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1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653410

RESUMO

Variants in exon 4 of gene encoding GLT8D1 (glycosyltransferase 8 domain containing 1) gene have recently been suggested as a novel cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In addition, there is a synergism between GLT8D1 and ARPP21 (cAMP Regulated Phosphoprotein 21) variants for ALS. However, this observation has not been validated in other ALS cohorts. In this study, we analyzed the rare pathogenic variants in GLT8D1 and ARPP21 genes in a cohort of 512 ALS patients and 3210 healthy controls from mainland China. A total of 25 rare variants in ARPP21 were identified in the patients and controls, but we did not find rare variants in exon 4 of GLT8D1 in the patients. By using Fisher's exact test, we did not find significant association between ALS and GLT8D1 or ARPP21. Therefore, GLT8D1 and ARPP21 are not likely the causative genes for ALS in mainland China.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17460, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to perform a network meta-analysis to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of various modalities in treating advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Typically, the modalities of interest were comprised of sorafenib, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), sorafenib combined with TACE, TACE combined with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and sorafenib combined with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). METHODS: Potentially eligible studies were systemically retrieved from the electronic databases (including PubMed and Cochrane Library) up to September 2018. The overall survival (OS) associated with the 5 modalities of interest enrolled in this study was compared by means of network meta-analysis. Meanwhile, major adverse events (AEs) were also evaluated. RESULTS: The current network meta-analysis enrolled 7 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and the pooled results indicated that the TACE-TCM regimen displayed the highest efficacy in treating advanced HCC, followed by HAIC-sorafenib. By contrast, the TACE alone and sorafenib alone regimens had the least efficacy. Relative to other regimens of interest, the TACE-TCM regimen was associated with less incidence of treatment-associated AEs. CONCLUSION: The TACE-TCM regimen was associated with higher treatment responses in advanced HCC patients than those of the other regimens of interest.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaax2166, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579823

RESUMO

RNA binding proteins are key players in posttranscriptional regulation and have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report a significant burden of heterozygous, likely gene-disrupting variants in CSDE1 (encoding a highly constrained RNA binding protein) among patients with autism and related neurodevelopmental disabilities. Analysis of 17 patients identifies common phenotypes including autism, intellectual disability, language and motor delay, seizures, macrocephaly, and variable ocular abnormalities. HITS-CLIP revealed that Csde1-binding targets are enriched in autism-associated gene sets, especially FMRP targets, and in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity-related pathways. Csde1 knockdown in primary mouse cortical neurons leads to an overgrowth of the neurites and abnormal dendritic spine morphology/synapse formation and impaired synaptic transmission, whereas mutant and knockdown experiments in Drosophila result in defects in synapse growth and synaptic transmission. Our study defines a new autism-related syndrome and highlights the functional role of CSDE1 in synapse development and synaptic transmission.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594229

RESUMO

Recent studies found that poor oral hygiene was associated with increased risk of dementia, and the number of oral bacteria significantly increased in the brain tissues of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting that the oral microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the actual composition of oral bacteria communities in patients with AD and whether these oral bacteria are associated with disease severity remain largely unknown. Also, the APOEɛ4 polymorphism is a strong risk factor for sporadic AD, and it would be pertinent to see if the bacterial flora was different in those patients who were APOEɛ4 positive. A total of 78 subjects were recruited in this study, including 39 patients with AD and 39 healthy controls. Saliva was collected from each subject. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequencing was conducted to analyze the salivary microbiota, and Sanger sequencing was performed to analyze the APOE genotype. There was a significantly lower richness and diversity of saliva microbiota detected in AD patients than healthy controls. The relative abundance of Moraxella, Leptotrichia, and Sphaerochaeta in the saliva of AD patients greatly increased, whereas that of Rothia was significantly reduced. Compared with APOEɛ4 (-) patients, the level of Abiotrophia and Desulfomicrobium was comparatively abundant, while Actinobacillus and Actinomyces decreased significantly in patients carrying the APOEɛ4. No bacteria were found to be associated with the severity of AD. This is the first study to analyze the salivary microorganisms in patients with AD, and we discovered that the composition of salivary microbiome was altered in AD, providing further support for the role of the oral microbiome in AD development.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 48(42): 16000-16007, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595898

