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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247981, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684148

RESUMO

Stance markers are critical linguistic devices for writers to convey their personal attitudes, judgments or assessments about the proposition of certain messages. Following Hyland's framework of stance, this study investigated the distribution of stance markers in two different genres: medical research articles (medical RA) and newspaper opinion columns (newspaper OC). The corpus constructed for the investigation includes 52 medical research articles and 175 newspaper opinion articles, which were both written in English and published from January to April in 2020 with the topic focusing on COVID-19. The findings of this study demonstrated that the occurrences of stance markers in newspaper OC were far more frequent than those in medical RA, indicating the different conventions of these two genres. Despite the significant difference in the occurrences of stance markers between the two sub-corpora, similarities of the most frequent stance markers in two genres were also highlighted. The study indicated that the topic content seems to play an important role in shaping the way of how writers construct their stance. The lack of information or evidence on the topic of COVID-19 could restrain writers from making high degree of commitment to their claims, which make them adopt a more tentative stance to qualify their statements.


Assuntos
Atitude , Pesquisa Biomédica , Linguística , Jornais como Assunto , Redação , Humanos
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 215: 112102, 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721664

RESUMO

Agricultural soils derived from black shale are typically enriched in potentially toxic metals. This is a serious problem, both in terms of the ecological environment and human health. To assess the levels of potentially toxic metals, 90 paired soil-crops samples were collected from the Anji Country, western Zhejiang province, a typical exposed black shale area in China. Concentrations and bioavailability of potentially toxic metals in the soil-crops system were measured, and the associated potential risks were further evaluated. Results showed the enrichment of potentially toxic metals (i.e. Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni) in the soil and crop samples, especially a significant accumulation of Cd. Sequential extraction data indicated that Cd in soils derived from black shale was the second most dominant element in the exchangeable fraction (mean at 33.42%) and possessed high bioavailability, whereas Pb was mostly retained in the residual fraction (mean at 76.34%) and exhibited low mobility. The total concentration as well as mobility and bioavailability of Cd were the highest in the sampled soils. This resulted in a high potential ecological risk in areas with agricultural soils derived from black shale, which could eventually jeopardize the health of local residents through various exposure pathways. Overall, our findings provide a scientific basis for developing suitable management strategies to mitigate the exposure to potentially toxic metals in high risk areas.

3.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539631

RESUMO

Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone widely used in malaria treatment, was discovered in the medicinal plant Artemisia annua. The biosynthesis of artemisinin is efficiently regulated by jasmonate (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) via regulatory factors. However, the mechanisms linking JA and ABA signalling with artemisinin biosynthesis through an associated regulatory network of downstream transcription factors (TFs) remain enigmatic. Here we report AaTCP15, a JA and ABA dual-responsive teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating (TCP) TF, which is essential for JA and ABA-induced artemisinin biosynthesis by directly binding to and activating the promoters of DBR2 and ALDH1, two genes encoding enzymes for artemisinin biosynthesis. Furthermore, AaORA, another positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis responds to JA and ABA, interacts with and enhances the transactivation activity of AaTCP15 and simultaneously activates AaTCP15 transcripts. Hence, they form an AaORA-AaTCP15 module to synergistically activate DBR2, a crucial gene for artemisinin biosynthesis. More importantly, AaTCP15 expression is activated by the multiple reported JA and ABA-responsive TFs that promote artemisinin biosynthesis. Among them, AaGSW1 acts at the nexus of JA and ABA signalling to activate the artemisinin biosynthetic pathway and directly binds to and activates the AaTCP15 promoter apart from the AaORA promoter, which further facilitates formation of the AaGSW1-AaTCP15/AaORA regulatory module to integrate JA and ABA-mediated artemisinin biosynthesis. Our results establish a multilayer regulatory network of the AaGSW1-AaTCP15/AaORA module to regulate artemisinin biosynthesis through JA and ABA signalling, and provide an interesting avenue for future research exploring the special transcriptional regulation module of TCP genes associated with specialized metabolites in plants.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(20): 2563-2566, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586714

