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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6476, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753933

RESUMO

Polarized light can provide significant information about objects, and can be used as information carrier in communication systems through artificial modulation. However, traditional polarized light detection systems integrate polarizers and various functional circuits in addition to detectors, and are supplemented by complex encoding and decoding algorithms. Although the in-plane anisotropy of low-dimensional materials can be utilized to manufacture polarization-sensitive photodetectors without polarizers, the low anisotropic photocurrent ratio makes it impossible to realize digital output of polarized information. In this study, we propose an integrated polarization-sensitive amplification system by introducing a nanowire polarized photodetector and organic semiconductor transistors, which can boost the polarization sensitivity from 1.24 to 375. Especially, integrated systems are universal in that the systems can increase the anisotropic photocurrent ratio of any low-dimensional material corresponding to the polarized light. Consequently, a simple digital polarized light communication system can be realized based on this integrated system, which achieves certain information disguising and confidentiality effects.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739207

RESUMO

Dental diseases resulting from movement disorders and volatile gases are very common. The classic method for detecting occlusal force is effective; however, its function is one-time rather than real-time monitoring, and the technology is very time-consuming. Herein, we report a multifunctional, flexible, and degradable bacterial cellulose/Ti3C2Tx MXene bioaerogel for the accurate detection of occlusal force and early diagnosis of periodontal diseases. Combining the mechanical properties of MXene and the abundant functional groups of bacterial cellulose, 3D porous bioaerogels exhibit both pressure-sensitive and ammonia (NH3)-sensitive responses. By integrating these substances into a flexible array, the resulting device can distinguish the intensity, location, and even the time sequence of the occlusion force; moreover, it can provide NH3 gas and occlusion force response signals. Therefore, this technology is promising for both disease diagnosis and oral health. In addition, the introduction of a renewable biomaterial allows the bioaerogel to degrade completely using a low-concentration hydrogen peroxide solution, making the device environmentally friendly and satisfying the demands for sustainable development.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103257, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713981

RESUMO

Wearable sweat sensors have received significant research interest and have become popular as sweat contains considerable health information about physiological and psychological states. However, measured biomarker concentrations vary with sweat rates, which has a significant effect on the accuracy and reliability of sweat biosensors. Wearable sweat loss measuring devices (SLMDs) have recently been proposed to overcome the limitations of biomarker tracking and reduce inter- and intraindividual variability. In addition, they offer substantial potential for monitoring human body homeostasis, because sweat loss plays an indispensable role in thermoregulation and skin hydration. Previous studies have not carried out a comprehensive and systematic review of the principles, importance, and development of wearable SLMDs. This paper reviews wearable SLMDs with a new health perspective from the role of sweat loss to advanced mechanisms and designs. Two types of sweat and their measurement significance for practical applications are highlighted. Then, a comprehensive review of advances in different wearable SLMDs based on hygrometers, absorbent materials, and microfluidics is presented by describing their respective device architectures, present situations, and future directions. Finally, concluding remarks on opportunities for future application fields and challenges for future sweat sensing are presented.

5.
Small ; 17(41): e2100804, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240560

RESUMO

Template methods are regarded as an important method for micro-nano processing in the active layer of flexible tactile sensors. These template methods use physical/chemical processes to introduce micro-nano structures on the active layer, which improves many properties including sensitivity, response/recovery time, and detection limit. However, since the processing process and applicable conditions of the template method have not yet formed a perfect system, the development and commercialization of flexible tactile sensors based on the template method are still at a relatively slow stage. Despite the above obstacles, advances in microelectronics, materials science, nanoscience, and other disciplines have laid the foundation for various template methods, enabling the continuous development of flexible tactile sensors. Therefore, a comprehensive and systematic review of flexible tactile sensors based on the template method is needed to further promote progress in this field. Here, the unique advantages and shortcomings of various template methods are summarized in detail and discuss the research progress and challenges in this field. It is believed that this review will have a significant impact on many fields of flexible electronics, which is beneficial to promote the cross-integration of multiple fields and accelerate the development of flexible electronic devices.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Tato
6.
Adv Mater ; 33(34): e2101535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288161

