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1.
Ann Bot ; 125(1): 119-130, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Roots take up phosphorus (P) as inorganic phosphate (Pi). Enhanced root proliferation in Pi-rich patches enables plants to capture the unevenly distributed Pi, but the underlying control of root proliferation remains largely unknown. Here, the role of auxin in this response was investigated in maize (Zea mays). METHODS: A split-root, hydroponics system was employed to investigate root responses to Pi supply, with one (heterogeneous) or both (homogeneous) sides receiving 0 or 500 µm Pi. KEY RESULTS: Maize roots proliferated in Pi-rich media, particularly with heterogeneous Pi supply. The second-order lateral root number was 3-fold greater in roots of plants receiving a heterogeneous Pi supply than in roots of plants with a homogeneous Pi supply. Root proliferation in a heterogeneous Pi supply was inhibited by the auxin transporter inhibitor 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). The proliferation of lateral roots was accompanied by an enhanced auxin response in the apical meristem and vascular tissues at the root tip, as demonstrated in a DR5::RFP marker line. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the response of maize root morphology to a heterogeneous Pi supply is modulated by local signals of Pi availability and systemic signals of plant P nutritional status, and is mediated by auxin redistribution.

2.
Cell Signal ; 66: 109470, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730895

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignant tumors due to a late diagnosis and highly invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling plays a vital role in the progression of pancreatic cancer. The delicate activity of TGF-ß signaling is particular important for the development of aggression and metastasis which must be fine-tuned. Here, we investigated the role of super-enhancers in regulating the expression of TGF-ß signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer. TGFBR2 owns the modification of H3K27Ac around the gene in pancreatic cancer cells. Inhibition of BRD4 by JQ1 robustly blocked the expression of TGFBR2 in a dose dependent manner. We successfully mapped a super-enhancer in TGFBR2 by sgRNA. Deletion of the super-enhancer in TGFBR2 (sgTGFBR2-SEΔ) significantly reduced the expression of TGFBR2 in pancreatic cancer cells. TGF-ß-induced p-SMAD2/3 was greatly impaired in TGFBR2 super-enhancer deleted cells. Both migration and EMT induced by TGF-ß in pancreatic cancer cells were impaired after deleting the super-enhancer of TGFBR2. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism by which a super-enhancer regulates TGFBR2, affecting the activity of TGF-ß as well as its function in pancreatic cancer progression.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113145, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662249

RESUMO

Distinct cropland acidification has been reported in China due to nitrogen (N) fertilizer overuse. However, the impacts on food production and thereby on food security are largely unknown. Yield losses in the period 1980-2050 were therefore assessed by simulating soil pH changes combined with derived pH-yield relationships for wheat, maize and rice. If the N fertilizer input continues to increase at 1% annually, the predicted average soil pH decline is about one unit and relative yield losses are expected to increase from approximately 4%-24% during 2010-2050. If the N fertilizer increase stops in 2020 (N2020), the expected losses are approximately 16% in 2050, which is comparable to a scenario of 100% crop residue return (100%RR). However, if 30% of the N fertilizer is replaced by manure N (30%MR), the losses reduce to near 5% in 2050. Soil acidification was predicted to reverse and expected losses are only 2.5% in 2050 in a combined scenario of N2020, 100%RR and 30%MR. Our results illustrate the potential food insecurity induced by cropland acidification and address the necessity of mitigation.