RESUMO

Intracellular delivery of therapeutic proteins remains a challenge for the success of protein-mediated disease treatment. We herein develop a robust nanoplatform made with a TME-pH responsive Meo-PEG-b-PPMEMA polymer and a cationic lipid-like compound G0-C14 for in vivo delivery of cytotoxic saporin and breast cancer therapy. This nanoplatform could respond to a TME pH to rapidly release saporin/G0-C14 complexes, which could significantly improve the uptake of cytosolic saporin by tumor cells and subsequent endosomal escape, thereby leading to an effective inhibition of tumor growth.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524020

RESUMO

In plants, brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of steroidal hormones that are involved in numerous physiological responses. However, the function of BRs in cold tolerance in cotton has not been explored. In this study, cotton seedlings were treated with five concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L) of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBR) at 4°C. We measured the electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, proline content, and net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of the seedlings, which showed that EBR treatment increased cold tolerance in cotton in a dose-dependent manner, and that 0.2 mg/L is an optimum concentration for enhancing cold tolerance. The function of EBR in cotton cotyledons was investigated in the control 0 mg/L (Cold+water) and 0.2 mg/L (Cold+EBR) treatments using RNA-Seq. A total of 4,001 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 2,591 up-regulated genes and 1,409 down-regulated genes were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and biochemical pathway enrichment analyses showed that EBR is involved in the genetic information process, secondary metabolism, and also inhibits abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene (ETH) signal transduction. In this study, physiological experiments showed that EBR can increase cold tolerance in cotton seedlings, and the comprehensive RNA-seq data shed light on the mechanisms through which EBR increases cold tolerance in cotton seedlings.

6.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 963689720980367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586472

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) on mouse 32D cells (a mouse myeloid progenitor cell line) treated with serum from patients with aplastic anemia and to elucidate the potential mechanism of rhTPO in the treatment of aplastic anemia. After treatment with aplastic anemia serum, the apoptotic rate of 32D cells was increased and the proliferation of 32D cells was significantly inhibited. rhTPO reduced the apoptotic rate and promoted the proliferation of 32D cells, while rhTPO failed to restore the cell proliferation of 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group to the normal level as compared to that from the normal serum group. The phosphorylation level of STAT3 protein was higher, and the phosphorylation level of STAT5 protein was lower in 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group than that in normal serum group. After rhTPO treatment, the phosphorylation level of STAT3 protein in aplastic anemia serum group was decreased and the phosphorylation level of STAT5 protein was increased. The expression levels of Survivin and Bcl-2 were significantly decreased in 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group, which were significantly increased after rhTPO treatment. The expression level of Bax protein in 32D cells from the normal serum group after rhTPO treatment was significantly decreased; while the mRNA expression level of Bax was not affected by rhTPO. The expression levels of Bax mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated in 32D cells from aplastic anemia serum group, which was significantly decreased by rhTPO treatment. In conclusion, our results indicated that aplastic anemia serum impaired proliferative potential and enhanced apoptosis of 32D cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that rhTPO promoted cell proliferation and attenuated apoptosis of aplastic anemia serum-treated 32D cells via activating STAT3/STAT5 signaling pathway and modulating apoptosis-related mediators.

7.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 26, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495477