RESUMO

Nickel phosphides are considered to be a promising lithium storage host due to their high theoretical capacities. However, the volume change during the charge-discharge process and inherent poor reaction kinetics limit their electrochemical performance. To solve these problems, Ni/Ni2P heterostructures encapsulated in 3D porous carbon networks are fabricated. The macro/micro-pores-rich carbon networks are in situ constructed via a freeze-drying method and subsequent pyrolysis route using NaCl as a template. In the following phosphorization process, Ni/Ni2P nanoparticles are homogenously embedded in the carbon matrix. When used as anodes for lithium ion batteries, the Ni/Ni2P/porous carbon networks deliver high discharge capacity, good cycling stability as well as good rate performance. It is believed that metallic Ni and porous carbon networks significantly improve the conductivity of electrodes. Moreover, the 3D conductive matrix can not only alleviate the volume change, but also prevent the aggregation and pulverization of Ni2P nanoparticles during the charge-discharge process.

6.
Neuroreport ; 30(16): 1068-1073, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 (TOMM40) encodes translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM), which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). TOMM40 rs157581-G has been reported to increase susceptibility to AD. However, the effect of TOMM40 rs157581-G in resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) on AD has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of TOMM40 rs157581-G on rs-fMRI results in AD patients. METHODS: Twenty-four AD patients were divided into two groups based on TOMM40 rs157581-G status, and clinical and imaging data were compared between the groups. RESULTS: TOMM40 rs157581-G carriers of AD showed decreased regional homogeneity in the left precuneus and decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the bilateral temporal poles compared with noncarriers of AD. TOMM40 rs157581-G carriers of AD also showed increased functional connectivity between the right middle occipital gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus and decreased connectivity between the left superior occipital gyrus and the right transverse temporal gyrus in comparison with TOMM40 rs157581-G noncarriers. CONCLUSION: We analyzed rs-fMRI characteristics of TOMM40 rs157581-G carriers of AD for the first time, which suggest that TOMM40 rs157581-G plays a harmful role in AD patients.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e028931, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the success rates of dental procedures, the recurrence rates of caries and changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in children following treatment for early childhood caries (ECC) under dental general anaesthesia (DGA) in Chongqing, China. DESIGN: A single-centre prospective cohort study conducted from December 2016 to June 2017. SETTING: A tertiary stomatological hospital in Chongqing, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 159 children aged 2-5 years who received treatment for ECC under DGA were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes were the success rates of dental procedures (the number of successful procedures divided by the total number of procedures) and the recurrence rates of caries. The success and recurrence rates were evaluated by a specialised examiner. The secondary outcome was the change in children's OHRQoL after DGA treatment, which was measured with the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). RESULTS: Overall, 117 children (73.6%) and 101 children (63.5%) participated in 6-month and 12-month clinical examinations, respectively, and 151 children (95.0%) completed OHRQoL surveys pretreatment and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. The resin composite, stainless steel crown, indirect pulp capping, pulpectomy, space maintenance and dental sealant success rates were 89.6%, 96.3%, 96.0%, 94.4%, 76.9% and 92.9%, respectively, at 6 months and 78.8%, 95.1%, 92.2%, 88.9%, 63.6% and 89.3%, respectively, at 12 months. 10 (8.5%) and 19 children (18.8%) developed recurrent caries within 6 and 12 months, respectively. Within 1 year of treatment, the total ECOHIS scores at each post-treatment time point were still significantly lower than those at pretreatment, although they had increased slowly over time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, high success rates were obtained for the dental procedures, and the children's OHRQoL significantly improved after treatment. However, there was a tendency towards caries relapse, and the children's OHRQoL deteriorated over time.

8.
J Neurol ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by CTA/CTG repeat expansion in the ATXN8/ATXN8OS gene. METHODS: To analyze the frequency and clinical characteristics of SCA8 patients in mainland China, we combined polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and triplet repeat-primed PCR (TRP-PCR) to detect the CTA/CTG expansion. We studied a cohort of 362 ataxia patients in which the other known causative genes had been previously excluded, from among 1294 index patients. Positive samples were validated by southern blotting. RESULTS: The CTA/CTG expansion was observed in six probands, accounting for approximately 0.46% (6/1294) in all patients, and 1.66% (6/362) in patients without definite molecular diagnosis. Clinically, aside from the typical SCA8 phenotype, some patients carrying the CTA/CTG expansion exhibited the cerebellar form of multisystem atrophy (MSA-C) and ataxia with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD). CONCLUSION: For the first time, we described the PKD phenotype in association with CTA/CTG expansion, suggesting that CTA/CTG expansion might play a role in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal dyskinesia symptoms.