4.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1167-1175, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589723

RESUMO

In the last decade, crop production in China has dramatically improved due to greater phosphorus (P) input. As P fertilizer application rates increased from 88 to 123 kg PO ha yr during 2004 to 2014, total P use efficiency (total P output in crops as a percentage of total P input) dropped from 68 to 20%, leading to an accumulation of >90 kg PO ha in the soil each year. Phosphorus lost from agriculture is the second greatest contributor to waterbody eutrophication in China, accounting for 25% of total P losses in 2010; the main contributor is livestock husbandry. Given these problems, as well as the finite nature of P reserves, three strategies are proposed here to reduce P fertilizer application rates, improve P use efficiency, and minimize the environmental risk caused by P loss in China: (i) improving soil legacy P utilization by modifying cropping systems, rhizosphere management, or microbial engineering, (ii) increasing P use efficiency by reducing P fertilizer applications and minimizing P fertilizer fixation, and (iii) promoting the extension of soil P management strategies. For these management strategies to succeed in China, close cooperation should be established among farmers, scientists, and governments in the future.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Agricultura , Animais , China , Fósforo
5.
New Phytol ; 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536638

RESUMO

Nutrient distribution and neighbours can impact plant growth, but how neighbours shape root-foraging strategy for nutrients is unclear. Here, we explore new patterns of plant foraging for nutrients as affected by neighbours to improve nutrient acquisition. Maize (Zea mays) was grown alone (maize), or with maize (maize/maize) or faba bean (Vicia faba) (maize/faba bean) as a neighbour on one side and with or without a phosphorus (P)-rich zone on the other in a rhizo-box experiment. Maize demonstrated root avoidance in maize/maize, with reduced root growth in 'shared' soil, and increased growth away from its neighbours. Conversely, maize proliferated roots in the proximity of neighbouring faba bean roots that had greater P availability in the rhizosphere (as a result of citrate and acid phosphatase exudation) compared with maize roots. Maize proliferated more roots, but spent less time to reach, and grow out of, the P patches away from neighbours in the maize/maize than in the maize/faba bean experiment. Maize shoot biomass and P uptake were greater in the heterogeneous P treatment with maize/faba bean than with maize/maize system. The foraging strategy of maize roots is an integrated function of heterogeneous distribution of nutrients and neighbouring plants, thus improving nutrient acquisition and maize growth. Understanding the foraging patterns is critical for optimizing nutrient management in crops.

6.
AoB Plants ; 11(4): plz033, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285818

RESUMO

Neighbouring plants can affect plant growth through altering root morphological and physiological traits, but how exactly root systems respond to neighbouring plants with varied density, determining nutrient uptake and shoot growth is poorly understood. In a pot-based experiment, rapeseed was grown alone (single rapeseed), or mixed with 3, 6, or 15 Chinese milk vetch plants. As controls, monocropped Chinese milk vetch was grown at the same planting density, 3, 6, or 15 plants per pot. Root interaction between rapeseed and Chinese milk vetch facilitated phosphorus (P) uptake in rapeseed grown with 3 plants of Chinese milk vetch. As the planting density of Chinese milk vetch in mixture increased, there was a decrease in citrate concentration and acid phosphatase activity but an increase in the total root length of Chinese milk vetch per pot, resulting in decreases in rapeseed root biomass, total root length and P uptake when rapeseed was grown with 6 or 15 Chinese milk vetch plants relative to rapeseed grown with 3 plants. These results demonstrate that the enhanced nutrient utilization induced by root interaction at low planting densities was eliminated by the increased planting density of the legume species in rapeseed/Chinese milk vetch mixed cropping system, suggesting that root/rhizosphere management through optimizing legume planting density is important for improving crop productivity and nutrient-use efficiency.

7.
New Phytol ; 223(2): 882-895, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932187

RESUMO

Plant roots exhibit diverse root functional traits to enable soil phosphorus (P) acquisition, including changes in root morphology, root exudation and mycorrhizal symbioses. Yet, whether these traits are differently coordinated among crop species to enhance P acquisition is unclear. Here, eight root functional traits for P acquisition were characterized in 16 major herbaceous crop species grown in a glasshouse under limiting and adequate soil P availability. We found substantial interspecific variation in root functional traits among species. Those with thinner roots showed more root branching and less first-order root length, and had consistently lower colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), fewer rhizosheath carboxylates and reduced acid phosphatase activity. In response to limiting soil P, species with thinner roots showed a stronger response in root branching, first-order root length and specific root length of the whole root system, Conversely, species with thicker roots exhibited higher colonization by AMF and/or more P-mobilizing exudates in the rhizosheath. We conclude that, at the species level, tradeoffs occur among the three groups of root functional traits we examined. Root diameter is a good predictor of the relative expression of these traits and how they change when P is limiting.

