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1.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(4): e15780, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence has shown that breast cancer self-management support from mobile health (mHealth) apps can improve the quality of life of survivors. Although many breast cancer self-management support apps exist, few papers have documented the procedure for the development of a user-friendly app from the patient's perspective. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the information needs of Taiwanese women with breast cancer to inform the development of a self-management support mHealth app. METHODS: A 5-step design thinking approach, comprising empathy, define, ideate, prototype, and test steps, was used in the focus groups and individual interviews conducted to collect information on the requirements and expectations of Taiwanese women with breast cancer with respect to the app. A thematic analysis was used to identify information needs. RESULTS: A total of 8 major themes including treatment, physical activity, diet, emotional support, health records, social resources, experience sharing, and expert consultation were identified. Minor themes included the desire to use the app under professional supervision and a trustworthy app manager to ensure the credibility of information. CONCLUSIONS: The strengths of the design thinking approach were user-centered design and cultural sensitivity. The results retrieved from each step contributed to the development of the app and reduction of the gap between end users and developers. An mHealth app that addresses these 8 main themes can facilitate disease self-management for Taiwanese women with breast cancer.

2.
Brain Struct Funct ; 225(3): 1153-1158, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140847

RESUMO

Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging is a popular technique for increasing acquisition speed in echo-planar imaging (EPI) fMRI. However, SMS data are prone to motion sensitivity and slice leakage artefacts, which spread signal between simultaneously acquired slices. Relevant to motion sensitivity, artefacts from moving anatomic structures propagate along the phase-encoding (PE) direction. This is particularly relevant for eye movement. As signal from the eye is acquired along with signal from simultaneously excited slices during SMS, there is potential for signal to spread in-plane and between spatially remote slices. After identifying an artefact temporally coinciding with signal fluctuations in the eye and spatially distributed in correspondence with multiband slice acceleration and parallel imaging factors, we conducted a series of small experiments to investigate eye movement artefacts in SMS data and the contribution of PE direction to the invasiveness of these artefacts. Five healthy adult volunteers were scanned during a blinking task using a standard SMS-EPI protocol with posterior-to-anterior (P ≫ A), anterior-to-posterior (A ≫ P) or right-to-left (R ≫ L) PE direction. The intensity of signal fluctuations (artefact severity) was measured at expected artefact positions and control positions. We demonstrated a direct relationship between eye movements and artefact severity across expected artefact regions. Within-brain artefacts were apparent in P ≫ A- and A ≫ P-acquired data but not in R ≫ L data due to the shift in artefact positions. Further research into eye motion artefacts in SMS data is warranted but researchers should exercise caution with SMS protocols. We recommend rigorous piloting of SMS protocols and switching to R ≫ L/L ≫ R PE where feasible.

3.
J Dig Dis ; 21(4): 215-221, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Some gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors (SETs) have malignant potential and complete resection may be required. However, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can be a tedious procedure and requires a long and extensive training to master. Devices for endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) are limited and are not widely available. We report here a simpler endoscopic method to resect small SETs using a commercially available endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) kit and enucleation technique. METHODS: All patients with SET who underwent device-assisted resection at our tertiary care hospital from April 2015 to November 2016 were enrolled in this retrospective study. All procedures were performed by a single expert endoscopist with an advanced endoscopy trainee. A mucosectomy and a limited dissection under mucosa were performed to preserve the mucosa before a device-assisted enucleation of the tumor to facilitate endoscopic closure of the defect closure in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 12 patients aged 38-70 y, of whom six were males, were included. Most of the tumors originated from the muscularis propria and were located at the proximal gastric body. The mean procedural duration was 53 minutes (range 23-91 min). The average size of the lesions was 13 mm (range 9-21 mm). The mean duration of hospitalization was 1.3 days. Bleeding and intentional perforation were all successfully managed during the procedure and did not result in any clinically significant adverse event. CONCLUSION: A device-assisted EFTR using a commercially available EMR kit is a safe and feasible method for the endoscopic resection of small gastric extrovert SETs.

