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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132357, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600348

RESUMO

Large amounts of microplastics can accumulate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and sludge disposal is suspected to be a major source of microplastics pollution in the environment. It is therefore important to investigate the distribution of microplastics in the sludge of each processing unit of WWTPs. However, little information is available on this topic in China. Accordingly, in this study, the abundance and characteristics of microplastics in the sludge of two WWTPs in Chengdu were investigated. The abundance of microplastics in the sludge samples ranged from 44.4 n·kg-1 to 750.0 n·kg-1. Microplastics were mainly divided into particles (32.16%), debris (28.14%) and fibers (17.08%) according to their shape, and the colors of the microplastics were mainly green (35.19%) and translucent (18.06%). The particle sizes were mainly larger than 1 mm in dimension. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene were the prevalent types of microplastics analyzed. Our results provide basic information for better understanding the characteristics of microplastics in sludge and for improving sludge treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 2): 131798, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365175

RESUMO

Facile fractionation of lignocellulosic waste into useable forms is essential to achieve a multi-product treatment process especially when the resulting lignin streams are expected for high-value materials valorization. Despite acidic/alkaline deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are promising solvents for lignocellulosic waste fractionation, there is little information about their differences in the fractionation and lignin extraction profiles. In this work, four DESs that were cataloged to acidic types (formic acid-choline chloride, lactic acid-choline chloride) and alkaline types (monoethanolamine-choline chloride, glycerol-K2CO3) were investigated to compare their abilities of bamboo waste fractionation. Physicochemical properties of these resulting cellulose, lignin and derived lignin nanospheres (LNPs) were also assessed. Results showed that DESs could selectively extract lignin via cleaving lignin-carbohydrate linkages and lignin ether bonds. Acidic DESs pretreatments were more effective in biomass delignification (~95.0 %), while alkaline DESs showed better polysaccharide retention. Glycerol-K2CO3 LNPs exhibited much smaller sphere size (50-100 nm) while acidic DESs LNPs showed higher thermal stability due to higher extent of lignin condensation. In addition, MEA-ChCl could introduce amine groups onto lignin hydroxyl. This work provided insightful information for tailoring technique routes to selective lignocellulosic waste fractionation, while facilitating the downstream applications of the obtained cellulose/lignin.


Assuntos
Lignina , Nanosferas , Biomassa , Solventes
3.
Food Chem ; 372: 131142, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600193

RESUMO

To determine the glutathione (GSH) content in vegetables, an "on-off-on" fluorescence probe was developed by a synthesis of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N,S-CDs) using the microwave pyrolysis considering citric acid and L-cysteine as precursors. The fluorescence of N,S-CDs was quenched by adding Cu2+ at a concentration of 20-200 µmol/L due to the inner filter effect. The quenched fluorescence of N,S-CDs@Cu2+ system was recovered by adding the GSH at a concentration of 10-150 µmol/L due to the sulfhydryl-metal compound mechanism. By observing the GSH concentrations measured by our N,S-CDs@Cu2+ system vs. a traditional fluorescent chelating method, the two measurements provided the GSH data with a good consistence by showing the RSD range of 1.86%-2.27%. This indicates the validation and novelty of our N,S-CDs@Cu2+ system as being a powerful fluorescent probe for effectively and efficiently determining the GSH in vegetables.


Assuntos
Glutationa , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Corantes Fluorescentes , Nitrogênio , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Enxofre , Verduras
4.
Food Chem ; : 131666, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848090

