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1.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(3): 211-215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473451

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The study aims to assess the effectiveness of telephone follow-ups combined with a smartphone app (e.g., WeChat [Tencent], which is one of the most widely used communication apps in China), as a smoking cessation intervention. Social volunteers were recruited on March 1, 2017, and randomized to supervision groups with five participants in each group. Every day, the specialists shared some information related to smoking cessation including the videos, songs, and scientific knowledge in WeChat groups and conducted telephone follow-ups on the third, fifth, seventh, ninth, 12th, 17th, 22nd, 27th, and 30th day in March and on April 1. Ultimately, a comparison was made of the self-reported smoking abstinence and self-reported average number of cigarettes smoked between the participants. One hundred ten volunteers participated in the study, with 105 who completed follow-up. Self-reported smoking abstinence in the past 7 days occurred in 65.7% of the participants (n = 69) compared with 34.3% (n = 36) in whom smoking abstinence did not occur. The mean age of those who failed was 40.15 years (range: 22-70 years), and 55.5% (n = 20) attributed their failure to personal reasons. However, the self-reported average number of cigarettes smoked every day was less than that before the study (on average, 10.34 ± 8.17 per day), and this difference was statistically significant (95% CI [8.312, 12.364], p < .01). It was effective to deliver a telephone follow-up combined with a smartphone app follow-up as an intervention for smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar , Telefone , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488214

RESUMO

Tungsten Disulfide (WS2) films, as one of the most attractive members in the family of transition metal dichalcogenides, were synthesized typically on SiO2/Si sub-strate by confine-spaced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The whole pro-cess could be controlled efficiently by precursor concentration and fast thermal pro-cess. To be priority, the effect of fast heating-up to cooling-down process and source ratio-dependent rule for WS2 structure have been systematically studied, leading to high-yield and fine structure of monolayer WS2 films with standard triangular mor-phology and average edge length of 92.4 µm. The growth time of the samples was regulated within 3 minutes, and the optimal source ratio of sulfur to tungsten oxide is about 200:3. The whole experimental duration was about 50 minutes, which is only about quarter in comparison to relevant reports. We assume one type of "multi-nucleation dynamic process" to provide a potential way for fast synthesis of the sam-ples. Finally, the good performance of as-fabricated field-effect transistor (FET) on WS2 film was achieved, which exhibits high electron mobility of 4.62 cm2V-1s-1, fast response rate of 42 ms, and remarkable photoresponsivity of 3.7×10-3A/W. Our work will provide a promising robust way for rapid synthesis of high-quality monolayer TMDs films and pave the way for the potential applications of TMDCs.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Deucravacitinib, a novel, oral, selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) signaling, acts via an allosteric mechanism by binding to the enzyme's regulatory domain instead of the catalytic domain. This unique binding provides high functional selectivity for TYK2 versus the closely related Janus kinases (JAKs) 1/2/3. Deucravacitinib was efficacious in phase 2 and 3 psoriasis trials, without clinical or laboratory parameters indicative of JAK 1/2/3 inhibition being observed. This analysis compared the kinase specificities of deucravacitinib versus JAK 1/2/3 inhibitors at therapeutic exposures. METHODS: Signaling via JAK 1/3, JAK 2/2, and TYK2/JAK 2 dimers was measured in in vitro whole blood assays. Concentrations providing half-maximal inhibition (IC50) in these assays were determined for deucravacitinib and the JAK 1/2/3 inhibitors tofacitinib, upadacitinib, and baricitinib. Newly derived whole blood IC50 values were plotted against available pharmacokinetic profiles using doses evaluated in phase 2/3 trials. Simulated average daily inhibition and durations over which concentrations exceeded IC50 were evaluated. RESULTS: At clinically relevant exposures, projected steady-state deucravacitinib plasma concentrations were higher than TYK2 IC50 for approximately 9-18 h. Maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) of deucravacitinib were 8- to 17-fold lower than JAK 1/3 IC50 and > 48- to > 102-fold lower than JAK 2/2 IC50. Simulated daily average TYK2 inhibition by deucravacitinib ranged from 50% to 69%. Simulations indicated that tofacitinib, upadacitinib, and baricitinib at steady state exhibited varying degrees of JAK 1/3 (daily average inhibition, 70-94%) and JAK 2/2 (23%-67%) inhibition at therapeutic concentrations, with Cmax values 17- to 33-fold lower than their TYK2 IC50 levels. CONCLUSION: At clinically relevant doses and exposures, deucravacitinib demonstrates highly selective inhibition of TYK2 and not JAK 1/2/3. Tofacitinib, upadacitinib, and baricitinib variably inhibit JAK 1/2/3 but not TYK2. These results indicate that deucravacitinib is a distinct class of kinase inhibitor compared with JAK 1/2/3 inhibitors.