4.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(3): e17084, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are over 2 million newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer worldwide with more than 10,000 cases in Taiwan each year. During 2017-2018, the National Yang-Ming University, the Taiwan University of Science and Technology, and the Taiwan Breast Cancer Prevention Foundation collaborated to develop a breast cancer self-management support (BCSMS) mHealth app for Taiwanese women with breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer in Taiwan after using the BCSMS app. METHODS: After receiving a first diagnosis of breast cancer, women with stage 0 to III breast cancer, who were recruited from social networking sites or referred by their oncologists or oncology case managers, were randomized 1:1 into intervention and control groups. Intervention group subjects used the BCSMS app and the control group subjects received usual care. Two questionnaires-the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) and the EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (QLQ-BR23)-were distributed to subjects in both arms. Paper-based questionnaires were used at baseline; paper-based or Web-based questionnaires were used at 1.5-month and 3-month follow-up evaluations. All evaluations were self-assessed and anonymous, and participants were blinded to their allocation groups. Descriptive analysis, the Pearson chi-square test, analysis of variance, and the generalized estimating equation were used to analyze the data. Missing values, with and without multi-imputation techniques, were used for sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: A total of 112 women were enrolled and randomly allocated to either the experimental group (n=53) or control group (n=59). The follow-up completion rate was 89.3% (100/112). The demographic data showed homogeneity between the two groups in age (range 50-64 years), breast cancer stage (stage II), marital status (married), working status (employed), and treatment status (receiving treatments). The mean total QoL summary scores from the QLQ-C30 (83.45 vs 82.23, P=.03) and the QLQ-BR23 (65.53 vs 63.13, P=.04) were significantly higher among the experimental group versus the control group, respectively, at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: This research provides support for using a mobile health care app to promote the QoL among women in Taiwan after a first diagnosis of breast cancer. The BCSMS app could be used to support disease self-management, and further evaluation of whether QoL is sustained is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT004174248; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04174248.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216345

RESUMO

The semihydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene represents an important process for optimizing the polystyrene production and also a model reaction for the evaluation of selective hydrogenation catalysts. Although the alloying strategy and surface engineering for noble metal (particularly for Pd) catalysts can effectively inhibit the overhydrogenation of styrene, the selectivity of phenylacetylene semihydrogenation to styrene is generally below 95% near the full conversion. Here, we demonstrate the electronic modulation of Pd-based bimetallic nanocluster catalysts based on the strong metal-support interactions for improving the catalytic selectivity for phenylacetylene semihydrogenation. A series of Pd-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga) bimetallic nanoclusters of ∼2 nm are immobilized on mesoporous sulfur-doped carbon (meso_S-C) supports, which exhibit a high selectivity of >97% for the semihydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene. The strong interaction between metal and the meso_S-C supports enables the modulation of electronic structure of the bimetallic nanoparticles and thus leads to the selectivity enhancement for the phenylacetylene semihydrogenation.

6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of fresh tea leaves after harvest determines, to some extent, the quality and price of commercial tea. A fast and accurate method to evaluate the quality of fresh tea leaves is required. RESULTS: In this study, the potential of hyperspectral imaging in the range of 328-1115 nm for the rapid prediction of moisture, total nitrogen, crude fiber contents, and quality index value was investigated. Ninety samples of eight tea-leaf varieties and two picking standards were tested. Quantitative partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were established using a full spectrum, whereas multiple linear regression (MLR) models were developed using characteristic wavelengths selected by a successive projections algorithm (SPA) and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling. The results showed that the optimal SPA-MLR models for moisture, total nitrogen, crude fiber contents, and quality index value yielded optimal performance with coefficients of determination for prediction (R2 p) of 0.9357, 0.8543, 0.8188, 0.9168; root mean square error of 0.3437, 0.1097, 0.3795, 1.0358; and residual prediction deviation of 4.00, 2.56, 2.31, and 3.51, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the hyperspectral imaging technique coupled with chemometrics was a promising tool for the rapid and nondestructive measurement of tea-leaf quality, and had the potential to develop multispectral imaging systems for future online detection of tea-leaf quality. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

