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1.
World J Surg ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the most effective and safest treatment mode for locally advanced resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through a network meta-analysis. METHOD: A Bayesian model was used for a network meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of surgery alone, neoadjuvant therapy, and adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: Thirty clinical studies, including thirty-one articles, 4866 patients, were analyzed. Overall survival rate: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy were significantly advantageous over surgery alone [hazard ratio (HR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-0.93; HR 0.75, 95%CI 0.65-0.86]. There was no statistically significant difference between adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy [HR 0.97, 95%CI 0.75-1.28]. Disease-free survival rate: Compared with surgery alone, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy had significant benefits [HR 0.65, 95%CI 0.53-0.78]; adjuvant chemoradiotherapy had similar, but not significant benefits [HR 0.7, 0.95%CI 0.45-1.06]. The difference between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was also not statistically significant [HR 0.94, 0.95%CI 0.61-1.43]. Surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: The R0 resection rate was significantly improved [relative risk (RR) 0.25, 95%CI 0.07-0.86], but the overall postoperative morbidity rate and 30-day postoperative mortality rate tended to increase [RR 1.27, 95%CI 0.8-2.01; RR 1.59, 95%CI 0.7-3.22]. Neither neoadjuvant chemotherapy nor neoadjuvant radiotherapy significantly altered the surgical safety or R0 resection rate. CONCLUSION: Both neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy appear to be the best supplements to surgery for locally advanced resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

2.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 262, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between miRNA-216b expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by PET/CT and to explore the clinical application value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in miRNA-216b based on therapy for NSCLC. METHODS: Eighty patients with NSCLC and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled in our study. The SUVmax of the lesion area by PET/CT imaging was calculated. SUVmax represented the highest concentration of 18F-FDG in the lesion. The expression of miRNA-216b in the plasma and fiber bronchoscopic puncture of NSCLC patients was detected by RT qPCR. Then Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between miRNA-216b expression and 18F-FDG uptake in patients with different types of NSCLC. RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, SUVmax of early adenocarcinoma and advanced adenocarcinoma were increased. Compared with healthy subjects, SUVmax of early squamous and advanced squamous were increased. And the SUVmax content of advanced adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma was higher than that of early adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Compared with healthy subjects, the expression of miRNA-216b in the plasma of patients with early and advanced adenocarcinoma was reduced, and the expression of miRNA-216b in the plasma of patients with early and advanced squamous cell carcinoma was reduced. Compared with adjacent tissues, the expression of miRNA-216b in early adenocarcinoma tissues and advanced adenocarcinoma tissues was reduced, and the expression in early squamous cell carcinoma and advanced squamous cell carcinoma was reduced. Pearson correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between SUVmax and miRNA-216b (plasma and tissue) in patients with four types of NSCLC. CONCLUSION: miRNA-216b expression was negatively correlated with 18F-FDG uptake in NSCLC. miRNA-216b could be used for the classification and staging of non-small cell lung cancer. 18F-FDG PET/CT may be used to evaluate the therapeutic response in application of miRNA-216b-based cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Neoplasias Pulmonares , MicroRNAs , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
3.
Am J Chin Med ; : 1-16, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488552

RESUMO

In Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome (QY) is the most common Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the diversity and composition of gut microbiota in ADC patients with QY syndrome. 90 stool samples, including 30 healthy individuals (H), 30 ADC patients with QY syndrome, and 30 ADC patients with another syndrome (O) were collected. Then, 16s-RNA sequencing was used to analyze stool samples to clarify the structure of gut microbiota, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) was applied to identify biomarkers for ADC with QY syndrome. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish a diagnostic model for the diagnosis of QY syndrome in ADC patients, which was assessed with the AUC. Finally, 20 fecal samples (QY: 10; O: 10) were analyzed with Metagenomics to validate the diagnostic model. The [Formula: see text] diversity and [Formula: see text] diversity demonstrated that the structure of gut microbiota in the QY group was different from that of the H group and O group. In the QY group, the top 3 taxonomies at phylum level were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and at genus level were Faecalibacterium, Prevotella_9, and Bifidobacterium. LEfSe identified Prevotella_9 and Streptococcus might be the biomarkers for QY syndrome. A diagnostic model was constructed using those 2 genera with the AUC = 0.801, similar to the AUC based on Metagenomics (0.842). The structure of gut microbiota in ADC patients with QY syndrome was investigated, and a diagnostic model was developed for the diagnosis of QY syndrome in ADC patients, which provides a novel idea for the understanding and diagnosis of TCM syndrome.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2120360, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379126