8.
AoB Plants ; 10(5): ply054, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338049

RESUMO

The adaptations of root growth and rhizosphere processes for soil phosphorus (P) acquisition have been investigated intensively in wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, only a few studies paid attention to these responses to shoot P status. This study aimed at investigating the responses of root morphology and P-mobilizing exudation to increasing shoot P concentration. A broad range of wheat shoot P concentrations (1.0-7.1 mg per g dry weight) was set up with 11 rates of P supply: 0-1200 mg P per kg soil. Root morphology and exudation parameters were measured after 37 days of plant growth. Shoot dry biomass reached a maximum when shoot P concentration was 4.63 mg per g dry weight. The maximum shoot P concentration for total root length, specific root length and the proportion of fine root (diameter ≤ 0.2 mm) length to total root length was 3 mg per g dry weight. Rhizosphere acidification was positively correlated with shoot P concentration when this was <5 mg per g dry weight. Shoot P concentration did not change acid phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere. Citrate concentration in the rhizosphere was suppressed by increasing shoot P concentration. In contrast, malate concentration in the rhizosphere showed a positive correlation with shoot P concentration. In conclusion, wheat root morphological and P-mobilizing exudation traits showed different behaviours with increasing P deficiency stress. Maintaining root biomass and length is the major strategy rather than root exudation for wheat to cope with extreme P deficiency.

9.
Gene ; 669: 35-41, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777912

RESUMO

Regnase-1 is not only a key component in maintaining intracellular homeostasis but also a critical negative regulator in preventing autoimmune diseases and cancer development. To keep homeostatic state, Regnase-1 has to be maintained at a desired level in multiple cell types. However, the molecular mechanism of keeping a certain transcriptional level of Reganase-1 is largely unknown. In this study, we found a super-enhancer (Reg-1-SE) around Regnase-1 gene is able to control the homeostatic expression of Regnase-1. Functional inhibition of super-enhancers through BRD4 inhibitors or genetic silence of key components such as BRD4 and MED1 significantly downregulates Regnase-1 expression at multiple cell types. Consistently, treatment of JQ1 or I-BET-762 dramatically decreases the protein level of Regnase-1. By analyzing Regnase-1 gene, the distribution of H3K27Ac is highly enriched at a 8 kb DNA region around the second intron. Several DNA elements at the second intron are highly conserved between different species. Deletion of the second intron by CRISPR-Cas9 technology significantly reduces the expression of Regnase-1. JQ1 or I-BET-762 failed to further downregulate the expression of Regnase-1 in cells without the second intron. Our result reveals a novel molecular mechanism by which a super-enhancer around the second intron regulates the expression of Regnase-1, and in turn maintains a desired level of Regnase-1.


Assuntos
Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Ribonucleases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Azepinas/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Células HEK293 , Homeostase , Humanos , Íntrons , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 618: 1497-1505, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089131