9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(35): 5266-5282, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been recognized as a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Numerous reports suggest that immune infiltration can predict the prognosis of HCC. Nonetheless, no creditable markers for prognosis of HBV-related HCC have been established by systematically assessing the immune-related markers based on tumor transcriptomes. AIM: To establish an immune-related marker based on the cell compositions of immune infiltrate obtained based on tumor transcriptomes, so as to enhance the prediction accuracy of HBV-related HCC prognosis. METHODS: RNA expression patterns as well as the relevant clinical data of HCC patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Twenty-two immunocyte fraction types were estimated by cell type identification by estimating relative subsets of RNA transcripts. Subsequently, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression model was employed to construct an immunoscore based on the immunocyte fraction types. Afterwards, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate Cox analyses were performed. Additionally, a nomogram for prognosis that integrated the immunoscore as well as the clinical features was established. Meanwhile, the correlation of immunoscore with immune genes was also detected, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the immunoscore was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 22 immunocyte fraction types were predicted and compared among the tumor as well as non-tumor samples. An immunoscore was constructed through adopting the LASSO model, which contained eight immunocyte fraction types. Meanwhile, the areas under the ROC curves for the immunoscore biomarker prognostic model were 0.971, 0.912, and 0.975 for 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival (OS), respectively. Difference in OS between the high-immunoscore group and the low-immunoscore group was statistically significant [hazard ratio (HR) = 66.007, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.361-521.105; P < 0.0001]. Moreover, multivariable analysis showed that the immunoscore was an independent factor for predicting the prognosis (HR = 2.997, 95%CI: 1.737-5.170). A nomogram was established, and the C-index was 0.757 (95%CI: 0.648-0.866). The immunoscore showed a significant negative correlation with the expression of PD-1 (P = 0.024), PD-L1 (P = 0.026), PD-L2 (P = 0.029), and CD27 (P = 0.033). Eight pathways were confirmed by GSEA. CONCLUSION: The established immunoscore can potentially serve as a candidate marker to estimate the OS for HBV-related HCC cases.

10.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 7129214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281549

RESUMO

Transcription factor activating enhancer binding protein 4 (TFAP4) is established as a regulator of human cancer genesis and progression. Overexpression of TFAP4 indicates poor prognosis in various malignancies. The current study was performed to quantify TFAP4 expression as well as to further determine its potential prognostic value and functional role in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We identified that the expression of TFAP4 mRNA in 369 tumor tissues was higher than that in 160 normal liver tissues. Upregulated TFAP4 expressions were discovered in HCC cell lines compared to the healthy liver cell line, and similarly, the levels of TFAP4 were higher in tumor tissues than its expression in paratumor tissues. High mRNA and protein expression of TFAP4 was associated with worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Additionally, TFAP4 expression emerged as a risk factor independently affecting both OS and DFS of HCC patients. Functional studies demonstrated that TFAP4 increased HCC cell migration and invasion. Further investigations found that TFAP4 promotes invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and regulating MMP-9 expression via activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in HCC. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that TFAP4 is a valuable prognostic biomarker in determining the likelihood of tumor metastasis and recurrence, as well as the long-term survival rates of HCC patients. Exploring the regulatory mechanism of TFAP4 will also contribute to the development of new prevention and treatment strategies for HCC.

11.
J Dermatol ; 46(8): 731-733, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241787

RESUMO

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a rare hereditary disorder that affects tissues derived from the ectoderm including hair, teeth and sweat glands. EDA is the major causative gene of HED. This study recruited a Chinese family with HED, including a male proband and his mother with a fetus. The proband had typical clinical features of HED and the mother had identical but milder features. Interestingly, some phenotypes of the mother appeared asymmetrically between the right and left side of the body that were not reported in previous studies. Targeted sequencing was performed in the proband and a novel frame-shift mutation (NM_001399.4: c.381_382delinsG, p.Q128Rfs*9) in EDA was found. Sanger sequencing validated the mutation and identified the same mutation in the mother. Our study expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of EDA-related disorders and reports new asymmetrical phenotypes in a female.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/genética , Ectodisplasinas/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Displasia Ectodérmica Anidrótica Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Feminino , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Aconselhamento Genético , Hemizigoto , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 166-176, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178126