8.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 14, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DENND1A gene is one of the most important sites associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We attempted to analyze the correlation between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DENND1A gene and the development of PCOS. METHODS: A total of 346 PCOS patients and 225 normal ovulatory women were involved in the case-control study. Clinical variables and hormones were recorded. According to the Hap Map database, five tagging SNPs (rs2479106, rs2768819, rs2670139, rs2536951 and rs2479102) in the DENND1A gene were identified. The TaqMan probe and the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) methods were used for revealing these genotypes. TaqMan Genotype Software was used to analyze the alleles of the five SNPs. RESULTS: Linkage disequilibrium and the gene frequency analysis demonstrated that the CCGGG haplotype might increase the risk of PCOS (P = 0.038, OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.027-3.481). Significant differences were found in genotypic and allelic distributions at the rs2536951 and rs2479102 loci between PCOS women and controls (P <  0.001). The LH levels and LH/FSH ratios were higher in PCOS patients than in the control group. A detailed analysis revealed that for the rs2479106 locus, these two values were significantly different in the control subjects who had AA, AG and GG genotypes (P = 0.013 and P = 0.007, respectively), and for the rs2468819 locus, these two values were significantly different among the PCOS patients with AA, AG and GG genotypes (P = 0.013 and 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The tagging SNPs rs2479106 and rs2468819 in the DENND1A gene are associated with PCOS in the Chinese population, whereas rs2670139, rs2536951 and rs2479102 are not correlated with PCOS in the same population.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização de Receptores de Domínio de Morte/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/genética , Adulto , Alelos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(2): e1900473, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961474

RESUMO

Veratrum plant contains a family of compounds called steroidal alkaloids which have been previously reported to cause DNA damage and blood pressure decrease in vivo. In this study, the antihypertensive effects and DNA damage in brain cells of 12 steroidal alkaloids separated from Veratrum plant were all evaluated to develop a relationship among chemical structure, antihypertensive activity and neurotoxicity by utilization of chemical principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Twelve steroidal alkaloids markedly reduced high blood pressure of hypertensive mice and also similarly induced varying degrees of DNA single-strand breaks in mouse cerebellum and cerebral cortex after oral administration. On the basis of the PCA and HCA results, it was suggested that the 3-carboxylic esters and benzene group play a core role in the DNA damage of brain cells, while more hydroxy groups in the A-ring and B-ring structure of jervine-type alkaloid led to stronger antihypertensive activity. The primary structure, activity and neurotoxicity relationship were discussed briefly.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Alcaloides de Veratrum/química , Veratrum/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Veratrum/metabolismo , Alcaloides de Veratrum/farmacologia
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121194, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541961

RESUMO

This study applied a circulation-enhanced electrokinetics (CEEK) technique to remove heavy metal lead from the agricultural land. Soil samples (lead concentration around 4000 mg/kg) were collected in a certain polluted agricultural site in Nantou, Taiwan. Operational parameters of CEEK such as the voltage gradient (1.0 V/cm), the concentration of working solution (EDTA), and pH buffer (0.01 M Na2CO3) were controlled. The CEEK with EDTA can maintain at relatively neutral pH to beneficially remove heavy metals due to appropriate EO flow, electromigration, and EDTA complexation. EDTA served as the chelating agent to react with lead in soils and its concentration plays the key factor for desorbing heavy metals from soils; the 0.1 M EDTA can achieve 79% of Pb depletion (from 3703 mg/kg to 781 mg/kg). The stoichiometric calculation can be roughly used to estimate the Pb removal efficiency based on the 1:1 M ratio of Pb to EDTA and ignores other reactions between EDTA and soil constituents. The CEEK technique with 0.1 M EDTA can remove 63% Pb (from 3430 mg/kg to 1260 mg/kg) within 6-day treatment.