RESUMO

An optical detection platform based on laser induced spectroscopy and double integrating spheres techniques was developed to obtain absorption (µa), reduced scattering coefficients (µ's) and fluorescence intensity of oil. The validation experiment carried on liquid phantoms showed that the developed system could achieve high linearity, and the results of spectra analysis indicated that the fluorescence intensity has a significant negative correlation with both µa and µ's. A total of 1620 oils with six categories were detected. The reason for the difference of fluorescence and µa spectra was analyzed by comparing the measured chlorophyll, polyphenol and α-tocopherol contents. Linear discriminant analysis combined with principal component analysis based on fluorescence and µa spectra was employed, to calibrate the AFB1 classification models. The discrimination results manifested that by integrating µa with fluorescence signal, the correct classification rate could be improved by more than 10%, and the false negative rate was greatly reduced.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enlarging tuberculosis (TB) preventive treatment among at-risk populations is a critical component of the End TB Strategy. It is urgently needed to develop suitable latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) testing and treatment tools according to local TB epidemic and available resources in worldwide. METHODS: Based on an open-labeled randomised controlled trial conducted since 2015 among rural residents aged 50-70 years with LTBI, the protective efficacy of the 6-week twice-weekly regimen of rifapentine plus isoniazid was further evaluated in a 5-year follow-up survey. RESULTS: A total of 1298 treated participants and 1151 untreated controls were included in the 5-year protective efficacy analysis. In the per-protocol analysis, the incidence rate was 0.49/100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30-0.67) in the untreated control group and 0.19/100 person-years (95% CI: 0.07-0.32) in the treated group, the protection rate was 61.22%. Subgroup analysis showed that the protection rate was 76.82% in the per-protocol analysis among participants with baseline IFN-γ levels in the highest quartile (≥3.25 IU·mL-1). The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that participants with baseline BMI <18.5 kg·m-2 and with pulmonary fibrotic lesions had increased hazard of developing active disease with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 3.64 (95% CI: 1.20-11.00) and 5.99 (95% CI: 2.20-16.27), respectively. In addition, individuals with higher baseline IFN-γ levels showed an increased risk of TB occurrence (aHR 2.27, 95% CI 1.13-4.58). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested the 6-week twice-weekly regimen of rifapentine plus isoniazid for LTBI treatment might be an optional tool for TB control in Chinese population.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847026

RESUMO

The Bayesian inference with prior knowledge has been proposed recently to solve the inverse problem in resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. It allows inferring the elastic properties of high damping materials, such as cortical bone with less dependence on the initial guessed values. In this method, the estimation of the stiffness coefficients is expressed as a probabilistic solution to the inverse problem, which can be achieved by sampling or optimization methods. However, the detailed performance comparison of these two strategies applied to high damping materials has not been fully studied. In this work, the full stiffness tensor of 52 transversely isotropic cortical bone specimens was obtained using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), respectively. Results showed that the local probability distributions of stiffness coefficients estimated by the two methods are consistent. Compared with MCMC, the average calculation speed of PSO is 10 times faster (614±59s (MCMC) versus 53±22s (PSO)). The mean standard error between theoretical and experimental resonant frequencies was slightly smaller for PSO compared to MCMC. In conclusion, PSO, a global optimization strategy, is suitable to solve the inverse problem for high damping materials.

7.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 14(1): 224, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peroxyacetic acid involved chemical pretreatment is effective in lignocellulose deconstruction and oxidation. However, these peroxyacetic acid are usually artificially added. Our previous work has shown that the newly developed PHP pretreatment (phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide) is promising in lignocellulose biomass fractionation through an aggressive oxidation process, while the information about the synergistic effect between H3PO4 and H2O2 is quite lack, especially whether some strong oxidant intermediates is existed. In this work, we reported the PHP pretreatment system could self-generate peroxyacetic acid oxidant, which mediated the overall lignocellulose deconstruction, and hemicellulose/lignin degradation. RESULTS: The PHP pretreatment profile on wheat straw and corn stalk were investigated. The pathways/mechanisms of peroxyacetic acid mediated-PHP pretreatment were elucidated through tracing the structural changes of each component. Results showed that hemicellulose was almost completely solubilized and removed, corresponding to about 87.0% cellulose recovery with high digestibility. Rather high degrees of delignification of 83.5% and 90.0% were achieved for wheat straw and corn stalk, respectively, with the aid of peroxyacetic acid oxidation. A clearly positive correlation was found between the concentration of peroxyacetic acid and the extent of lignocellulose deconstruction. Peroxyacetic acid was mainly self-generated through H2O2 oxidation of acetic acid that was produced from hemicellulose deacetylation and lignin degradation. The self-generated peroxyacetic acid then further contributed to lignocellulose deconstruction and delignification. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic effect of H3PO4 and H2O2 in the PHP solvent system could efficiently deconstruct wheat straw and corn stalk lignocellulose through an oxidation-mediated process. The main function of H3PO4 was to deconstruct biomass recalcitrance and degrade hemicellulose through acid hydrolysis, while the function of H2O2 was to facilitate the formation of peroxyacetic acid. Peroxyacetic acid with stronger oxidation ability was generated through the reaction between H2O2 and acetic acid, which was released from xylan and lignin oxidation/degradation. This work elucidated the generation and function of peroxyacetic acid in the PHP pretreatment system, and also provide useful information to tailor peroxide-involved pretreatment routes, especially at acidic conditions.