RESUMO

Owing to their cost-effectiveness and high energy density, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) and potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are becoming the leading candidates for the next-generation energy-storage devices replacing lithium-ion batteries. In this work, a novel Fex -1 Sex heterostructure is prepared on fungus-derived carbon matrix encapsulated by 2D Ti3 C2 Tx MXene highly conductive layers, which exhibits high specific sodium ion (Na+ ) and potassium ion (K+ ) storage capacities of 610.9 and 449.3 mAh g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 , respectively, and excellent capacity retention at high charge-discharge rates. MXene acts as conductive layers to prevent the restacking and aggregation of Fex -1 Sex sheets on fungus-derived carbonaceous nanoribbons, while the natural fungus functions as natural nitrogen/carbon source to provide bionic nanofiber network structural skeleton, providing additional accessible pathways for the high-rate ion transport and satisfying surface-driven contribution ratios at high sweep rates for both Na/K ions storages. In addition, in situ synchrotron diffraction and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements are performed to reveal the mechanisms of storage and de-/alloying conversion process of Na+ in the Fex -1 Sex /MXene/carbonaceous nanoribbon heterostructure. As a result, the assembled Na/K full cells containing MXene-supported Fex -1 Sex @carbonaceous anodes possess stable large-ion storage capabilities.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(31): 37194-37200, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314171

RESUMO

Vanadium oxide-based aqueous zinc-ion batteries exhibit promising potential due to their low cost and safety profiles. However, fabricating cathodes with outstanding electrochemical performance for Zn-ion batteries is still a challenge. Herein, network C@V2O5 materials were prepared using a mild chitosan-assisted hydrothermal process. Coin-type cells, using network C@V2O5 as a cathode, zinc film as an anode, and Zn(CF3SO3)2 as an electrolyte, were also assembled, and the as-synthesized cathode delivered a high specific capacity of 361 mA h g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and excellent cyclic stability. Specifically, after 2000 cycles, the capacity still remained about 71% of the initial value at 0.5 A g-1. Moreover, ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations confirmed that Zn-ion storage in the cathode was achieved through the reversible intercalation/extraction of Zn2+ during the charge/discharge process. Therefore, the network C@V2O5 cathode demonstrated potential applications for zinc-ion batteries.

8.
Nanomicro Lett ; 13(1): 100, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138360

RESUMO

Zn-ion hybrid supercapacitors (SCs) are considered as promising energy storage owing to their high energy density compared to traditional SCs. How to realize the miniaturization, patterning, and flexibility of the Zn-ion SCs without affecting the electrochemical performances has special meanings for expanding their applications in wearable integrated electronics. Ti3C2Tx cathode with outstanding conductivity, unique lamellar structure and good mechanical flexibility has been demonstrated tremendous potential in the design of Zn-ion SCs, but achieving long cycling stability and high rate stability is still big challenges. Here, we proposed a facile laser writing approach to fabricate patterned Ti3C2Tx-based Zn-ion micro-supercapacitors (MSCs), followed by the in-situ anneal treatment of the assembled MSCs to improve the long-term stability, which exhibits 80% of the capacitance retention even after 50,000 charge/discharge cycles and superior rate stability. The influence of the cathode thickness on the electrochemical performance of the MSCs is also studied. When the thickness reaches 0.851 µm the maximum areal capacitance of 72.02 mF cm-2 at scan rate of 10 mV s-1, which is 1.77 times higher than that with a thickness of 0.329 µm (35.6 mF cm-2). Moreover, the fabricated Ti3C2Tx based Zn-ion MSCs have excellent flexibility, a digital timer can be driven by the single device even under bending state, a flexible LED displayer of "TiC" logo also can be easily lighted by the MSC arrays under twisting, crimping, and winding conditions, demonstrating the scalable fabrication and application of the fabricated MSCs in portable electronics.