RESUMO

Water colour is the result of its constituents and their interactions with solar irradiance; this forms the basis for water quality monitoring using optical remote sensing data. The Forel-Ule Index (FUI) is a useful comprehensive indicator to show the water colour variability and water quality change in both inland waters and oceans. In recent decades, lakes around the world have experienced dramatic changes in water quality under pressure from both climate change and anthropogenic activities. However, acquiring consistent water colour products for global lakes has been a challenge. In this paper we present the first time series FUI dataset for large global lakes from 2000-2018 based on MODIS observations. This dataset provides significant information on spatial and temporal changes of water colour for global large lakes during the past 19 years. It will be valuable to studies in search of the drivers of global and regional lake colour change, and the interaction mechanisms between water colour, hydrological factors, climate change, and anthropogenic activities.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 85, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wall-associated kinases (WAK), one of the receptor-like kinases (RLK), function directly in the connection and communication between the plant cell wall and the cytoplasm. WAK genes are highly conserved and have been identified in plants, such as rice, but there is little research on the WAK gene family in cotton. RESULTS: In the present study, we identified 29 GhWAK genes in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cotton WAK proteins can be divided into five clades. The results of synteny and Ka/Ks analysis showed that the GhWAK genes mainly originated from whole genome duplication (WGD) and were then mainly under purifying selection. Transcriptome data and real-time PCR showed that 97% of GhWAK genes highly expressed in cotton fibers and ovules. ß-glucuronidase (GUS) staining assays showed that GhWAK5 and GhWAK16 expressed in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes. Fourteen GhWAK genes were found to possess putative gibberellin (GA) response elements in the promoter regions, 13 of which were significantly induced by GA treatment. Ten GhWAK genes contained auxin (IAA) response elements and the expression level of nine GhWAKs significantly increased under auxin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a preliminary analysis of the WAK gene family in G. hirsutum, which sheds light on the potantial roles of GhWAK genes in cotton fiber cell development. Our data also provides a useful resource for future studies on the functional roles of GhWAK genes.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449442

RESUMO

Combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (cmTBI) is a leading cause of sustained physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral disabilities in Veterans and active-duty military personnel. Accurate diagnosis of cmTBI is challenging since the symptom spectrum is broad and conventional neuroimaging techniques are insensitive to the underlying neuropathology. The present study developed a novel deep-learning neural network method, 3D-MEGNET, and applied it to resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG) source-magnitude imaging data from 59 symptomatic cmTBI individuals and 42 combat-deployed healthy controls (HCs). Analytic models of individual frequency bands and all bands together were tested. The All-frequency model, which combined delta-theta (1-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), and gamma (30-80 Hz) frequency bands, outperformed models based on individual bands. The optimized 3D-MEGNET method distinguished cmTBI individuals from HCs with excellent sensitivity (99.9 ± 0.38%) and specificity (98.9 ± 1.54%). Receiver-operator-characteristic curve analysis showed that diagnostic accuracy was 0.99. The gamma and delta-theta band models outperformed alpha and beta band models. Among cmTBI individuals, but not controls, hyper delta-theta and gamma-band activity correlated with lower performance on neuropsychological tests, whereas hypo alpha and beta-band activity also correlated with lower neuropsychological test performance. This study provides an integrated framework for condensing large source-imaging variable sets into optimal combinations of regions and frequencies with high diagnostic accuracy and cognitive relevance in cmTBI. The all-frequency model offered more discriminative power than each frequency-band model alone. This approach offers an effective path for optimal characterization of behaviorally relevant neuroimaging features in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427259

RESUMO

Controllable molecular self-assembly is vital for nanostructure construction. Here, three different self-assembling networks are realized by varying the chemical composition of the molecular building blocks of the same architecture. This is the first time that SN electrostatic attraction has been employed to regulate surface self-assembly. All molecular structures are characterized using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy. The density functional theory calculations elaborate the structure formation mechanism.

11.
J Mycol Med ; 31(1): 101108, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370708

RESUMO

There are no standard choices on antifungal drugs for talaromycosis due to various factors, and related studies are also limited. This study summarizes and analyzes efficacy of different antifungal drugs for patients with talaromycosis, which can provide more reference evidence for drugs' choices in practice. We conducted a meta-analysis on prognostic impacts of different antifungal drugs against talaromycosis, and primary outcome was all-cause mortality. A total of 975 patients from 8 studies were included. One of the 8 studies was a randomized controlled trial and the others were retrospective studies. Among these patients, 582 cases were initiated with amphotericin B, 31 cases died (9.28%). The other 393 cases were initiated with itraconazole, and 54 cases died (14.00%). The initial use of amphotericin B for talaromycosis significantly reduced mortality compared with itraconazole (risk ratio (RR): 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.90; P=0.01; I2=4%). Initial treatment with amphotericin B for talaromycosis in different regions (internal and external) and studies (sample size<100) had no obvious prognostic advantages over itraconazole (RR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.32-1.13; P=0.11; I2=44%; RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37- 1.00; P=0.05; I2=0%; RR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.39-1.29; P=0.26; I2=0%, respectively). However, when study's sample size was ≥ 100, the mortality of amphotericin B group was significantly reduced (RR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32- 0.92; P=0.02; I2=46%). In conclusion, amphotericin B is a better choice as initial therapeutic drug for talaromycosis.