11.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(8): 1001-1005, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We present a rare case of plasma cell type of Castleman's disease (CD) involving only the right renal sinus in a 65-year-old woman with a duplex collecting system (DCS). CASE SUMMARY: The patient presented with a right renal sinus lesion after renal ultrasonography. Subsequent abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the kidneys showed DCS and a soft tissue mass with mild enhancement at the lower right renal sinus. The lesion was suspected to be a malignant renal pelvic carcinoma. Hence, the patient underwent a right radical nephrectomy. Histological examination revealed hyperplastic lymphoid follicles in the renal sinus. A detailed review of the patient's CT and MRI images and a literature review suggested that the lesion was hypointense on T2-weighted images and hyperintense on diffusion-weighted image manifestations, and showed mild enhancement, which distinguished the plasma cell type of CD from many other renal sinus lesions. Furthermore, peripelvic soft tissue masses with a smooth internal surface of the renal pelvis were on imaging findings, which suggests that the urinary tract epithelial system is invulnerable and can be used to differentiate the plasma cell type of CD from malignant lymphoma with a focally growth pattern to some extent. CONCLUSION: Preoperative diagnosis is often difficult in such cases, as plasma cell type of CD involving only the right kidney is exceedingly rare. However, heightened awareness of this disease entity and its radiographic presentations may alert one to consider this diagnosis.

12.
J Dig Dis ; 20(5): 248-255, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in assessing locoregionally and determining therapeutic options for ampullary adenomas and the related factors. METHODS: Patients undergoing EUS and surgical or endoscopic resection for biopsy-proven ampullary adenomas between 2009 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. The depth of tumor invasion, intraductal extension, and regional lymph node staging evaluated by EUS were compared with post-treatment pathological findings. RESULTS: Altogether 120 patients were enrolled in this study. The overall accuracy for EUS in T staging was 81.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS for T staging were 93.9%, 45.5% for adenoma and T1, 50.0% and 96.5% for T2, 66.7% and 97.4% for T3, 50.0% and 97.5% for T4 lesions, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS for the diagnosis of any intraductal extension were 89.5%, 86.1%, and 86.7%, respectively. The overall accuracy of EUS for regional lymph node staging was 75.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of EUS for diagnosing N1 were 62.5% and 87.5%. By multivariate analysis no factors were found to be independently associated with EUS accuracy for tumor invasive depth. However, small lesion size (≤15 mm) and dilated duct were associated with an overestimation in intraductal extension. CONCLUSION: EUS may be a useful diagnostic tool for selecting endoscopic or surgical treatment for ampullary adenomas.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/patologia , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Endossonografia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
13.
Psychol Rev ; 126(1): 89-132, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335411

RESUMO

Given the same sensory stimuli in the same task, human observers do not always make the same response. Well-known sources of behavioral variability are sensory noise and guessing. Visual short-term memory (STM) studies have suggested that the precision of the sensory noise is itself variable. However, it is unknown whether precision is also variable in perceptual tasks without a memory component. We searched for evidence for variable precision in 11 visual perception tasks with a single relevant feature, orientation. We specifically examined the effect of distractor stimuli: distractors were absent, homogeneous and fixed across trials, homogeneous and variable, or heterogeneous and variable. We first considered 4 models: with and without guessing, and with and without variability in precision. We quantified the importance of both factors using 6 metrics: factor knock-in difference, factor knock-out difference, and log factor posterior ratio, each based on AIC or BIC. According to all 6 metrics, we found strong evidence for variable precision in 5 experiments. Next, we extended our model space to include potential confounding factors: the oblique effect and decision noise. This left strong evidence for variable precision in only 1 experiment, in which distractors were homogeneous but variable. Finally, when we considered suboptimal decision rules, the evidence also disappeared in this experiment. Our results provide little evidence for variable precision overall and only a hint when distractors are variable. Methodologically, the results underline the importance of including multiple factors in factorial model comparison: Testing for only 2 factors would have yielded an incorrect conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 368: 894-898, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196992

RESUMO

Some agricultural lands have been contaminated by heavy metals in Taiwan for several decades, because the irrigation system was polluted by wastewater. In this study, a circulation-enhanced electrokinetics (CEEK) and phytoremediation were applied alternately to the real lead-contaminated site. In the beginning, the CEEK was used; then, the corn plants were raised. After this phytoremediation, the CEEK was employed again. Experimental results show that the lead concentration can be reduced from 5672 mg/kg to 2083 mg/kg (around 63%) after the three-stage treatment (CEEK + corn + CEEK). At each stage, CEEK, corn plants, and CEEK can remove around 25%, 5%, and 30% lead from the soil, respectively. During the whole process, the soil pH can maintain around neutral range and the electrical conductivity of soil was stable. The electricity consumption of the CEEK was quite low (89 USD per ton) and the corn plants still were alive throughout the remediation.