9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(14): e2100075, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021718

RESUMO

With the increasing demand for detection accuracy and sensitivity, dual-band polarimetric image sensor has attracted considerable attention due to better object recognition by processing signals from diverse wavebands. However, the widespread use of polarimetric sensors is still limited by high noise, narrow photoresponse range, and low linearly dichroic ratio. Recently, the low-dimensional materials with intrinsic in-plane anisotropy structure exhibit the great potential to realize direct polarized photodetection. Here, strong anisotropy of 1D layered bismuth sulfide (Bi2 S3 ) is demonstrated experimentally and theoretically. The Bi2 S3 photodetector exhibits excellent device performance, which enables high photoresponsivity (32 A W-1 ), Ion /Ioff ratio (1.08 × 104 ), robust linearly dichroic ratio (1.9), and Hooge parameter (2.0 × 10-5 at 1 Hz) which refer to lower noise than most reported low-dimensional materials-based devices. Impressively, such Bi2 S3 nanowire exhibits a good broadband photoresponse, ranging from ultraviolet (360 nm) to short-wave infrared (1064 nm). Direct polarimetric imaging is implemented at the wavelengths of 532 and 808 nm. With these remarkable features, the 1D Bi2 S3 nanowires show great potential for direct dual-band polarimetric image sensors without using any external optical polarizer.

10.
Adv Mater ; 33(22): e2007890, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899274

RESUMO

Accurate and continuous detection of physiological signals without the need for an external power supply is a key technology for realizing wearable electronics as next-generation biomedical devices. Herein, it is shown that a MXene/black phosphorus (BP)-based self-powered smart sensor system can be designed by integrating a flexible pressure sensor with direct-laser-writing micro-supercapacitors and solar cells. Using a layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly process to form a periodic interleaving MXene/BP lamellar structure results in a high energy-storage capacity in a direct-laser-writing micro-supercapacitor to drive the operation of sensors and compensate the intermittency of light illumination. Meanwhile, with MXene/BP as the sensitive layer in a flexible pressure sensor, the pressure sensitivity of the device can be improved to 77.61 kPa-1 at an optimized elastic modulus of 0.45 MPa. Furthermore, the smart sensor system with fast response time (10.9 ms) shows a real-time detection capability for the state of the human heart under physiological conditions. It is believed that the proposed study based on the design and integration of MXene materials will provide a general platform for next-generation self-powered electronics.

11.
Small ; 17(18): e2005606, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728799

RESUMO

In recent years, metal halide perovskites have been widely investigated to fabricate photodetectors for image sensing due to the excellent photoelectric performance, tunable bandgap, and low-cost solution preparation process. In this review, a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in perovskite photodetectors for image sensing is provided. First, the key performance parameters and the basic device types of photodetectors are briefly introduced. Then, the recent developments of image sensors on the basis of different dimensional perovskite materials, including 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D perovskite materials, are highlighted. Besides the device structures and photoelectric properties of perovskite image sensors, the preparation methods of perovskite photodetector arrays are also analyzed. Subsequently, the single-pixel imaging of perovskite photodetectors and the strategies to fabricate narrowband perovskite photodetectors for color discrimination are discussed. Finally, the potential challenges and possible solutions for the future development of perovskite image sensors are presented.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(28): 32023-32030, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564591

RESUMO

Flexible capacitance sensors play a key role in wearable devices, soft robots, and the Internet of things (IoT). To realize these feasible applications, subtle pressure detection under various conditions is required, and it is often limited by low sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate a capacitive touch sensor with excellent sensing capabilities enabled by a three-dimensional (3D) network dielectric layer, combining a natural viscoelastic property material of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibers wrapped with electrically conductive materials of Ag nanowires (AgNWs). Taking advantage of the large deformation and the increase of effective permittivity under the action of compression force, the device has the characteristics of high sensitivity, fast response time, and low detection limit. The enhanced sensing mechanism of the 3D structures and the conductive filler have been discussed in detail. These superior functions enable us to monitor a variety of subtle pressure changes (pulse, airflow, and Morse code). By detecting the pressure of fingers, a smart piano glove integrated with 10 circuits of finger joints is made, which realizes the real-time performance of the piano and provides the possibility for the application of intelligent wearable electronic products such as virtual reality and human-machine interface in the future.