RESUMO

Importance: It is difficult for policy makers and clinicians to formulate targeted management strategies for mesothelioma because data on current epidemiological patterns worldwide are lacking. Objective: To evaluate the mesothelioma burden across the world and describe its epidemiological distribution over time and by sociodemographic index (SDI) level, geographic location, sex, and age. Design, Setting, and Participants: Annual case data and age-standardized rates of incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life-years associated with mesothelioma among different age groups were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 database. The estimated annual percentage changes in age-standardized rates were calculated to evaluate temporal trends in incidence and mortality. The study population comprised individuals from 21 regions in 195 countries and territories who were diagnosed with mesothelioma between 1990 and 2017. Data were collected from May 23, 2019, to January 18, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were incident cases, deaths, and their age-standardized rates and estimated annual percentage changes. Secondary outcomes were disability-adjusted life-years and relative temporal trends. Results: Overall, 34 615 new cases (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 33 530-35 697 cases) of mesothelioma and 29 909 deaths (95% UI, 29 134-30 613 deaths) associated with mesothelioma were identified in 2017, and more than 70% of these cases and deaths were among male individuals. In 1990, the number of incident cases was 21 224 (95% UI, 17 503-25 450), and the number of deaths associated with mesothelioma was 17 406 (95% UI, 14 495-20 660). These numbers increased worldwide from 1990 to 2017, with more than 50% of cases recorded in regions with high SDI levels, whereas the age-standardized incidence rate (from 0.52 [95% UI, 0.43-0.62] in 1990 to 0.44 [95% UI, 0.42-0.45] in 2017) and the age-standardized death rate (from 0.44 [95% UI, 0.37-0.52] in 1990 to 0.38 [95% UI, 0.37-0.39] in 2017) decreased, with estimated annual percentage changes of -0.61 (95% CI, -0.67 to -0.54) for age-standardized incidence rate and -0.44 (95% CI, -0.52 to -0.37) for age-standardized death rate. The proportion of incident cases among those 70 years or older continued to increase (from 36.49% in 1990 to 44.67% in 2017), but the proportion of patients younger than 50 years decreased (from 16.74% in 1990 to 13.75% in 2017) over time. In addition, mesothelioma incident cases and age-standardized incidence rates began to decrease after 20 years of a complete ban on asbestos use. For example, in Italy, a complete ban on asbestos went into effect in 1992; incident cases increased from 1409 individuals (95% UI, 1013-1733 individuals) in 1990, peaked in 2015 after 23 years of the asbestos ban, then decreased from 1820 individuals (95% UI, 1699-1981 individuals) in 2015 to 1746 individuals (95% UI, 1555-1955 individuals) in 2017. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that incident cases of mesothelioma and deaths associated with mesothelioma continuously increased worldwide, especially in resource-limited regions with low SDI levels. Based on these findings, global governments and medical institutions may consider formulating optimal policies and strategies for the targeted prevention and management of mesothelioma.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 689132, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149730

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has become a standard treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most patients with NSCLC do not benefit from these treatments. Abnormal vasculature is a hallmark of solid tumors and is involved in tumor immune escape. These abnormalities stem from the increase in the expression of pro-angiogenic factors, which is involved in the regulation of the function and migration of immune cells. Anti-angiogenic agents can normalize blood vessels, and thus transforming the tumor microenvironment from immunosuppressive to immune-supportive by increasing the infiltration and activation of immune cells. Therefore, the combination of immunotherapy with anti-angiogenesis is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. Here, we outline the current understanding of the mechanisms of vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF/VEGFR) signaling in tumor immune escape and progression, and summarize the preclinical studies and current clinical data of the combination of ICB and anti-angiogenic drugs in the treatment of advanced NSCLC.