12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 34(3): 360-365, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983458

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this prospective observational study was to establish a suitable model for the postnatal follow-up and management of prenatal renal and urinary tract anomalies in Shanghai, China.Methods: Minhang and Changning maternal child health care hospitals were selected to establish the integrated management model. Newborns with prenatal renal and urinary tract anomalies in these two centers were eligible to participate in the study from 2015 to 2017. All newborns were classified into three groups based on prenatal findings: (1) severe/complex urinary tract dilatation (UTD) with ureterectasia, (2) other renal and urinary tract abnormalities, and (3) isolated mild to moderate UTD. The newborns underwent their first postnatal ultrasound and follow-up according to the presumed management strategy. Demographic and clinical data were collected from all institutes.Results: A total of 129 newborns fulfilled the study criteria, and 121 completed the postnatal evaluation. Ten newborns in group 1 (n = 13) were diagnosed with obstructive uropathy, including 9 with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and one with megaureter. All 13 newborns in group 2 had consistent postnatal results and were followed under previously established procedures. Sixty-seven cases in group 3 (n = 95) had a UTD at their first scan at 42 postnatal days, and two were diagnosed with UPJO. A total of 2 infants with UPJO underwent surgery, and 71 (65.7%, 71/108) of the UTD cases were resolved.Conclusions: The majority of the patients had a favorable outcome. Close multidisciplinary collaboration among obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatricians, and pediatric nephrologists and urologists is mandatory.

13.
Clin Genet ; 99(4): 558-564, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382082

RESUMO

Based on the Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database (CCGKDD), we established a pediatric Gitelman syndrome (GS) cohort to explore the phenotype and genotype characteristics. Thirty-two patients with SLC12A3 gene variants were collected. Five cases (16%) were homozygous, 16 (50%) were compound heterozygous, 10 (31%) carried only a single variant, and the other one harbored two de novo variants beyond classification. p.(T60M) was found in eight patients. The average diagnosis age was 7.79 ± 3.54 years. A total of 31% of the patients were asymptomatic. Muscle weakness was the most common symptom, accounting for 50%. Earlier age of onset (4.06 ± 1.17 yr vs. 8.10 ± 3.46 yr vs. 8.61 ± 3.56 yr, p< 0.05) and lower urinary calcium-creatinine ratio (p = 0.024) were found in the homozygous group than those in the heterozygous and compound heterozygous group. Patients with p.(T60M) variant had an earlier age of onset (4.01 ± 2.83 yr vs. 6.92 ± 3.07 yr, p = 0.025) and lower urinary calcium-creatinine ratio (p = 0.056). Thus, more than 30% of GS children have no clinical symptoms. Homozygous variant and the p.(T60M) variant may be associated with earlier onset and lower urinary calcium excretion in Chinese pediatric GS.

14.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) account for the majority of cases of monogenetically caused end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. Exploring the correlation between the phenotype and genotype of NPHP-RC is helpful for early diagnosis and management. We investigated the phenotype and genotype spectra of NPHP-RC in a Chinese multicentre cohort. METHODS: Crosss-ectional and longitudinal data of 60 patients from 57 families with pathogenic NPHP-RC gene mutations distributed in 22 regions of China were collected into a unified, anonymous database. The mean observation time of this cohort was 3.5±3.1 years. RESULTS: Mutations in NPHP1 and NPHP3 were the most common genetic defects. Overall, 45% of patients presented with isolated nephronophthisis (NPH), and 55% exhibited the extrarenal phenotype, which frequently involved the liver (41.7%, n=25), central nervous system (26.7%, n=16), eyes (26.7%, n=16) and skeletal system (11.7%, n=7). Accidental detection of elevated serum creatinine and non-specific symptoms caused by chronic kidney disease occurred in 65% of patients. Patients carrying NPHP1 mutations mainly presented with isolated NPH (90%, 18/20) and progressed to ESRD at a mean age of 12.9±0.5 years. The mean age of ESRD onset in the non-NPHP1 group was lower than that in the NPHP1 group (6.2±1.4 years, p<0.001), especially for patients carrying NPHP3 mutations (3.1±1.2 years), showing a heterogeneous phenotype characterised by Bardet-Biedl syndrome (12.5%, n=5), Joubert syndrome (7.5%, n=3), COACH syndrome (2.5%, n=1), Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (2.5%, n=1), short-rib thoracic dysplasia (2.5%, n=1) and unclassified symptoms (32.5%, n=13). CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database registry characterised the spectrum of the phenotype and genotype of NPHP-RC in the Chinese population. NPHP1 and NPHP3 were the most common pathogenic genes. Rapid progression to ESRD and liver involvement were noted in patients with NPHP3 mutations.