8.
Mater Horiz ; 8(4): 1130-1152, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821908

RESUMO

The demand for high rate energy storage systems is continuously increasing driven by portable electronics, hybrid/electric vehicles and the need for balancing the smart grid. Accordingly, Nb2O5 based materials have gained great attention because of their fast cation intercalation faradaic charge storage that endows them with high rate energy storage performance. In this review, we describe the crystalline features of the five main phases of Nb2O5 and analyze their specific electrochemical characteristics with an emphasis on the intrinsic ion intercalation pseudocapacitive behavior of T-Nb2O5. The charge storage mechanisms, electrochemical performance and state-of-the-art characterization techniques for Nb2O5 anodes are summarized. Next, we review recent progress in developing various types of Nb2O5 based fast charging electrode materials, including Nb2O5 based mixed metal oxides and composites. Finally, we highlight the major challenges for Nb2O5 based materials in the realm of high rate rechargeable energy storage and provide perspectives for future research.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127517, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688009

RESUMO

The abundantly released tail-gas from lignocellulose pretreatment with phosphoric acid plus hydrogen peroxide (PHP) was found to accelerate the aging of latex/silicone textural accessories of the pretreatment device. Inspired by this, tail-gas was utilized to control organic pollutants. Methylene blue (MB), as a model pollutant, was rapidly decolorized by the tail-gas, and oxidative degradation was substantially proven by full-wavelength scanning with a UV-visible spectrometer. The tail-gas from six typical lignocellulosic feedstocks produced 68.0-98.3% MB degradation, suggesting its wide feedstock compatibility. Three other dyes, including rhodamine B, methyl orange and malachite green, obtained 97.5-99.5% degradation; moreover, tetracycline, resorcinol and hexachlorobenzene achieved 73.8-93.7% degradation, suggesting a superior pollutant compatibility. In a cytotoxicity assessment, the survival rate of the degraded MB was 103.5% compared with 80.4% for the untreated MB, implying almost no cytotoxicity after MB degradation. Mechanism investigations indicated that the self-exothermic reaction in PHP pretreatment drove the self-generated peroxy acids into tail-gas. Moreover, it heated the pollutant solution and thermally activated peroxy acids as free radicals for efficient pollutant degradation. Here, a brand-new technique for degrading organic pollutants with a "Win-Win-Win" concept was purposed for lignocellulose valorization, pollutant control by waste tail-gas, and biofuel production.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 700896, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690752

RESUMO

Purpose: Prunella vulgaris (PV), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat patients with thyroid disease for centuries in China. The purpose of the present study was to investigate its bioactive ingredients and mechanisms against Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) using network pharmacology and molecular docking technology to provide some basis for experimental research. Methods: Ingredients of the PV formula were retrieved from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database. Additionally, HT-related genes were retrieved from the UniProt and GeneCards databases. Cytoscape constructed networks for visualization. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was constructed, and a PPI network was built using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) database. These key targets of PV were enriched and analyzed by molecular docking verification, Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment. Results: The compound-target network included 11 compounds and 66 target genes. Key targets contained Jun proto-oncogene (JUN), hsp90aa1.1 (AKI), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), and tumor protein p53 (TP53). The main pathways included the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway, the TNF signaling pathway, the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The molecular docking results revealed that the main compound identified in the Prunella vulgaris was luteolin, followed by kaempferol, which had a strong affinity for HT. Conclusion: Molecular docking studies indicated that luteolin and kaempferol were bioactive compounds of PV and might play an essential role in treating HT by regulating multiple signaling pathways.