6.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4418-4427, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the benefits of perioperative pulmonary rehabilitation training (PPRT) in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lung cancer resection. METHODS: The clinical data of 1,427 patients undergoing thoracoscopic lung cancer resection were collated. Of these patients, 779 received PPRT (the PPRT group), which included systematic education, improvement of posture, diaphragmatic respiration, bilateral lower thoracic expansion, surgical side thoracic local expansion, incentive spirometry training, effective cough training, aerobic walking, and other systematic pulmonary rehabilitation training. The other 648 patients did not receive PPRT (the non-PPRT group). Baseline characteristics including length of hospital stay, cost of hospitalization, and the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) were assessed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the PPRT group and the non- PPRT group in terms of age, gender distribution, tumor location, operation mode, postoperative pathological type, TNM stage, and other baseline characteristics (P>0.05). The complication index of the PPRT group was slightly higher than that of the non-PPRT group (P<0.05). Patients in the PPRT group had significantly fewer postoperative hospitalization days (PHD) {6.1 days [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8 to 6.4] vs. 6.4 days (95% CI: 6.1 to 6.7), P=0.002}, fewer total hospitalization days (THD) [9.3 days (95% CI: 8.9 to 9.7) vs. 10.8 days (95% CI: 10.3 to 11.3), P=0.000], lower non-surgical expenses (35,024±9,742 vs. 36,831±10,245 RMB), and fewer cases of PPCs) (3.72% vs. 6.33%, P=0.016) compared to patients in the non-PPRT group. In the subgroup analysis, patients less than 60 years old in the PPRT group fared better in terms of the PHDs, total inpatient days, and non-surgical expenses compared to patients in the non-PPRT group (P<0.05). In patients aged 60 years and older, the THDs in the PPRT group was less than that in the non-PPRT group (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences in the PHDs and non-surgical expenses. CONCLUSIONS: PPRT can reduce the cost of medical resources in patients undergoing thoracoscopic lung cancer resection, especially by shortening the length of hospital stay, reducing the cost of hospitalization, and reducing PPCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Idoso , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Psych J ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847075

RESUMO

Suicide is commonly found in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), while the associations among depressive symptoms and their relationships with suicidal risk remain unclear. This study identified the symptoms associated with suicidal risk and the most central symptoms in the MDD networks based on both self-reported and clinical-interview scales. A total of 446 outpatients with MDD were recruited. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to assess the suicidal risk. The 13-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13) and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) were used to measure the depressive symptoms. Network analysis was used to estimate the network models. Ten symptoms in the BDI-13 network were related to suicidal risk, among which sadness had the strongest association. Among the six symptoms in the HAMD-17 network that were associated with suicidal risk, guilty feeling was the strongest. Sense of failure was the most central symptom in the BDI-13 network, while depressed mood had the highest centrality in the HAMD-17 network. The depressive symptoms related to suicide risk and the clinical features of MDD showed different characteristics based on different assessment types. Combining self-reported and clinician-rated assessments in future studies and clinical practice might lead to some new findings.

8.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 9(4): 371-385, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608256

RESUMO

Immunologic checkpoint blockade has been proven effective in a variety of malignancies. However, high rates of resistance have substantially hindered its clinical use. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may lead to new strategies for improving therapeutic efficacy. Although a number of signaling pathways have been shown to be associated with tumor cell-mediated resistance to immunotherapy, T cell-intrinsic resistant mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that diacylglycerol kinase alpha (Dgka) mediated T-cell dysfunction during anti-PD-1 therapy by exacerbating the exhaustion of reinvigorated tumor-specific T cells. Pharmacologic ablation of Dgka postponed T-cell exhaustion and delayed development of resistance to PD-1 blockade. Dgka inhibition also enhanced the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. We further found that the expression of DGKA in cancer cells promoted tumor growth via the AKT signaling pathway, suggesting that DGKA might be a target in tumor cells as well. Together, these findings unveiled a molecular pathway mediating resistance to PD-1 blockade and provide a potential therapeutic strategy with combination immunotherapy.