Assuntos
Poliuretanos/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Capacitância Elétrica , Monitorização Fisiológica , Nanofibras/química , Nanofios/química , Prata/química
13.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2020: 8716847, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529189

RESUMO

Using wearable devices to monitor respiration rate is essential for reducing the risk of death or permanent injury in patients. Improving the performance and safety of these devices and reducing their environmental footprint could advance the currently used health monitoring technologies. Here, we report high-performance, flexible bioprotonic devices made entirely of biodegradable biomaterials. This smart sensor satisfies all the requirements for monitoring human breathing states, including noncontact characteristic and the ability to discriminate humidity stimuli with ultrahigh sensitivity, rapid response time, and excellent cycling stability. In addition, the device can completely decompose after its service life, which reduces the risk to the human body. The cytotoxicity test demonstrates that the device shows good biocompatibility based on the viability of human skin fibroblast-HSAS1 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVECs), illustrating the safety of the sensor upon integration with the human skin.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(21): 24339-24347, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369336

RESUMO

For the mimicry of human skin, one of the challenges is how to detect and recognize different stimulus by electronic device, while still has the ability of skin self-recovery at the same time. Because of the excellent elasticity and flexibility, strong self-healing ability, in this paper, we reported a bifunctional self-healing e-skin with polyurethane (PU) and polyurethane@multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PU@CNT) as the sensing materials by integrating a resistance temperature sensor on top of a capacitive pressure sensor on the same flexible cellulose nanocrystals@carboxylated nitrile rubber@polyethylenimine (CNC@XNBR) substrate. Studies found that each type of sensor exhibited fast and superior response to only the target stimuli. Meanwhile, due to the self-recovery properties of PU and CNC@XNBR, as-fabricated e-skin has the self-healing ability after damage and remains excellent sensitivity to temperature and pressure after healing. A 5 × 5 device array was also fabricated, which can simultaneously image the pressure and temperature distribution.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Poliuretanos/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Pressão , Temperatura
15.
Adv Mater ; 32(24): e1907257, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383310

RESUMO

An electrically modulated single-/dual-color imaging photodetector with fast response speed is developed based on a small molecule (COi 8DFIC)/perovskite (CH3 NH3 PbBr3 ) hybrid film. Owing to the type-I heterojunction, the device can facilely transform dual-color images to single-color images by applying a small bias voltage. The photodetector exhibits two distinct cut-off wavelengths at ≈544 nm (visible region) and ≈920 nm (near-infrared region), respectively, without any power supply. Its two peak responsivities are 0.16 A W-1 at ≈525 nm and 0.041 A W-1 at ≈860 nm with a fast response speed (≈102 ns). Under 0.6 V bias, the photodetector can operate in a single-color mode with a peak responsivity of 0.09 A W-1 at ≈475 nm, showing a fast response speed (≈102 ns). A physical model based on band energy theory is developed to illustrate the origin of the tunable single-/dual-color photodetection. This work will stimulate new approaches for developing solution-processed multifunctional photodetectors for imaging photodetection in complex circumstances.

16.
Adv Mater ; 32(16): e1908419, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104957

RESUMO

Infrared (IR) photodetectors are a key optoelectronic device and have thus attracted considerable research attention in recent years. Photosensitivity is an increasingly important device performance parameter for nanoscale photodetectors and image sensors, as it determines the ultimate imaging quality and contrast. However, photosensitivities of state-of-the-art low-dimensional nanostructure-based IR detectors are considerably low, limiting their practical applications. Herein, a biomimetic IR detection amplification (IRDA) system that boosts photosensitivity by several orders of magnitude by introducting nanowire field effect transistors (FETs), resulting in a peak photosensitivity of 7.6 × 104 under an illumination of 1342 nm, is presented. Consequently, high-contrast imaging of IR light is obtained on the flexible IRDA arrays. The image information can be then trained and recognized by an artificial neural network for higher image-recognition efficiency. This work provides a new perspective for developing high-performance IR imaging systems, and is expected to undoubtedly enlighten future work on artificial intelligence and biorobotic systems.

17.
ChemSusChem ; 13(6): 1093-1113, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943844

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have drawn a wide range of research interests because of their unique ultrathin layered structures and attractive properties. In particular, the electrochemical properties and great variety of 2D nanomaterials make them highly attractive candidates for electrochemical capacitors, such as supercapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors, and sodium-ion capacitors. Herein, a comprehensive review of recent progress towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for electrochemical capacitors is provided. Several typical types of 2D nanomaterials are first briefly introduced, followed by detailed descriptions of their electrochemical capacitor applications. Finally, research perspectives and future research directions of these interesting areas are also provided.