11.
Oncol Lett ; 22(6): 829, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34691256

RESUMO

Uromodulin (UMOD) is a glycoprotein that is selectively expressed on the epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and the early distal renal tubule. The present study aimed to investigate whether UMOD was associated with complement activation in patients with renal diseases. In addition, its biological function was examined in vitro. The expression levels of UMOD and complement components, including C1q, C3, C4 and C3a, and membrane attack complex (MAC) in the plasma of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN; n=58) and lupus nephritis (LN; n=36) were detected using ELISA, which was used to determine the association between UMOD expression and complement components. In addition, a simulated hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) model was used to stimulate UMOD expression in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells. Additionally, the association between UMOD expression and complement components C1q and C3d at the cellular level was identified using western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. It was revealed that the plasma UMOD concentration was significantly decreased in patients with IgAN and LN compared with in healthy controls, and the levels of C3a and MAC were significantly increased in the plasma of patients with IgAN and LN. Furthermore, the plasma levels of C1q, C3 and C4 in patients with LN, but not in patients with IgAN, were significantly decreased compared with in healthy controls. The plasma levels of UMOD were negatively correlated with the plasma C3a and MAC concentrations. However, the plasma levels of UMOD were significantly and positively correlated with the plasma C1q concentration, but not with that of C3 and C4. It was identified that UMOD expression started to increase after 1 h of simulated H/R, and continued to increase at 6 and 12 h. In addition, cells with lower UMOD expression had higher C3d expression in vitro. Collectively, the present results suggested that UMOD was associated with severe complement activation and may be involved in complement-mediated immune protection by inhibiting complement activation in renal disease.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 274: 118656, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702475

RESUMO

In practical applications, the full biodegradability of all-biomass-based bacterial cellulose (BC) composites enhances their environmentally friendliness but results in the poor durability especially at humid conditions. This work prepared BC/lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) composite films with retarded biodegradability, which could broaden their application area. Three LNPs were fabricated using technical lignins extracted by deep eutectic solvent (DES), ethanol organosolv, soda/anthraquinone from poplar. LNPs involvement during BC fermentation showed limited influence on its productivity but significantly retarded the biodegradation of composite films. The potential inhibition mechanism was physical barrier and non-productive binding of LNPs. The BC/Soda LNPs showed much higher retarded degradation property (~58 wt% degradation) compared to BC/Organosolv LNPs and BC/DES LNPs (~85 wt% and ~ 97 wt% degradation respectively) at high enzyme loadings of 5 mg g-1 BCE. While at low enzyme loadings of 1 mg g-1 BCE, all these three composite films showed comparable retarded degradation property of ~60 wt%.