5.
Orthop Surg ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive values of femoral proximal medullary morphology for the use of subtrochanteric osteotomy (STO) in unilateral Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). METHODS: Ninety four patients with unilateral Crowe type IV DDH (59 hips in STO group and 35 hips in the non-STO group) between April 2008 and June 2019 were enrolled. All patients underwent THA using the Pinnacle acetabular shell, ceramic liner and femoral head, the S-ROM stem with proximal sleeve. Three parameters on the standard anteroposterior hip radiographs were measured: the widths of medullary canals at 20 mm above the center of lesser trochanter (CLT),20 mm below the CLT and the isthmus. Canal flare index (CFI), metaphyseal canal flare index (MCFI), diaphyseal canal flare index (DCFI) were calculated. A S-ROM femoral stem was used in all patients during total hip arthroplasty (THA). RESULTS: The CFI and DCFI in the STO group were lower than those in the non-STO group. However, there was no statistical difference in MCFI between the two groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves shown that DCFI had the highest area under the curve (AUC), at 0.885. This was followed by the CFI, which had an AUC of 0.847. The AUC of MCFI was 0.579. The optimal threshold for DCFI was 1.44, which lead to a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.771, 0.898, 0.869, and 0.818, respectively. For CFI, the optimal threshold was 3.28, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 0.829, 0.729, 0.878, and 0.644, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The DCFI and CFI may be potent indicators in predicting the use of STO in unilateral Crowe IV DDH. The optimal threshold for CFI and DCFI were 3.28 and 1.44 and had good sensitivity and specificity for predicting the use of STO during THA.

6.
Gels ; 7(3)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449593

RESUMO

In this study, we used two methods to prepare alumina-doped silica aerogels with the aim of increasing the thermal stability of silica aerogels. The first method was physical doping of α-Al2O3 nano powders, and the second method was to create a chemical compound via the co-precursor of TEOS and AlCl3·6H2O in different proportions. The shrinkage, chemical composition, and specific surface area (SSA) of samples after heating at different temperatures were analyzed. Our results show that the silicon hydroxyl groups of samples derived from AlCl3·6H2O gradually decreased and nearly disappeared after heating at 800 °C, which indicates the complete dehydration of the silicon hydroxyl. Thus, the samples exhibited a large linear shrinkage and decreased SSA after high-temperature heat treatment. By contrast, samples doped with α-Al2O3 powders retained abundant silicon hydroxyl groups, and the 6.1 wt.% α-Al2O3-doped sample exhibited the lowest linear shrinkage of 11% and the highest SSA of 1056 m2/g after heat treatment at 800 °C. The alumina-doped silica aerogels prepared using a simple and low-price synthesized method pave the way for the low-cost and large-scale production of high-temperature thermal insulation.

7.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(9): 1903-1907, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze if the false acetabulum is a good indicator for determining femoral shortening. METHODS: We retrospectively included 102 patients with unilateral Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty from April 2008 to May 2019. Based on the presence of false acetabulum, the 102 hips were further classified Crowe IVA group and Crowe IVB group. Radiographic measurement included the height of greater trochanter (HGT) preoperatively and postoperatively, which reflected the distalisation of greater trochanter (DGT). Harris hip score (HHS), limb length discrepancy (LLD), and complications were collected as clinical evaluation. RESULTS: Sixty hips were classified into Crowe IVA group, and 42 hips were classified into Crowe IVB group. Within Crowe IVA group, the proportion of hips treated with subtrochanteric osteotomy was significantly higher than that in Crowe IVB group (97% vs. 12%) (P < 0.001). The DGT in Crowe IVA group was also greater (67 vs. 32 mm) (P < 0.001). At last follow-up, both two groups obtained excellent clinical scores. There was no significant difference in postoperative LLD between the two groups (P = 0.001). Six dislocations occurred and three patients developed femoral nerve palsy, while all recovered in a year. CONCLUSION: The false acetabulum is a promising and good indicator for determining femoral shortening.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Luxação Congênita de Quadril , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/cirurgia , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Horm Behav ; 135: 105040, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358948