RESUMO

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a slowly progressing neurodegenerative disease characterized by eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in the nervous system and multiple visceral organs. The clinical manifestation of NIID varies widely, and both familial and sporadic cases have been reported. Here we have performed genetic linkage analysis and mapped the disease locus to 1p13.3-q23.1; however, whole-exome sequencing revealed no potential disease-causing mutations. We then performed long-read genome sequencing and identified a large GGC repeat expansion within human-specific NOTCH2NLC. Expanded GGC repeats as the cause of NIID was further confirmed in an additional three NIID-affected families as well as five sporadic NIID-affected case subjects. Moreover, given the clinical heterogeneity of NIID, we examined the size of the GGC repeat among 456 families with a variety of neurological conditions with the known pathogenic genes excluded. Surprisingly, GGC repeat expansion was observed in two Alzheimer disease (AD)-affected families and three parkinsonism-affected families, implicating that the GGC repeat expansions in NOTCH2NLC could also contribute to the pathogenesis of both AD and PD. Therefore, we suggest defining a term NIID-related disorders (NIIDRD), which will include NIID and other related neurodegenerative diseases caused by the expanded GGC repeat within human-specific NOTCH2NLC.

13.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(3): 833-838, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression level of PLK1 in mantle cell lymphoma(MCL), and the effect of silencing PLK1 gene by RNA interference on the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle. METHODS: S-P immunohistochemistry technique was used to detect the expression of PLK1 in tissues of 42 patients with MCL and 30 patients with reactive proliferative lymphodenitis(RPL), their expression levels were compared and analyzed. The Jeko-1 cells were transfected with lentivirus contaiming PLK-1 shRNA, then the mRNA and protein expression of PLK-1 was detected by real-time guantitative PCR and Western blot nespectively, and the silencing efficacy of PLK-1 shRNA was identificd. The cell proliferation was detected by CCK method, the cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI double staining, the cell cycle was detected by PI single staining, the changes of apoptosis-related proteins BAX, BCL-2 and Caspase 3 were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: The positive expression rate of PLK-1 in tissue of MCL patients was 66.67%(28/42), which was significanfly higher than 20%(6/30) in tissue of RPL patients (P<0.05). The PLK-1 positive expression correlated with B symptom, IPI score, Ann-Arbor stage(P<0.05). After infection of Jeko-1 cells with lentivirus containing PLK-1 shRNA for 72 hours, the mRNA and protein expressions of PLK-1 were significantly down-regulated(P<0.05), the proliferation rate of cells in group of PLK-1 shRNA was significanly lower than that in control and Neg shRNA groups(P<0.05); the apoptosis rate of cells in PLK-1 shRNA group was (27.42±3.44)%, which was significantly higher than that in control group (1.23±0.42)% and Neg shRNA group (2.07±0.58) % (P<0.05). The cell cycle analysis showed that the cell ratio in G2/M phase of PLK-1 shRNA group was (27.21±3.59) %, which was higher than that in control group (13.28±2.63)% and Neg shRNA group (14.34±2.37) %. The detection of apoptosis-related proteins showed that the expression of BAX was up-regulated, the expression of BCL-2 was down-regnlated and the expression of caspase 3 was up-regulated. CONCLUSION: The PLK-l overexpression appears in tissue of MCL patients. The silencing PLK-1 gene can inhibit the proliferation of Jeko-1 cells, induce the apopotosis of Jeko-1 cells and arrestes cell cycle in G2/M phase.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno
14.
J Genet Genomics ; 46(5): 247-257, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196716