13.
Front Genet ; 12: 732621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712267

RESUMO

Background: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized biochemically by abnormal of bone parameters and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as clinically by deficiency of teeth and bone mineralization. The clinical presentation is a continuum ranging from a prenatal lethal form with no skeletal mineralization to a mild form with late adult onset presenting with non-pathognomonic symptoms. ALP deficiency is the key to the pathogenesis of abnormal metabolism and skeletal system damage in HPP patients. Methods: We investigated five patients with skeletal dysplasia in the clinic. Whole-exome sequencing was performed in order to aid diagnosis of the patients. Results: Eight variants in the ALPL gene in the five unrelated Chinese patients (PA-1: c.649_650insC and c.707A > G; PA2: c.98C > T and c.707A > G; PA3: c.407G > A and c.650delTinsCTAA; PA4: c.1247G > T (homozygous); PA5: c.406C > T and c.1178A > G; NM_000478.5) were found. These variations caused two types of HPP: perinatal HPP and Odonto HPP. All cases reported in this study were autosomal recessive. Among the variants, c.1247G > T/p.Gly416Val (PA-4); c.1178A > G/p.Asn393Ser (PA-5) and c.707A > G/p.Tyr236Cys (PA-1, PA-2) have never been reported before. Conclusion: Clinical phenotypes of perinatal HPP (PA-1,PA-2,PA-3 and PA-4) include skeletal dysplasia, shorter long bones, bowing of long bones, tetraphocomelia, abnormal posturing and abnormal bone ossification. Odonto HPP (PA-5) only presents as dental abnormality with severe dental caries and decreased ALP activity. Our study extends the pool of ALPL variants in different populations.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and proteinuria are common bevacizumab-induced toxicities. No validated biomarkers are available for identifying patients at risk of these toxicities. METHODS: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis was performed in 1039 bevacizumab-treated patients of European ancestry in four clinical trials (CALGB 40502, 40503, 80303, 90401). Grade ≥2 hypertension and proteinuria were recorded (CTCAE v.3.0). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-toxicity associations were determined using a cause-specific Cox model adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: The most significant SNP associated with hypertension with concordant effect in three out of the four studies (p-value <0.05 for each study) was rs6770663 (A > G) in KCNAB1, with the G allele increasing the risk of hypertension (p-value = 4.16 × 10-6). The effect of the G allele was replicated in ECOG-ACRIN E5103 in 582 patients (p-value = 0.005). The meta-analysis of all five studies for rs6770663 led to p-value = 7.73 × 10-8, close to genome-wide significance. The most significant SNP associated with proteinuria was rs339947 (C > A, between DNAH5 and TRIO), with the A allele increasing the risk of proteinuria (p-value = 1.58 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: The results from the largest study of bevacizumab toxicity provide new markers of drug safety for further evaluations. SNP in KCNAB1 validated in an independent dataset provides evidence toward its clinical applicability to predict bevacizumab-induced hypertension. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00785291 (CALGB 40502); NCT00601900 (CALGB 40503); NCT00088894 (CALGB 80303) and NCT00110214 (CALGB 90401).

15.
Cereb Cortex ; 32(1): 1-14, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642754

RESUMO

Emotion dysregulation is one of the core features of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, most studies in depression have focused on unimodal emotion processing, whereas emotional perception in daily life is highly dependent on multimodal sensory inputs. Here, we proposed a novel multilevel discriminative framework to identify the altered neural patterns in processing audiovisual emotion in MDD. Seventy-four participants underwent an audiovisual emotional task functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Three levels of whole-brain functional features were extracted for each subject, including the task-evoked activation, task-modulated connectivity, combined activation and connectivity. Support vector machine classification and prediction models were built to identify MDD from controls and evaluate clinical relevance. We revealed that complex neural networks including the emotion regulation network (prefrontal areas and limbic-subcortical regions) and the multisensory integration network (lateral temporal cortex and motor areas) had the discriminative power. Moreover, by integrating comprehensive information of local and interactive processes, multilevel models could lead to a substantial increase in classification accuracy and depression severity prediction. Together, we highlight the high representational capacity of machine learning algorithms to characterize the complex network abnormalities associated with emotional regulation and multisensory integration in MDD. These findings provide novel evidence for the neural mechanisms underlying multimodal emotion dysregulation of depression.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5767, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599184

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurological disorder and a leading cause of intellectual disability in young females. RTT is mainly caused by mutations found in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanism underlying RTT pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here, we report MeCP2 as a key subunit of a higher-order multiunit protein complex Rbfox/LASR. Defective MeCP2 in RTT mouse models disrupts the assembly of the MeCP2/Rbfox/LASR complex, leading to reduced binding of Rbfox proteins to target pre-mRNAs and aberrant splicing of Nrxns and Nlgn1 critical for synaptic plasticity. We further show that MeCP2 disease mutants display defective condensate properties and fail to promote phase-separated condensates with Rbfox proteins in vitro and in cultured cells. These data link an impaired function of MeCP2 with disease mutation in splicing control to its defective properties in mediating the higher-order assembly of the MeCP2/Rbfox/LASR complex.