RESUMO

Significant soil pH decrease has been reported in Chinese croplands in response to enhanced chemical fertilizer application and crop yields. However, the temporal and spatial variation of soil acidification rates across Chinese croplands is still unclear. We therefore assessed trends in soil acidification rates across provincial China for the period 1980-2010 by calculating inputs-outputs of major cations and anions in cropland systems. Nitrogen (N) induced proton production increased from 4.7keqH+/ha/yr in 1980 to a peak of 11.0keqH+/ha/yr in 1996 and remained nearly constant after 2000 at a rate of approximately 8.6keqH+/ha/yr. The proton production induced by crop removal increased from 1.2 to 2.3keqH+/ha/yr. The total proton production thus increased from 5.9 to 10.9keqH+/ha/yr in the 30years. As a result, the actual acidification rate, reflected by (base) cation losses, accelerated from 2.3 to 6.2keqH+/ha/yr and the potential acidification rate, reflected by phosphorus accumulation accelerated from 0.2 to 1.3keqH+/ha/yr. The national averaged total acidification rates were thus estimated to increase from 2.6 to 7.6keqH+/ha/yr in the past 30years. The highest soil acidification rate occurred in the Jiangsu Province with a rate of 17.9keqH+/ha/yr, which was due to both high N application rates and high base cation removals by crops and crop residues. The combination of elevated N inputs and decreased N use efficiency (NUE) in response to those N inputs, thus enhancing the nitrate discharge, were the main reasons for the accelerated acidification in Chinese croplands. Considering the expected growth of food demand in the future, and the linkage between grain production and fertilizer N consumption, a further acceleration of soil acidification can thus be expected, unless the N inputs is reduced and/or the NUE is increased substantially.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 613-614: 1339-1348, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968946

RESUMO

We applied the adapted model VSD+ to assess cropland acidification in four typical Chinese cropping systems (single Maize (M), Wheat-Maize (W-M), Wheat-Rice (W-R) and Rice-Rice (R-R)) on dominant soils in view of its potential threat to grain production. By considering the current situation and possible improvements in field (nutrient) management, five scenarios were designed: i) Business as usual (BAU); ii) No nitrogen (N) fertilizer increase after 2020 (N2020); iii) 100% crop residues return to cropland (100%RR); iv) manure N was applied to replace 30% of chemical N fertilizer (30%MR) and v) Integrated N2020 and 30%MR with 100%RR after 2020 (INMR). Results illustrated that in the investigated calcareous soils, the calcium carbonate buffering system can keep pH at a high level for >150years. In non-calcareous soils, a moderate to strong decline in both base saturation and pH is predicted for the coming decades in the BAU scenario. We predicted that approximately 13% of the considered croplands may suffer from Al toxicity in 2050 following the BAU scenario. The N2020, 100%RR and 30%MR scenarios reduce the acidification rates by 16%, 47% and 99%, respectively, compared to BAU. INMR is the most effective strategy on reducing acidification and leads to no Al toxicity in croplands in 2050. Both improved manure and field management are required to manage acidification in wheat-maize cropping system.

12.
J Exp Bot ; 68(21-22): 5883-5894, 2017 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126265

RESUMO

A better understanding of physiological responses of crops to drought stress is important for ensuring sustained crop productivity under climate change. Here, we studied the effect on 15-day-old maize (Zea mays L.) plants of a 6 d non-lethal period of soil drying [soil water potential (SWP) decreased from -0.20 MPa to -0.81 MPa]. Root growth was initially stimulated during drying (when SWP decreased from -0.31 MPa to -0.38 MPa, compared with -0.29 MPa in well-watered pots), followed by inhibition during Days 5-6 (SWP from -0.63 MPa to -0.81 MPa). Abscisic acid (ABA) in the root began to accumulate as the root water potential declined during Days 2-3. Leaf elongation was inhibited from Day 4 (SWP less than -0.51 MPa), just after leaf ABA content began to increase, but coinciding with a decline in leaf water potential. The stomatal conductance was restricted earlier in the younger leaf (fourth) (on Day 3) than in the older leaf (third). The ethylene content of leaves and roots decreased during drying, but after the respective increase in ABA contents. This work identified critical timing of hydraulic and chemical changes at the onset of soil drying, which can be important in initiating early stomatal and growth responses to drought.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Dessecação , Etilenos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Solo/química , Zea mays/fisiologia , Secas , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Trends Plant Sci ; 22(10): 823-829, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803694