15.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(2): 399-407, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957886

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To compare the effects of gliclazide, liraglutide and metformin on body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 85 patients were randomly allocated to receive gliclazide (n = 27), liraglutide (n = 29) or metformin (n = 29) monotherapy for 24 weeks. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Liraglutide and metformin reduced total, trunk, limb, android and gynoid fat mass; this also led to weight reduction. However, gliclazide treatment produced no significant changes in weight or fat mass, likely because reductions in fat mass were concomitant with increases in lean tissue mass. Blood glucose concentrations and glycated hemoglobin levels improved in all treatment arms; levels of the latter were lower in patients treated with liraglutide and metformin. Serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations decreased in all treatment arms, whereas serum aspartate aminotransferase concentrations were reduced only by liraglutide and metformin. In all patients, weight loss and total, trunk, limb, and android fat mass reductions were positively correlated with decreases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, whereas reductions in waist circumference were positively correlated with lower serum alanine aminotransferase levels. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with gliclazide, liraglutide and metformin monotherapies result in greater weight loss, reductions in body fat mass, and better blood glucose control among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Reductions in weight, fat mass and waist circumference favorably affect hepatic function.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gliclazida/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 15: 67, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302121

RESUMO

Background: Weight loss, especially fat mass reduction, helps to improve blood glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and ß-cell function. This study aimed to compare the effect of exenatide and glargine on body composition in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who do not achieve adequate glycemic control with metformin. Methods: We performed a prospective, randomized study of 37 overweight or obese patients with T2DM who had inadequate glycemic control with metformin. The patients were treated with either exenatide or glargine for 16 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Results: Post-intervention weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body mass, and fat mass were lower in patients treated with exenatide, while weight and BMI significantly increased with glargine. Reductions in weight, BMI, body fat mass, and percent fat mass (except for gynoid) were greater with exenatide than with glargine, and percent lean tissue (other than the limbs) increased with exenatide. In all body regions except for the limbs, fat mass decreased with exenatide to a greater extent than lean tissue. Glucose control, insulin resistance, and ß-cell function were not different between the treatment groups. Conclusions: For overweight and obese patients whose T2DM was inadequately controlled with metformin, exenatide and glargine achieved similar improvements in glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and ß-cell function.However, exenatide produced better weight and fat mass reduction, which were beneficial for blood glucose control. Our findings may guide the selection of appropriate drugs for glycemic and weight control. Trial registration: NCT02325960, registered 25 December 2014.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 359: 408-413, 2018 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055430

RESUMO

This study applied circulation-enhanced electrokinetics (CEEK) technique to remove Cd and Pb from the real-site contaminated soils. Soil samples were collected in certain polluted agricultural land in Yunlin, Taiwan. The CEEK system mainly composed of a reactor fulfilling soil samples, one pair of electrodes, a circulation system of working solution and DC power supply. Results demonstrate that the real-site Cd and Pb contaminated soils can be effectively treated by the CEEK technique; the removal efficiency of Cd and Pb can reach 91% and 85%, respectively. The CEEK system can maintain relatively neutral pH of treated soils. The bonding patterns of heavy metals and H+ produced on the anode play the critical roles for removal efficiency. The recovery efficiency of Cd and Pb in the CEEK system can reach 85% and 70%; the species of recovered heavy metals is Cd(OH)2 and Pb5O8, respectively.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(30): e11408, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045262