18.
Small ; 16(7): e1907172, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967725

RESUMO

Structural symmetry is a simple way to quantify the anisotropic properties of materials toward unique device applications including anisotropic transportation and polarization-sensitive photodetection. The enhancement of anisotropy can be achieved by artificial symmetry-reduction design. A core-shell SbI3 /Sb2 O3 nanowire, a heterostructure bonded by van der Waals forces, is introduced as an example of enhancing the performance of polarization-sensitive photodetectors via symmetry reduction. The structural, vibrational, and optical anisotropies of such core-shell nanostructures are systematically investigated. It is found that the anisotropic absorbance of a core-shell nanowire is obviously higher than that of two single compounds from both theoretical and experimental investigations. Anisotropic photocurrents of the polarization-sensitive photodetectors based on these core-shell SbI3 /Sb2 O3 van der Waals nanowires are measured ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to visible light (360-532 nm). Compared with other van der Waals 1D materials, low anisotropy ratio (Imax /Imin ) is measured based on SbI3 but a device based on this core-shell nanowire possesses a relatively high anisotropy ratio of ≈3.14 under 450 nm polarized light. This work shows that the low-symmetrical core-shell van der Waals heterostructure has large potential to be applied in wide range polarization-sensitive photodetectors.

19.
Adv Mater ; 32(5): e1901806, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206831

RESUMO

Fiber supercapacitors (SCs), with their small size and weight, excellent flexibility and deformability, and high capacitance and power density, are recognized as one of the most robust power supplies available for wearable electronics. They can be woven into breathable textiles or integrated into different functional materials to fit curved surfaces for use in day-to-day life. A comprehensive review on recent important development and progress in fiber SCs is provided, with respect to the active electrode materials, device configurations, functions, integrations. Active electrode materials based on different electrochemical mechanisms and intended to improve performance including carbon-based materials, metal oxides, and hybrid composites, are first summarized. The three main types of fiber SCs, namely parallel, twist, and coaxial structures, are then discussed, followed by the exploration of some functions including stretchability and self-healing. Miniaturized integration of fiber SCs to obtain flexible energy fibers and integrated sensing systems is also discussed. Finally, a short conclusion is made, combining with comments on the current challenges and potential solutions in this field.

20.
Ecol Evol ; 9(22): 12846-12857, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788219

RESUMO

Background and aims: Soil respiration is the second-largest terrestrial carbon (C) flux, and soil temperature and soil moisture are the main drivers of temporal variation in soil respiration and its components. Here, we quantified the contribution of soil temperature, soil moisture, and their intersection on the variation in soil respiration and its components of the evergreen broad-leaved forests (EBF), mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests (MF), deciduous broad-leaved forests (DBF), and subalpine coniferous forests (CF) along an elevation gradient. Methods: We measured soil respiration of four types of forests along the elevation gradient in Shennongjia, Hubei China based on the trenching experiments. We parameterized the relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, and quantified the intersection of temperature and moisture on soil respiration and its components. Results: Total soil respiration (R S), heterotrophic respiration (R H), and autotrophic respiration (R A) were significantly correlated with soil temperature in all four forests. The Q 10 value of soil respiration significantly differed among the four types of forest, and the Q 10 was 3.06 for EBF, 3.75 for MF, 4.05 for DBF, and 4.49 for CF, respectively. The soil temperature explained 62%-81% of the variation in respiration, while soil temperature and soil moisture together explained 91%-97% of soil respiration variation for the four types of forests. The variation from the intersection of soil temperature and moisture were 12.1%-25.0% in RS, 1.0%-7.0% in R H, and 17.1%-19.6% in R A, respectively. Conclusions: Our results show that the temperature sensitivity (Q 10) of soil respiration increased with elevation. The intersection between soil temperature and soil moisture had strong effects on soil respiration, especially in R H. We demonstrated that the intersection effects between soil temperature and soil moisture on soil respiration were essential to understand the response of soil respiration and its components to climate change.

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