9.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(1): 21-29, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of previous studies of the clinical outcome of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) versus open lobectomy for pathological N2 non-small cell lung cancer (pN2 NSCLC) have been single-center experiences with small patient numbers. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate these procedures but in a large cohort of Chinese patients with pathological N2 NSCLC in real-world conditions. METHODS: Patients who underwent lobectomy for pN2 NSCLC by either VATS or thoracotomy were retrospectively reviewed from 10 tertiary hospitals between January 2014 and September 2017. Perioperative outcomes and overall survival of the patients were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify potential prognostic factors. Propensity-score analysis was performed to reduce cofounding biases and compare the clinical outcomes between both groups. RESULTS: Among 2144 pN2 NSCLC, 1244 patients were managed by VATS and 900 by open procedure. A total of 305 (24.5%) and 344 patients died during VATS and the thoracotomy group during a median follow-up of 16.7 and 15.6 months, respectively. VATS lobectomy patients had better overall survival when compared with those undergoing the open procedure (P < 0.0001). Multivariate COX regression analysis showed VATS lobectomy independently favored overall survival (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.621-0.896, P = 0.0017). Better perioperative outcomes, including less blood loss, shorter drainage time and hospital stay, were also observed in patients undergoing VATS lobectomy (P < 0.05). After propensity-score matching, 169 patients in each group were analyzed, and no survival difference were found between the two groups. Less blood loss was observed in the VATS group, but there was a longer operation time. CONCLUSIONS: VATS lobectomy might be a feasible alternative to conventional open surgery for resectable pN2 NSCLC. KEY POINTS: Significant findings of the study: VATS lobectomy has comparative OS in pN2 NSCLC versus open procedure in resectable patients. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: VATS lobectomy might be feasible for pN2 NSCLC.

10.
11.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(9): 4892-4907, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145063

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the chest CT manifestations of COVID-19 and its CT evolving process to explore its inherent outcomes. Methods: Inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 at the Enze Hospital from January 17, 2020 to February 15, 2020 were included. The evolving characteristics of CT manifestations and treatment outcomes were analyzed. Results: Twenty-two patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. Clinical symptoms at the time of onset included fever (n=19) and cough (n=8). The first CT findings mainly included ground-glass opacities (GGOs) (n=18), lung consolidation (n=7), interlobular septal thickening (n=5), and fibrosis-like stripes (n=4). Dynamic CT showed GGOs, lung consolidation, and fibrosis-like stripes, all of which demonstrated a trend that initially increased in number, and then gradually decreased in number or disappeared. According to the characteristics of CT evolution. COVID-19 could be divided into early stage, progressing stage, recovery stage, and dissipation stage. The median times of the respective stages were: early stage-3 days (1-8 days) after disease onset, progressing stage-7 days (4-17 days) after onset, recovery stage-10 days (8-14 days) after onset, and dissipation stage-19.5 days (11-25 days) after onset. Conclusions: COVID-19 has an acute onset, with main imaging manifestations of different types of GGO with or without lung consolidation in the subpleural regions of the bilateral lungs. The CT manifestations of lung lesions change rapidly. The lung lesions of mild and ordinary types of COVID-19 may improve significantly or disappear in a short period after active treatment, with good prognosis. Moreover, fibrosis-like stripes may be a sign of atelectasis of sub-segment lung tissue of COVID-19 and may be a specific sign for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

12.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(9): 4930-4940, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145067

RESUMO

Background: The effectiveness of preemptive analgesia (PA) for relieving postoperative pain and reducing the side effects of analgesics following video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has not yet been determined. This study intends to test the clinical application value of PA in the perioperative period of VATS. Methods: From January 2018 to August 2018, we divided patients who underwent VATS in our hospital into a trial group (PA group) and a control group (traditional analgesia group, TA group). The PA group received a PA program, and the TA group was administered a conventional postoperative analgesia scheme. We compared the two groups according to the intensity of postoperative pain using the numeric rating scale (NRS), the incidence rate of analgesic drug-related adverse reactions, and the severity of stress-induced inflammation. Results: One hundred five cases from the PA group, and 80 cases from the TA group were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics (P>0.05). The PA group had a lower incidence rate of side effects from the analgesics compared to the TA group, and there was a statistical difference at 48 and 72 hours after surgery (P<0.05). The PA group had a slightly lower score than the TA group for postoperative resting pain. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The motion pain NRS score of the PA group was lower than the TA group, and although there were no significant differences at 4, 24, and 48 hours (P>0.05), there was a statistically significant difference at 72 hours (P<0.05). In the subset of patients with motion pain NRS ≥3 points, the PA group was marginally higher than the TA group at 4 hours (P>0.05) but was lower than the TA group at 24, 48, and 72 hours, with a statistically significant difference at 24 and 72 hours (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in perioperative stress indexes between the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: PA can relieve postoperative pain following VATS and reduce the incidence rate of analgesic drug-related adverse effects.