RESUMO

Ovarian hormone deprivation is associated with mood disorders, such as depression, and estradiol therapy is significantly more effective than placebos in treating major depression associated with menopause onset. However, the effect of estradiol on neuronal plasticity and its mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. In this study, behavioral assessments were used to examine the antidepressant effect of estradiol in ovariectomized (OVX) B6.Cg-TgN (Thy-YFP-H)-2Jrs transgenic mice on chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced dendrite and dendritic spine loss; Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) is characteristically expressed in excitatory neurons in transgenic mice, and its three-dimensional images were used to evaluate the effect of estradiol on the density of different types of dendritic spines. Quantification and distribution of cofilin1 and p-cofilin1 were determined by qPCR, Western blots, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results revealed that treatment with estradiol or clomipramine significantly improved depression-like behaviors. Estradiol treatment also significantly upregulated the dendritic density in all areas examined and increased the density of filopodia-type, thin-type and mushroom-type spines in the hippocampal CA1 and elevated the thin-type and mushroom-type spine density in the PFC. Consistent with these changes, estradiol treatment significantly increased the density of p-cofilin1 immunopositive dendritic spines. Thus, these data reveal a possible estradiol antidepressant mechanism, in that estradiol promoted the phosphorylation of cofilin1 and reduced the loss of dendrites and dendritic spines, which of these dendritic spines include not only immature spines such as filopodia-type, but also mature spines such as mushroom-type, and attenuated the depression-like behavior.

9.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451759

RESUMO

Understanding how species adapt to extreme environments is an extension of the main goals of evolutionary biology. While alpine plants are an ideal system for investigating the genetic basis of high-altitude adaptation, genomic resources in these species are still limited. In the present study, we generated reference-level transcriptomic data of five Saussurea species through high-throughput sequencing and de novo assembly. Three of them are located in the highland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), and the other two are close relatives distributed in the lowland. A series of comparative and evolutionary genomics analyses were conducted to explore the genetic signatures of adaptive evolution to high-altitude environments. Estimation of divergence time using single-copy orthologs revealed that Saussurea species diversified during the Miocene, a period with extensive tectonic movement and climatic fluctuation on the QTP. We characterized gene families specific to the alpine species, including genes involved in oxidoreductase activity, pectin catabolic process, lipid transport, and polysaccharide metabolic process, which may play important roles in defense of hypoxia and freezing temperatures of the QTP. Furthermore, in a phylogenetic context with the branch model, we identified hundreds of genes with signatures of positive selection. These genes are involved in DNA repair, membrane transport, response to UV-B and hypoxia, and reproductive processes, as well as some metabolic processes associated with nutrient intake, potentially responsible for Saussurea adaptation to the harsh environments of high altitude. Overall, our study provides valuable genomic resources for alpine species and gained helpful insights into the genomic basis of plants adapting to extreme environments.

10.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 27: 603838, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257562

RESUMO

Golgi protein 73 (GP73) is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein which is overexpressed in several cancers, however, its role in gastric cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate if high GP73 expression is associated with pathological tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and prognosis for patients with gastric cancer. A total of 348 patients with gastric cancer, who had undergone surgery between 1999 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed, GP73 expression was examined in tumor tissues using tissue microarray and the correlations between its expression and pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy as well as patients prognosis were analyzed. We found that GP73 expression was not associated with clinicopathologic features including tumor size, differentiation and TNM stage. High expression of GP73 was associated with less pathological tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and poor survival in gastric cancer, multivariate analysis showed GP73 expression was an independent predictive factor for pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and for prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that GP73 expression correlates with the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and is a promising biomarker to identify patients with poor prognosis.

11.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 11206721211029136, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254538

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma is a progressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with rare prevalence. Intraocular involvement of NK cell lymphoma is very rare, with only case reports to date. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of intraocular involvement of NK cell lymphoma which was presented with bilateral uveitis, iris mass, and diffuse infiltration into the center nerve system (CNS), skin, and possibly myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: Iris mass and uveitis which is not responsive to steroids may be ocular manifestations of intraocular lymphoma, such as NK cell lymphoma. Ophthalmological and systemic examinations should be required for early diagnosis and treatment.