Assuntos
Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/química , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo
17.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 124: 104848, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600428

RESUMO

Finite element method based resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (FEM-based RUS) allows elasticity measurement for a material with high quality factor (Q) and arbitrary geometry by minimizing the differences between its theoretically calculated resonant frequencies and the corresponding experimentally measured ones. As Q decreases, some experimental frequencies remain undetermined, which makes it difficult to pair the calculated and experimental frequencies and to correctly identify the elastic constants. Additional difficulty need be tackled for irregularly-shaped low-Q materials due to the adoption of time-consuming FEM, thus efficiency of the identification method needs to be focused on. To apply FEM-based RUS to low-Q materials, a new elastic constant identification method is proposed based on a differential evolution algorithm in this paper. This method can perform a global search combining with local optimizations in the elastic constant space, and improve the overall efficiency by limiting the number of the frequency calculations. By using numerical experiments, the effectiveness of the proposed method under different frequency missing situations was verified and its efficiency was measured from the required frequency calculation numbers, showing an approximate two third reduction compared with an existing method. Finally, the elastic constants of an actual irregular cortical bone-mimicking material (Q ≈ 25) were measured using the two methods, yielding consistent Young's moduli (calculated from the identified constants) with the data provided by the manufacturer and a similar improvement in computational efficiency of the proposed method.


Assuntos
Osso Cortical , Módulo de Elasticidade , Elasticidade , Análise Espectral , Ultrassonografia
18.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 740267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497810

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer ranks second in the incidence rate of endocrine malignant cancer. Thyroid cancer is usually asymptomatic at the initial stage, which makes patients easily miss the early treatment time. Combining genetic testing with imaging can greatly improve the diagnostic efficiency of thyroid cancer. Researchers have discovered many genes related to thyroid cancer. However, the effects of these genes on thyroid cancer are different. We hypothesize that there is a stronger interaction between the core genes that cause thyroid cancer. Based on this hypothesis, we constructed an interaction network of thyroid cancer-related genes. We traversed the network through random walks, and sorted thyroid cancer-related genes through ADNN which is fusion of Adaboost and deep neural network (DNN). In addition, we discovered more thyroid cancer-related genes by ADNN. In order to verify the accuracy of ADNN, we conducted a fivefold cross-validation. ADNN achieved AUC of 0.85 and AUPR of 0.81, which are more accurate than other methods.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 716900, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484159

RESUMO

Objectives: Exploring biomarkers monitoring latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment effectiveness would benefit optimizing the therapeutic regimen. This study aims to identify potential mycobacteria-specific antigen-induced cytokines associated with host responses to preventive treatment. Methods: Based on a randomized controlled trial on LTBI treatment among individuals with chest radiography abnormalities suggestive of prior tuberculosis (TB), the dynamically changed cytokine levels in QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) supernatants were estimated during the treatment by bead-based multiplex assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In total, 63 treated participants and 32 untreated controls were included in the study. The levels of 13 background-corrected mycobacteria-specific antigen-stimulated cytokines [basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1ra, IL-12 (p70), stem cell factor (SCF), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), IL-8, interferon (IFN)-α2, IL-5, IL-12 (p40), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and IL-17A] were found to be statistically different between before and after treatment in treated participants, while no statistically differences were observed in untreated controls. Among these 13 cytokines, the level of IL-8 was significantly lower in the QFT reversed group than that in the non-reversed group (p = 0.028) among treated participants, while such a difference was not found for untreated controls (p = 0.292). Conclusion: Our results suggested that the lower level of mycobacteria-specific antigen-induced IL-8 might be associated with the host's positive response to LTBI treatment.

20.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 730475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485310

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) is one of the most fatal diseases among women all around the world. It is highly lethal because it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage which may reduce the survival rate greatly. Even though most of the patients are treated timely and effectively, the survival rate is still low due to the high recurrence rate of OC. With a large number of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS)-discovered risk regions of OC, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can explore candidate susceptible genes based on these risk loci. However, a large number of OC-related genes remain unknown. In this study, we proposed a novel gene prediction method based on different omics data and deep learning methods to identify OC causal genes. We first employed graph attention network (GAT) to obtain a compact gene feature representation, then a deep neural network (DNN) is utilized to predict OC-related genes. As a result, our model achieved a high AUC of 0.761 and AUPR of 0.788, which proved the accuracy and effectiveness of our proposed method. At last, we conducted a gene-set enrichment analysis to further explore the mechanism of OC. Finally, we predicted 245 novel OC causal genes and 10 top related KEGG pathways.

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