changes also happened in the histomorphology of the liver and kidney tissue of the treated chicks. It can be concluded that Roundup® as a probable decrease of hatchability. Exposure to glyphosate alone or Roundup® caused liver and kidney histopathological alterations, serum parameters imbalances and oxidative stress, also induced a variety of liver and kidney biochemical alterations that might impair normal organ functioning in newly hatched chicks.

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