RESUMO

Crop production depends on the availability of water and mineral nutrients, and increased yields might be facilitated by a greater focus on roots-soil interactions. Soil properties affecting plant growth include drought, compaction, nutrient deficiency, mineral toxicity, salinity, and submergence. Plant roots respond to the soil environment both spatially and temporally by avoiding stressful soil environments and proliferating in more favorable environments. We observe that crops can be bred for specific root architectural and biochemical traits that facilitate soil exploration and resource acquisition, enabling greater crop yields. These root traits affect soil physical and chemical properties and might be utilized to improve the soil for subsequent crops. We argue that optimizing root-soil interactions is a prerequisite for future food security.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Solo/química , Cruzamento , Produtos Agrícolas , Meio Ambiente , Fenótipo , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4126, 2017 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663590

RESUMO

Due to the increasing environmental impact of food production, carbon footprint as an indicator can guide farmland management. This study established a method and estimated the carbon footprint of grain production in China based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The results showed that grain production has a high carbon footprint in 2013, i.e., 4052 kg ce/ha or 0.48 kg ce/kg for maize, 5455 kg ce/ha or 0.75 kg ce/kg for wheat and 11881 kg ce/ha or 1.60 kg ce/kg for rice. These footprints are higher than that of other countries, such as the United States, Canada and India. The most important factors governing carbon emissions were the application of nitrogen fertiliser (8-49%), straw burning (0-70%), energy consumption by machinery (6-40%), energy consumption for irrigation (0-44%) and CH4 emissions from rice paddies (15-73%). The most important carbon sequestration factors included returning of crop straw (41-90%), chemical nitrogen fertiliser application (10-59%) and no-till farming practices (0-10%). Different factors dominated in different crop systems in different regions. To identity site-specific key factors and take countermeasures could significantly lower carbon footprint, e.g., ban straw burning in northeast and south China, stopping continuous flooding irrigation in wheat and rice production system.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Pegada de Carbono , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Sequestro de Carbono , China
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(7): 3843-3851, 2017 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28264162

RESUMO

Agricultural soil acidification in China is known to be caused by the over-application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, but the long-term impacts of different fertilization practices on intensive cropland soil acidification are largely unknown. Here, we further developed the soil acidification model VSD+ for intensive agricultural systems and validated it against observed data from three long-term fertilization experiments in China. The model simulated well the changes in soil pH and base saturation over the last 20 years. The validated model was adopted to quantify the contribution of N and base cation (BC) fluxes to soil acidification. The net NO3- leaching and NO4+input accounted for 80% of the proton production under N application, whereas one-third of acid was produced by BC uptake when N was not applied. The simulated long-term (1990-2050) effects of different fertilizations on soil acidification showed that balanced N application combined with manure application avoids reduction of both soil pH and base saturation, while application of calcium nitrate and liming increases these two soil properties. Reducing NH4+ input and NO3- leaching by optimizing N management and increasing BC inputs by manure application thus already seem to be effective approaches to mitigating soil acidification in intensive cropland systems.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Solo/química , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Tempo
16.
Nature ; 537(7622): 671-674, 2016 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602513

RESUMO

Sustainably feeding the world's growing population is a challenge, and closing yield gaps (that is, differences between farmers' yields and what are attainable for a given region) is a vital strategy to address this challenge. The magnitude of yield gaps is particularly large in developing countries where smallholder farming dominates the agricultural landscape. Many factors and constraints interact to limit yields, and progress in problem-solving to bring about changes at the ground level is rare. Here we present an innovative approach for enabling smallholders to achieve yield and economic gains sustainably via the Science and Technology Backyard (STB) platform. STB involves agricultural scientists living in villages among farmers, advancing participatory innovation and technology transfer, and garnering public and private support. We identified multifaceted yield-limiting factors involving agronomic, infrastructural, and socioeconomic conditions. When these limitations and farmers' concerns were addressed, the farmers adopted recommended management practices, thereby improving production outcomes. In one region in China, the five-year average yield increased from 67.9% of the attainable level to 97.0% among 71 leading farmers, and from 62.8% to 79.6% countywide (93,074 households); this was accompanied by resource and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Mudança Climática , Produção Agrícola/economia , Ecologia , Política Ambiental , Nitrogênio , População Rural , Sementes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , Água
17.
J Exp Bot ; 67(17): 4935-49, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27489235