13.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(18): 1129, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240978

RESUMO

Background: There are also differences in survival prognosis among esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with a complete regression of the primary tumor (ypT0) after Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by surgery. And the purpose of this study was to investigate influencing factors from these different prognostic outcomes and their possible causes. Methods: The clinical data of 88 cases of ESCC patients with ypT0 after NCRT followed by surgery between 2011 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical and pathological prognostic factors that affect the survival were analyzed. Results: Sex, number of lymph nodes dissected, and pathologic positivity of lymph nodes may be significant in univariate analysis (P<0.1). Further multivariate analysis suggested that the pathologic positivity of the lymph nodes was an independent factor affecting prognosis (HR: 4.757, 95% CI: 2.195-10.313, P=0.000). Subsequently, the whole group was divided into a positive lymph node group (group LN+) and a negative lymph node group (group LN-) for comparison. The overall survival (OS) of group LN+ was significantly worse (HR: 0.211, 95% CI: 0.0336-0.239; P<0.0001), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was significantly poorer in the LN+ group (HR: 0.0679, 95% CI: 0.0239-0.1923, P<0.0001). There were 14 cases of recurrence and metastasis in the LN+ group (14/21, 66.7%) and 10 cases in the group LN- (10/67, 14.9%). Among the sites of recurrence and metastasis, there were 10 (10/14, 71.4%) and 4 (4/14, 28.6%) cases of distant metastasis, respectively, and 4 (4/14, 28.6%) cases of local metastasis in the LN+ group; meanwhile, there were 8 (8/10, 80.0%) cases of distant metastasis and 2 (2/10, 20.0%) cases of local metastasis in the LN- group. Conclusions: The independent risk factor for survival prognosis in ESCC patients with ypT0 after NCRT followed by surgery was positive postoperative pathological lymph nodes. The reason for the shortened survival time associated with this group of patients was their susceptibility to recurrence and metastasis.

14.
Pediatr Investig ; 4(2): 91-98, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851351

RESUMO

Importance: Parents take the lead in parent-child interactions and their emotion regulation ability and empathy during parenting may be associated with children's emotional/behavioral problems. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. Objective: The present study aimed to explore the effect of parental empathy and emotional regulation on social competence and emotional/behavioral problems in school-age children. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted with 274 parents of 8-11-year-old children using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Results: Children with emotional/behavioral problems (n = 37) had relatively lower social competence than children in a matched control group (n = 37). Compared with the parents of children in the control group, parents of children with emotional/behavioral problems had significantly lower cognitive empathy scores, mainly manifested by low perspective-taking and online simulation abilities. Mediation analysis showed that parental cognitive empathy had an indirect effect on children's emotional/behavioral problems through children's social competence. Interpretation: Parental empathy may have a subtle influence on the social competence of school-aged children, which further affects the severity of children's emotional/behavioral problems.

15.
Microbiol Res ; 239: 126554, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683217

RESUMO

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of reducing dietary fishmeal (FM) with yeast culture (SYC) supplementation on growth, immune response, intestinal microbiota, intestinal morphology, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 480 shrimps with an average initial body weight of 0.35 ± 0.002 g were randomly distributed into twelve tanks. Three isonitrogenous (40.00 crude protein) and isolipidic (8.00 crude lipids) diets with yeast culture supplementing fishmeal were formulated. The groups were divided into two (2) namely control group and experimental groups. The formulations of the groups were control (0 %, without yeast culture) and the experiment groups (SYC) [(1 % of yeast culture), and (2 % of yeast culture)]. Each diet was delivered in four replicate per treatment group. The results indicate significant improvement on the growth indices (specific growth rate, weight gain rate, survival rate and lower feed conversion ratio) with yeast culture treatment group after 56 days feeding trials (P < 0.05). Total hemolymph protein, superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lysozyme and phenoxidase were enhanced but low aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and glucose were observed in shrimp fed yeast culture diets (P < 0.05). The SYC groups showed insignificant differences in hemolymph cholesterol and triglyceride. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacteria found in all the SYC groups. At the genus level, Vibrio was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in 2 % yeast culture diets supplemented group whereas the beneficial bacteria Pseudoalteromonas was significantly enhanced. Moreover, intestinal villus length and width in shrimps fed yeast culture diets were improved (P < 0.05). Dietary yeast culture supplementation can improve growth, intestinal health, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infections in L. vannamei.