RESUMO

Ulceration of carotid arterial plaque is associated with cerebral events. Detection of ulcerated plaques will benefit patient from stroke and other ischemic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate morphology of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and to assess its clinical impact in predicting cerebral events.A total of 386 patients were examined with 256-multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (MSCTA).It was found that 356 of the 386 patients had cerebral ischemic symptoms. Specifically, 35 patients had amaurosis fugax (AmF), 178 had transient ischemic attack (TIA), and 143 had ischemic stroke. Abnormal images were found in 658 carotid arteries by MSCTA. Of the 658 abnormal images of carotid arteries, besides the 34 cases of carotid arterial occlusion, 624 cases were atherosclerotic plaques. Of the 624 plaques, 394 (63.2%) were smooth surface plaques, 161 (25.8%) were irregular surface plaques, and 69 (11.1%) were ulcerated plaques. Incidence of ulcerated plaque was higher in the ischemic stroke patients (13.1%) compared with that in the TIA group (10.3%), AmF group (6.6%), or symptom-free group (9.4%) although it was not statistically significant (P = .288). However, there was significant difference in the incidence of ischemic stroke between the ulcerated (20/69, 28.9%) and nonulcerated groups (69/555, 12.4%, P < .05, odds ratio = 2.875).These findings suggested that 256-MSCTA is an advanced imaging tool to determine not only arterial stenosis but also morphologic assessment of atherosclerotic plaques, which will benefit the patients by predicting the cerebral events in advance.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral
19.
Diabetes Ther ; 9(3): 1253-1267, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744819

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Increasing the frequency of blood glucose monitoring aids the evaluation of glycemic variability and blood glucose control by antidiabetic drugs. It remains unclear, however, whether GLP-1 receptor agonists or basal insulin has a better effect on glycemic variability in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who are inadequately controlled by metformin. We used a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to compare patients on a GLP-1 receptor agonist with patients on basal insulin in terms of glycemic variability. METHODS: This prospective randomized study assigned T2DM patients treated with metformin (N = 39) to either exenatide treatment or insulin glargine treatment for 16 weeks. Glycemic variability was assessed using a CGMS; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), ß-cell function, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference were also evaluated. RESULTS: Mean blood glucose level, continuous overlapping net glycemic action, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, percentage of the time that the blood glucose value was > 10.0 mmol/L, and highest blood glucose level (P  < 0.01-0.05) significantly decreased in both groups. Standard deviation of the mean glucose value, largest amplitude of glycemic excursions, and waist circumference significantly decreased for those treated with exenatide (P  < 0.05), while no changes were observed with insulin glargine treatment. Percentage of the time that the blood glucose value was > 7.8 mmol/L decreased after insulin glargine use (P  < 0.05) but not with the exenatide intervention. Similar decreases in fasting blood glucose and HbA1c and increases in the 1/homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, disposition index 30, and disposition index 120 were observed in both groups (P  < 0.01-0.05). Reductions in weight and BMI were greater with exenatide than with insulin glargine treatment (P  < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In overweight and obese patients with T2DM inadequately controlled by metformin, exenatide and insulin glargine have similar efficacies in terms of glycemic variability, HbA1c alleviation, and ß-cell function, but exenatide has a greater effect on body weight and BMI.

20.
MycoKeys ; (29): 81-95, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559827

RESUMO

A new poroid wood-inhabiting fungal genus, Elaphroporia, typified by E. ailaoshanensissp. nov., is proposed based on a combination of morphological features and molecular evidence. The genus is characterised by an annual growth habit, resupinate basidiocarps, becoming rigid and light-weight up on drying, a monomitic hyphal system with thick-walled generative hyphae bearing both clamp connections and simple septa, slightly amyloid, CB+ and ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth and IKI-, CB- basidiospores. Sequences of ITS and LSU nrRNA gene regions of the studied samples were generated, and phylogenetic analyses were performed with maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and bayesian inference methods. The phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data of ITS+nLSU sequences showed that Elaphroporia belonged to the residual polyporoid clade and was closely related to Junghuhnia crustacea. Further investigation was obtained for more representative taxa in the Meruliaceae based on ITS+nLSU sequences, in which the result demonstrated that the genus Elaphroporia formed a monophyletic lineage with a strong support (100 % BS, 100 % BP, 1.00 BPP) and then grouped with Flaviporus and Steccherinum.

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