12.
Int J Pharm ; 606: 120872, 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246743

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) has been widely incorporated in various delivery forms for tareted treatment of malignant tumors such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), with numerous studies reporting higher therapeutic efficacy and lower toxicity at the same time. However, little attention has been paid to whether DOX in a delivery form acts with the same actions and processes as in free form at the cellular level. This question was investigated in the present study wherein DOX conjugated with polyglycerol-coated nanodiamonds through the pH-sensitive hydrazone bond (Nano-DOX) was compared with DOX in free form on the 4T1 mouse TNBC model. We first found Nano-DOX to have a distinct intracellular distribution profile from DOX. Internalized Nano-DOX mainly stayed in the lysosomes slowly releasing DOX into the cytoplasm and then the nucleus whereas DOX displayed both nuclear and lysosomal distribution after cell uptake. Next, Nano-DOX was shown to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress without substantial DNA damage while DOX caused massive DNA damage as well as ER stress. Consequently, Nano-DOX only caused minimal activation of pro-inflammatory signaling mediated by MAPK/ERK, NF-κB and STAT3 as seen in response to DOX-inflicted DNA damage. Consistently, DOX-induced activities of ABC transporters, CXCL-1, GM-CSF and IL-6, which are tumor protective events downstream to the pro-inflammatory signaling, were also minimal in Nano-DOX-treated cancer cells. These findings are compelling proof that a chemotherapy in nano form can have distinct intracellular pharmacokinetics from its free from, which can result in altered cellular effects of the drug. Implications of these findings are discussed with an emphasis on nano-drug design, tumor pharmacology and chemoresistance.


Assuntos
Nanodiamantes , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina , Humanos , Hidrazonas , Camundongos
13.
Genet Med ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230634

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The ClinGen Variant Curation Expert Panels (VCEPs) provide disease-specific rules for accurate variant interpretation. Using the hearing loss-specific American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines, the Hearing Loss VCEP (HL VCEP) illustrates the utility of expert specifications in variant interpretation. METHODS: A total of 157 variants across nine HL genes, previously submitted to ClinVar, were curated by the HL VCEP. The curation process involved collecting published and unpublished data for each variant by biocurators, followed by bimonthly meetings of an expert curation subgroup that reviewed all evidence and applied the HL-specific ACMG/AMP guidelines to reach a final classification. RESULTS: Before expert curation, 75% (117/157) of variants had single or multiple variants of uncertain significance (VUS) submissions (17/157) or had conflicting interpretations in ClinVar (100/157). After applying the HL-specific ACMG/AMP guidelines, 24% (4/17) of VUS and 69% (69/100) of discordant variants were resolved into benign (B), likely benign (LB), likely pathogenic (LP), or pathogenic (P). Overall, 70% (109/157) variants had unambiguous classifications (B, LB, LP, P). We quantify the contribution of the HL-specified ACMG/AMP codes to variant classification. CONCLUSION: Expert specification and application of the HL-specific ACMG/AMP guidelines effectively resolved discordant interpretations in ClinVar. This study highlights the utility of ClinGen VCEPs in supporting more consistent clinical variant interpretation.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283915

RESUMO

A new praseodymium-based borate crystal Pr2CaB10O19 (PCB) has been grown through the high temperature solution method. PCB crystallizes in monoclinic space group C2 with unit cell parameters of a = 10.9475(10) Å, b = 6.5343(7) Å, c = 9.0336(8) Å, ß = 91.652(3)°, and Z = 2, in which B5O12 groups and PrO10 and CaO8 polyhedra constitute the three-dimensional framework. PCB exhibits a similar second harmonic response intensity to that of La2CaB10O19 and an intense orange fluorescence emission with a long fluorescence lifetime at about 610 nm excited by a xenon lamp light of 466 nm. The band gap, partial density of states, and birefringence have been investigated via theoretical calculations.

16.
Opt Lett ; 46(13): 3183-3186, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197411

RESUMO

Due to a high Raman threshold and serious thermal effect, a challenge is to achieve efficient continuous-wave (CW) operation of a crystalline Raman laser at 1.5 µm. Based on effective thermal management and the self-Raman effect, we demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first efficient CW operation of a Nd:YVO4 Raman laser at 1.5 µm. We achieve 685 mW of CW eye-safe emission at 1524.5 nm by the use of a 20-mm-long composite Nd:YVO4 and 300-µm pump beam radius, with a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 4.8%. Lasers operating at ∼1.5µm have found many important applications in various areas such as optical communication, laser radar, laser ranging, remote sensing, and spectral research.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a deep learning framework (3D-ResNet) based on CT images to distinguish nontuberculous mycobacterium lung disease (NTM-LD) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung disease (MTB-LD). METHOD: Chest CT images of 301 with NTM-LD and 804 with MTB-LD confirmed by pathogenic microbiological examination were retrospectively collected. The differences between the clinical manifestations of the two diseases were analysed. 3D-ResNet was developed to randomly extract data in an 8:1:1 ratio for training, validating, and testing. We also collected external test data (40 with NTM-LD and 40 with MTB-LD) for external validation of the model. The activated region of interest was evaluated using a class activation map. The model was compared with three radiologists in the test set. RESULT: Patients with NTM-LD were older than those with MTB-LD, patients with MTB-LD had more cough, and those with NTM-LD had more dyspnoea, and the results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The AUCs of our model on training, validating, and testing datasets were 0.90, 0.88, and 0.86, respectively, while the AUC on the external test set was 0.78. Additionally, the performance of the model was higher than that of the radiologist, and without manual labelling, the model automatically identified lung areas with abnormalities on CT > 1000 times more effectively than the radiologists. CONCLUSION: This study shows the efficacy of 3D-ResNet as a rapid auxiliary diagnostic tool for NTB-LD and MTB-LD. Its use can help provide timely and accurate treatment strategies to patients with these diseases.