RESUMO

Excess de novo likely gene-disruptive and missense variants within dozens of genes have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental disorders. However, many rare inherited missense variants of these high-risk genes have not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we analyzed the rare missense variant burden of POGZ in a large cohort of ASD patients from the Autism Clinical and Genetic Resources in China (ACGC) and further dissected the functional effect of disease-associated missense variants on neuronal development. Our results showed a significant burden of rare missense variants in ASD patients compared to the control population (P = 4.6 × 10-5, OR = 3.96), and missense variants in ASD patients showed more severe predicted functional outcomes than those in controls. Furthermore, by leveraging published large-scale sequencing data of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and sporadic case reports, we identified 8 de novo missense variants of POGZ in NDD patients. Functional analysis revealed that two inherited, but not de novo, missense variants influenced the cellular localization of POGZ and failed to rescue the defects in neurite and dendritic spine development caused by Pogz knockdown in cultured mouse primary cortical neurons. Significantly, L1CAM, an autism candidate risk gene, is differentially expressed in POGZ deficient cell lines. Reduced expression of L1cam was able to partially rescue the neurite length defects caused by Pogz knockdown. Our study showed the important roles of rare inherited missense variants of POGZ in ASD risk and neuronal development and identified the potential downstream targets of POGZ, which are important for further molecular mechanism studies.

15.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247120

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most prevalent infections. However, anti-TB drugs induce adverse liver injury in up to 40% of patients. Studies on candidate genes have suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphisms account for only a small contribution to the occurrence of anti-TB drug-induced liver injury (ATLI). In this study, whole-genome DNA methylation analysis was performed to systematically screen the ATLI-associated factors in a 49 vs. 51 case-control population. Next, 34 identified candidate probes were validated using MassARRAY in 296 cases and 288 controls. Our results indicated that 12 CpG sites on seven probes were positively associated with ATLI risk. Furthermore, we applied a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated methylation modifiable cell model and demonstrated that four CpGs in or near the gene region of AK2, SLC8A2, and PSTPIP2 affected the cellular response to rifampicin treatment. This study provides new biomarkers associated with ATLI occurrence.

16.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(12): 22554-22564, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111482

RESUMO

As a fundamental aging mechanism, cellular senescence causes chronic inflammation via the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Theca-interstitial cells are an essential but little-studied component of follicle development in the ovarian microenvironment. In the present study, we observed significant cellular senescence in theca-interstitial cells and secretion of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) by these cells during aging. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether and how senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)-associated CCL5 may be involved in follicle development. Increased levels of CCL5 in the microenvironment of follicles attenuated preantral follicle growth, survival, and estradiol secretion. Oocyte maturation and the expression of zona pellucida 3 and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) were also inhibited by CCL5. Granulosa cell apoptosis in follicles was promoted by CCL5, accompanied by the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB by CCL5 and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway. These results suggest that SASP-associated CCL5 produced by senescent theca-interstitial cells may impair follicle development and maturation during ovarian aging by promoting granulosa cell apoptosis.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 374: 110-119, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981952

RESUMO

Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) has broad applications as lightweight materials due to its multiple advantages and unique properties. Nevertheless, toxicity emission under fire conditions remains a major concern, particularly in building fire scenarios. To circumvent the problem, it is imperative that an effective flame retardant is sought to suppress the flame and release of combustion/smoke products whilst maintaining the favorable material properties of TPU. In the current work, a simple method is proposed for the preparation and utilization of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and tetrabutyl phosphine chloride (TBPC) modified Ti3C2 (MXene) ultra-thin nanosheets. During the cone calorimeter tests, significant reduction in peak heat release rate (51.2% and 52.2%), peak smoke production rate (57.1% and 57.4%), peak CO production (39.4% and 41.6%) and peak CO2 production (49.7% and 51.7%) were recorded by the mere introduction of 2 wt.% CTAB-Ti3C2 and TBPC-Ti3C2 to TPU. These superior fire safety properties resulting from the significant reduction of the fire, smoke and toxicity hazards are attributed to the excellent dispersion, catalytic and barrier effect of Ti3C2 ultra-thin nanosheets in TPU. Future applications of exfoliated MXene nanosheets as flame retardant appear to be very promising.