16.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(10): 638, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566575

RESUMO

Background: Rate of second primary malignancies (SPM) is steadily increasing over the last decades. New therapies, early diagnostic markers, screening tests for a larger number of individuals contribute to the increase prevalence of SPM. In the current study, we try to described the demographic composition of SPM victims, distribution of primary sites, and the impact of related factors on prognosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study identifying patients over the age of 18 who were diagnosed with SPM from the 16 most common cancer sites between 2000 and 2013 from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the relationship between different factors associated to the prognosis of SPM. Standard incidence rate of multiple primary (MP-SIR) was also calculated. Results: A total of 303,753 patients were diagnosis with SPM and 76,168 of whom (25.08%) were included in our analytic cohort. Patients with prostate cancer was vulnerable to SPM, accounting for 34.59%, and SPM was prone to occur in lung and bronchus, accounting for 24.90%. The heat map shows that esophagus cancer survivors have the highest risk of developing stomachache tumors (SIR =5.08). The result of Cox regression suggests that a history of liver was associated with the shortest survival time (HR =1.64, 95% CI, 1.54-1.75, P<0.001). Conclusions: With the advancement of medical standards, the survival time of cancer patients is prolonged, but the occurrence of SPM is also increasing, and the prognosis is not optimistic. More attention needs to be invested in the prevention and treatment of SPM.

20.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(7): 482, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395526

RESUMO

Background: Bones are one of the most common metastatic sites for solid malignancies. Bone metastases can significantly increase mortality and decrease the quality of life of cancer patients. In the United States, around 350,000 people die each year from bone metastases. This study aimed to analyze and update the incidence and prognosis of bone metastases with solid tumors at the time of cancer diagnosis and its incidence rate for each solid cancer. Methods: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to find patients diagnosed with solid cancers originating from outside the bones and joints between 2010 and 2016. Data were stratified by age, sex, and race. Patients with a tumor in situ or with an unknown bone metastases stage were excluded. We then selected most of the sites where cancer often occurred, leaving 2,207,796 patients for the final incidence analysis. For the survival analysis, patients were excluded if they were diagnosed at their autopsy or on their death certificate, or had unknown follow-ups. The incidence of bone metastases and overall survival was compared between patients with different primary tumor sites. Results: We identified 2,470,634 patients, including 426,594 patients with metastatic disease and 113,317 patients with bone metastases, for incidence analysis. The incidence of bone metastases among the metastatic subset was 88.74% in prostate cancer, 53.71% in breast cancer, and 38.65% in renal cancer. In descending order of incidence, there were patients with other cancers in the genitourinary system (except for renal, bladder, prostate, and testicular cancer) (37.91%), adenocarcinoma of the lung (ADC) (36.86%), other gynecologic cancers (36.02%), small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) (34.56%), non-small cell lung cancer not otherwise specified and others [NSCLC (NOS/others)] (33.55%), and bladder (31.08%) cancers. The rate of bone metastases is 23.19% in SCLC, 22.50% in NSCLC (NOS/others), 20.28% in ADC, 8.44% in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (SCC), and 4.11% in bronchioloalveolar carcinoma [NSCLC (BAC)]. As for the digestive system, the overall bone metastases rate was 7.99% in the esophagus, 4.47% in the gastric cancer, 4.42% in the hepatobiliary cancer, 3.80% in the pancreas, 3.26% in other digestive organs, 1.24% in the colorectum, and 1.00% in the anus. Overall, the incidence rate of bone metastases among the entire cohort in breast and prostate cancer was 3.73% and 5.69%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study provide population-based estimates for the incidence rates of patients with bone metastases at initial diagnosis of their solid tumor. The findings can help clinicians to early detect bone metastases by bone screening to anticipate the occurrence of symptoms and favorably improve the prognosis.

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