18.
Stem Cell Res ; 53: 102377, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088006

RESUMO

Mutations in TRAF7 cause developmental delay and cardiac, facial, digital anomalies. c.1964G > A variant was most recurrent, suggesting its essentiality of pathogenicity. Further studies to determine the underlying mechanism of c.1964G > A variant are warranted. But no patient-specific cellular models have been generated. Here, we generated an iPSC line with c.1964G > A variant (SHCMDLi001-A) and a line from healthy individual (SHCMDLi002-A). Characterization of SHCMDLi001-A and SHCMDLi002-A demonstrated these iPSCs are free of exogenous reprogramming genes, expressed pluripotency markers, exhibited a normal karyotype and were potential of three germ layer differentiation. These lines provide a valuable resource for studying disease-causing mechanism of TRAF7 variant.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , China , Humanos , Síndrome , Peptídeos e Proteínas Associados a Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral
19.
Nanoscale ; 13(25): 11232-11241, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152340

RESUMO

Recently, much scientific effort has been centered on the control of the ionic transport properties of solid state nanochannels and the rational design and integration of chemical systems to induce changes in the ionic transport by means of interactions with selected target molecules. Here, we report the fabrication of a novel nanofluidic device based on solid-state nanochannels, which combines silane chemistry with both track-etched and atomic layer deposition (ALD) technologies. Nanodevice construction involves the coating of bullet-shaped single-pore nanochannels with silica (SiO2) by ALD and subsequent surface modification by reaction between silanol groups exposed on pore walls and N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-gluconamide, in order to create a gluconamide-decorated nanochannel surface. The formation of a boroester derivative resulting from the selective reaction of borate with the appended saccharides leads to important changes in the surface charge density and, concomitantly, in the iontronic properties of the nanochannel. Furthermore, we propose a binding model to rationalize the specific interaction saccharide-borate in the surface. Besides, this unique nanodevice exhibits a highly selective and reversible response towards borate/fructose exposure. On the basis of the surface charge variation resulting from borate binding, the nanochannel can reversibly switch between "ON" and "OFF" states in the presence of borate and fructose, respectively. In addition, this work describes the first report of the functionalization of PET/SiO2 nanochannels by the ALD technique. We believe that this work provides a promising framework for the development of new nanochannel-based platforms suitable for multiple applications, such as water quality monitoring or directed molecular transport and separation.

20.
Environ Int ; 155: 106670, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090260

RESUMO

Research on mercury (Hg), a naturally occurring element in Earth's lithosphere, has been extremely hot in the past few decades due to the outbreak of a series of disastrous poisoning incidents. However, such studies might provide us a biased view towards Hg if no thorough review about its long-term effects on living organisms from a multi-timescale perspective was performed. Hg might have played a mysterious role in critical intervals (e.g., mass extinction and oceanic anoxia events) in several geologic periods due to the elevated Hg levels induced by volcanism whereas it has long been used for various purposes in human history. Therefore, it is necessary to go through previous studies and historical records of different timescales (100 to 106 yr). In this work, we conducted a thorough review of Hg knowledge at three different timescales, i.e., geologic periods (106 yr), human history (103 yr), and contemporary history (100 yr), summarizing recent advances and indicated potential research gaps. By doing so, we demonstrated that it is possible to achieve safe and sustainable Hg applications despite the current Hg crisis. However, such silver linings depend on a better understanding of ecosystem dynamics. Besides, considering the possible dire consequences of erupted Hg levels as suggested in geological periods, swift actions to mitigate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the Hg cycle will be another key point. Overall, this review presented a unique perspective of Hg combining different timescales, shedding light on the importance of a better understanding of the global ecosystem as a whole and maintaining the sustainability of planet Earth in the future.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Oceanos e Mares , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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