18.
PLoS Biol ; 17(3): e3000025, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865621

RESUMO

The brain uses its intrinsic dynamics to actively predict observed sensory inputs, especially under perceptual ambiguity. However, it remains unclear how this inference process is neurally implemented in biasing perception of ambiguous inputs towards the predicted percepts. The process of perceptual inference can be well illustrated by the phenomenon of bistable apparent motion in the Ternus display, in which subjective perception spontaneously alternates between element motion (EM) and group motion (GM) percepts depending on whether two consecutively presented frames are grouped over time or not. The frequency of alpha-band oscillations has long been hypothesized to gate the temporal window of perceptual grouping over time. Under this hypothesis, variation in the intrinsic alpha frequency should predict perceptual outcome of the bistable Ternus display. Moreover, we hypothesize that the perception system employs this prior knowledge on intrinsic alpha frequency to resolve perceptual ambiguity, by shifting perceptual inference towards the predicted percepts. Using electroencephalography and intracranial recordings, we showed that both between and within subjects, lower prestimulus alpha frequencies (PAFs) predicted the EM percepts since the two frames fell in the same alpha cycle and got temporally integrated, while higher PAFs predicted the GM percepts since the two frames fell in different alpha cycles. Multivariate decoding analysis between the EM percepts with lower PAFs and the GM percepts with higher PAFs further revealed a representation of the subsequently reported bistable percept in the neural signals shortly before the actual appearance of the second frame. Therefore, perceptual inference, based on variation in intrinsic PAFs, biases poststimulus neural representations by inducing preactivation of the predicted percepts. In addition, enhanced prestimulus blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals and network dynamics in the frontoparietal network, together with reduced prestimulus alpha power, upon perceiving the EM percepts suggest that temporal grouping is an attention-demanding process.

19.
Cancer Sci ; 110(5): 1735-1745, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844117

RESUMO

Homeobox genes are known to be classic examples of the intimate relationship between embryogenesis and tumorigenesis, which are a family of transcriptional factors involved in determining cell identity during early development, and also dysregulated in many malignancies. Previously, HOXB7, HOXC6 and HOXC8 were found abnormally upregulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues compared with normal mucosa and seen as poor prognostic predictors for ESCC patients, and were shown to promote cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis in ESCC cells. These three HOX members have a high level of functional redundancy, making it difficult to target a single HOX gene. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ESCC cells are sensitive to HXR9 disrupting the interaction between multiple HOX proteins and their cofactor PBX, which is required for HOX functions. ESCC cell lines (KYSE70, KYSE150, KYSE450) were treated with HXR9 or CXR9, and coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent colocalization were carried out to observe HOX/PBX dimer formation. To further investigate whether HXR9 disrupts the HOX pro-oncogenic function, CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay were carried out. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, and tumor growth in vivo was investigated in a xenograft model. RNA-seq was used to study the transcriptome of HXR9-treated cells. Results showed that HXR9 blocked HOX/PBX interaction, leading to subsequent transcription alteration of their potential target genes, which are involved in JAK-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) activation and apoptosis inducement. Meanwhile, HXR9 showed an antitumor phenotype, such as inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing cell apoptosis and significantly retarding tumor growth. Therefore, it is suggested that targeting HOX/PBX may be a novel effective treatment for ESCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Anal Chem ; 91(5): 3539-3545, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724072

RESUMO

Phosphorylated proteins play important roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most abundant constituent in AD's brain deposit is the amyloid-ß40 peptide (Aß40). Based on it, the degree of phosphorylated Aß40 in body fluids (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid, CSF), which is defined by the ratio of phosphorylated Aß40 to total Aß40 (pAß40/tAß40), is anticipated to be an index for early diagnosis of AD. The major challenge in pAß40/tAß40 detection is the large concentration difference between two Aß40 forms in the real samples, which usually requires multichannel equipment and complicated detection process. In this paper, we revealed the unexpected close affinities of the anti-Aß40 antibody to Aß40 (40.2 nM-1) and to pAß40 (42.3 nM-1). Based on it, a convenient coimmunocapture and electrochemical quantitation of tAß40 and pAß40 was achieved on an anti-Aß40 antibody immobilized Au electrode (anti-Aß40/Au). Once Aß40 and pAß40 were synchronously captured on the anti-Aß40/Au electrode, the tAß40 levels in CSF samples were quantified with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. With the signal amplification from Cd2+/Ti4+-functionalized titanium phosphate nanospheres (Cd2+/Ti4+@TiP) which was selective conjugated to pAß40, concentrations of low abundant pAß40 as low as 1 fM were readily measured by square wave voltammetry. Our results reveal that despite the concentrations of tAß40 and pAß40 fluctuate in each individual case, the concentration ratios of pAß40/tAß40 in CSF samples from AD patients are significant larger than those from healthy donors. It demonstrates that the degree of phosphorylated Aß40 is hopeful to be an effective index for evaluating the AD progress and improving the accuracy of clinic AD diagnosis.

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