15.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 26(10): 906-910, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382222

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the distribution of the gene subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) in male patients with condyloma acuminatum (CA) and analyze the characteristics of the gene subtypes. METHODS: We extracted genomic DNA of the HPV virus from the genital tissue of 70 male CA patients, detected the DNA subtypes of HPV using the PCR-reverse dot hybridization technique, and analyzed the rates of different subtypes identified and their characteristics of distribution in different age groups. RESULTS: The male HPV-positive patients were mainly infected at the age of 20-39 years, primarily with high- and low-risk mixed infection of various subtypes, which accounted for 61.54% in the 20- to 29-year-olds and 42.86% in the 30- to 39-year-olds. Among the 70 CA patients, 22 HPV subtypes were identified, the top five subtypes including HPV 11 (21.08%), HPV 6 (19.46%), HPV 42 (6.49%), HPV 59 (6.49%) and HPV 53 (5.95%); 20 infected with a single subtype (28.57%), 19 with two subtypes (27.14%) and 31 with three or more (44.29%); and 30 infected with a low-risk single subtype (42.86%) and 40 with both high- and low-risk multiple subtypes (57.14%). CONCLUSIONS: Male patients with CA are mainly infected with HPV 11 and HPV 6, with a significantly higher rate of multi-subtype than single-subtype infection, and the multi-subtype patients chiefly with high- and low-risk mixed infection. Men aged 20-39 years old are most commonly affected by CA.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/virologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Adulto , DNA Viral/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Dozens of T2D susceptibility loci have been identified by genome-wide association study. However, these loci account for only a small fraction of the familial T2D risk. We hypothesized that the gene-obesity interaction may contribute to the missing heritability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: Forty-eight T2D-associated variants were genotyped using the TaqMan OpenArray Genotyping System and iPLEX Sequenom MassARRAY platform in two separate studies. Obesity was defined according to multiple indexes (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio). Multiplicative interactions were tested using general logistic regression to assess the gene-obesity interaction effect on T2D risk among a total of 6206 Chinese Hans. RESULTS: After adjusting for the main effects of genes and obesity, as well as covariates (age, sex, smoking and alcohol consumption status), robust multiplicative interaction effects were observed between rs10811661 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B and multiple obesity indices (p ranged from 0.001 to 0.043 for BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio). Obese individuals with the TT genotype had a drastically higher risk of T2D than normal weight individuals without the risk allele (OR=17.58, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between subgroups in the stratification analysis. Plausible biological explanations were established using a public database. However, there were no significant interaction effects between the other 47 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and obesity. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that the CDKN2A/CDKN2B gene-obesity interaction significantly increases T2D risk in Chinese Hans. The interaction effect identified in our study may help to explain some of the missing heritability in the context of T2D susceptibility. In addition, the interaction effect may play a role in the precise prevention of T2D in Chinese individuals.