RESUMO

Over the past five decades, Chinese grain production has increased 4-fold, from 110 Mt in 1961 to 557 Mt in 2014, with less than 9% of the world's arable land feeding 22% of the world's population, indicating a substantial contribution to global food security. However, compared with developed economies, such as the USA and the European Union, more than half of the increased crop production in China can be attributed to a rapid increase in the consumption of chemicals, particularly fertilizers. Excessive fertilization has caused low nutrient use efficiency and high environmental costs in grain production. We analysed the key requirements underpinning increased sustainability of crop production in China, as follows: (i) enhance nutrient use efficiency and reduce nutrient losses by fertilizing roots not soil to maximize root/rhizosphere efficiency with innovative root zone nutrient management; (ii) improve crop productivity and resource use efficiency by matching the best agronomic management practices with crop improvement; and (iii) promote technology transfer of the root zone nutrient management to achieve the target of high yields and high efficiency with low environmental risks on a broad scale. Coordinating grain production and environmental protection by increasing the sustainability of nutrient use will be a key step in achieving sustainable crop production in Chinese agriculture.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produção Agrícola , Estado Nutricional , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 18663, 2016 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26728339

RESUMO

Rhizosphere processes stimulate overyielding and facilitative phosphorus (P) uptake in cereal/legume intercropping systems. However, little is known about when and how rhizosphere alteration of legumes plays a role in improving P uptake by cereals. Wheat was grown isolated, monocropped or intercropped with faba bean in pots with low-P soil. The biomass, P content, carboxylates and phosphatases activity were measured in 15 destructive samplings. Intraspecific competition of the biomass and P uptake of monocropped wheat was not significant before 40 and 36 days after sowing (DAS), whereas there was interspecific competition of biomass of intercropped wheat before 66 DAS. However, afterwards, the increments of the biomass and P uptake of the intercropped wheat were 1.3-1.9 and 1.9-2.3 times of increment of monocropped wheat. Meanwhile, the concentrations of malate and citrate and the acid phosphatase activity in the rhizospheres of intercropped wheat were significantly increased, which suggested that wheat/faba bean intercropping is efficient in P utilization due to complementary P uptake in the early growth stage and the positive interactions of the rhizosphere processes when the soil P was depleted.


Assuntos
Fósforo/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triticum/fisiologia , Vicia faba/fisiologia , Fosfatase Ácida/metabolismo , Biomassa , Ativação Enzimática , Rizosfera
19.
New Phytol ; 209(2): 823-31, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26313736

RESUMO

Root growth is influenced by soil nutrients and neighbouring plants, but how these two drivers affect root interactions and regulate plant growth dynamics is poorly understood. Here, interactions between the roots of maize (Zea mays) and faba bean (Vicia faba) are characterized. Maize was grown alone (maize) or with maize (maize/maize) or faba bean (maize/faba bean) as competitors under five levels of phosphorus (P) supply, and with homogeneous or heterogeneous P distribution. Maize had longer root length and greater shoot biomass and P content when grown with faba bean than with maize. At each P supply rate, faba bean had a smaller root system than maize but greater exudation of citrate and acid phosphatase, suggesting a greater capacity to mobilize P in the rhizosphere. Heterogeneous P availability enhanced the root-length density of maize but not faba bean. Maize root proliferation in the P-rich patches was associated with increased shoot P uptake. Increased P availability by localized P application or by the presence of faba bean exudation stimulated root morphological plasticity and increased shoot growth in maize in the maize/faba bean mixture, suggesting that root interactions of neighbouring plants can be modified by increased P availability.


Assuntos
Fósforo/farmacocinética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Vicia faba/fisiologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Agricultura/métodos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fósforo/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/farmacologia , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1939, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28066491

RESUMO

The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production.

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