17.
J Exp Bot ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165526

RESUMO

Glandular secreting trichomes (GSTs) synthesize and secrete large quantities of secondary metabolites, some of which have well-established commercial value. An example is the anti-malarial compound artemisinin, which is synthesized in the GSTs of Artemisia annua. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in understanding the processes that regulate GST density as a strategy to increase artemisinin production. In this study we identified a GST-specific WRKY transcription factor from A. annua, AaGSW2, which is positively regulated by the direct binding of the homeodomain proteins AaHD1 and AaHD8 to the L1-box of the AaGSW2 promoter. Overexpression of AaGSW2 in A. annua significantly increased GST density, while AaGSW2 knockdown lines showed impaired GST initiation. Ectopic expression of AaGSW2-homologs from two mint cultivars, Mentha spicata and Mentha haplocalyx, in A. annua also induced GST formation. These results reveal a molecular mechanism involving homeodomain and WRKY proteins that controls glandular trichome initiation, at least part of which is shared by A. annua and mint.

18.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 472, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis face heavy care burdens and may have a high risk of depression. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and severity of depression and identify its related demographic and socioeconomic factors in the caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis in China. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in four pediatric dialysis centers in four tertiary children's hospitals in mainland China. Primary caregivers of children with end-stage kidney disease and currently on peritoneal dialysis were screened and recruited from December 2018 to July 2019. A self-developed questionnaire and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were administered to the participants by a trained nurse in each center. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, one-way ANOVA, and the Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare the prevalence of depressive symptoms by demographic features. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to depressive symptoms in caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-one caregivers were included in the data analysis. The mean age of the caregivers was 40.1 ± 8.1 years. More than 75% of the participants were female, married, and unemployed. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 59%. In total, 46 (38%), 20 (17%) and 5 (4%) caregivers reported mild, moderate, and severe depressive symptoms, respectively. In the univariate analysis, caregivers with an average household income per month under 4000 RMB and caregivers of children undergoing laparoscopic surgery had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. Characteristics such as treatment center, duration on PD, PD modalities, and history of peritonitis episodes showed no difference in terms of the prevalence of depressive symptoms. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that an average household income per month under 4000 RMB was the associated factor for caregivers' depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The caregivers of children on peritoneal dialysis in mainland China were socially vulnerable and experienced depression. Those who had a higher average household income were less vulnerable to depression.

19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 592259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178634

RESUMO

Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides are related thermally dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause deadly mycoses (i.e., histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis, respectively) primarily in North, Central, and South America. Mammalian infection results from inhalation of conidia and their subsequent conversion into pathogenic yeasts. Macrophages in the lung are the first line of defense, but are generally unable to clear these fungi. Instead, Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides yeasts survive and proliferate within the phagosomal compartment of host macrophages. Growth within macrophages requires strategies for acquisition of sufficient nutrients (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and essential trace elements and co-factors) from the nutrient-depleted phagosomal environment. We review the transcriptomic and recent functional genetic studies that are defining how these intracellular fungal pathogens tune their metabolism to the resources available in the macrophage phagosome. In addition, recent studies have shown that the nutritional state of the macrophage phagosome is not static, but changes upon activation of adaptive immune responses. Understanding the metabolic requirements of these dimorphic pathogens as they thrive within host cells can provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(48): e23473, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial distress syndrome (PDS), characterized by the presence of prevalently meal-related early satiation and fullness, is a highly prevalent condition with major socioeconomic and healthcare impact. To date, there is a lack of pharmacological treatment proven value for PDS. Therefore, an ideal strategy to relieve PDS is urgently needed. In recent years, massage therapy has been increasingly accepted by PDS patients due to its lower costs, fewer unwanted side effects and safety for clinical use. In this systematic review, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of massage therapy for patients with postprandial distress syndrome. METHODS: We will search the following electronic databases for randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of massage therapy in treating postprandial distress syndrome: Wanfang and Pubmed Database, CNKI, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and EMBASE. Each database will be searched from inception to October 2020. The entire process will include study selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment, and meta-analyses. RESULTS: This proposed study will evaluate the effectiveness and safety of massage therapy for patients with postprandial distress syndrome. The outcomes will include changes in PDS relief and adverse effect. CONCLUSIONS: This proposed systematic review will evaluate the existing evidence on the effectiveness and safety of massage therapy for patients with postprandial distress syndrome. DISSEMINATION AND ETHICS: The results of this review will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication. Because all of the data used in this systematic review and meta-analysis has been published, this review does not require ethical approval. Furthermore, all data will be analyzed anonymously during the review process. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/9WRX8.

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