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1.
World J Pediatr ; 15(5): 483-491, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth weight is a strong determinant of infant short- and long-term health outcomes. Family socioeconomic position (SEP) is usually positively associated with birth weight. Whether this association extends to abnormal birth weight or there exists potential mediator is unclear. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14,984 mother-infant dyads from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of a composite family SEP score quartile with macrosomia and low birth weight (LBW), and examined the potential mediation effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of macrosomia and LBW was 2.62% (n = 392) and 4.26% (n = 638). Higher family SEP was associated with a higher risk of macrosomia (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.82; OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11; and OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.20 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively) and a lower risk of LBW (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94; and OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.77 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively), compared to the 1st SEP quartile. We found that pre-pregnancy BMI did not mediate the associations of SEP with macrosomia and LBW. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in fetal macrosomia and LBW exist in Southern China. Whether the results can be applied to other populations should be further investigated.

2.
Pediatr Res ; 86(4): 529-536, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies proposed that there were racial or ethnic disparities in fetal growth, challenging the use of international standards in specific populations. This study was to evaluate the validity of applying the INTERGROWTH-21st standard to a Chinese population for identifying abnormal head circumference (HC), in comparison with a newly generated local reference. METHODS: There were 24,257 singletons delivered by low-risk mothers in four perinatal health-care centers in Southern China. New HC reference was constructed and comparison in distribution of HC categories was performed between the INTERGROWTH-21st standard and new reference after applying these two tools in study population. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between abnormal HC and adverse neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: There were 4.40% of the newborns identified with microcephaly (HC > 2 standard deviation below the mean) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard, comparing to the proportion of 2.83% using new reference. The newborns identified with microcephaly only by the INTERGROWTH-21st standard were not at a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcome, compared with those identified as non-microcephaly by both tools (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.47-1.13). CONCLUSION: The new HC reference may be more appropriate for newborn assessment in Chinese populations than the INTERGROWTH-21st standard.

3.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2018 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between progesterone concentration in early pregnancy and duration of pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study from 2013-2014, with a singleton pregnancy, who had serum progesterone measured at least one time between 4 and 10 weeks of gestation were included. The association between progesterone concentration both continuous and as categorical variable (quartile) and the risk of preterm delivery was assessed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences of length of gestation in four progesterone concentration quartiles were assessed using the Log-rank test. RESULTS: We studied 1860 mother-newborn pairs. The mean overall progesterone concentration was 65.7 ± 21.3 nmol/L, with mean progesterone concentrations in the four quartiles of 42.4 ± 6.2 nmol/L (n = 463), 56.2 ± 3.3 nmol/L (n = 462), 68.9 ± 4.5 nmol/L (n = 470), and 95.1 ± 15.3 nmol/L (n = 465). There was no significantly difference in duration of gestation in four progesterone concentration groups (p=.511). There was no relation between progesterone level and preterm delivery (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 10 nmol/l progesterone level 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90, 1.11)). After adjusting for potential confounders, the HR of any preterm delivery for quartiles 1, 2 and 3 versus the highest quartile of progesterone level (> 77.3 nmol/L) was 1.04 (95% CI 0.52, 2.07), 1.17 (95% CI 0.60, 2.28), and 1.46 (95% CI 0.76, 2.78), respectively. When analysis was done for spontaneous preterm delivery only, also no association with first trimester progesterone was found. CONCLUSION: Lower first trimester serum progesterone concentration is not associated with reduction of length of gestation or increased risk of preterm delivery.

4.
J Clin Med ; 7(8)2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060450

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) is the leading cause of death in children <5 years of age. Early risk prediction for PTB would enable early monitoring and intervention. However, such prediction models have been rarely reported, especially in low- and middle-income areas. We used data on a number of easily accessible predictors during early pregnancy from 9044 women in Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, China to generate prediction models for overall PTB and spontaneous, iatrogenic, late (34⁻36 weeks), and early (<34 weeks) PTB. Models were constructed using the Cox proportional hazard model, and their performance was evaluated by Harrell's c and D statistics and calibration plot. We further performed a systematic review to identify published models and validated them in our population. Our new prediction models had moderate discrimination, with Harrell's c statistics ranging from 0.60⁻0.66 for overall and subtypes of PTB. Significant predictors included maternal age, height, history of preterm delivery, amount of vaginal bleeding, folic acid intake before pregnancy, and passive smoking during pregnancy. Calibration plots showed good fit for all models except for early PTB. We validated three published models, all of which were from studies conducted in high-income countries; the area under receiver operating characteristic for these models ranged from 0.50 to 0.56. Based on early pregnancy characteristics, our models have moderate predictive ability for PTB. Future studies should consider inclusion of laboratory markers for the prediction of PTB.

5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 18(1): 120, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of asthma. This study aimed to quantify the effect of early life vitamin D status on asthma and wheeze later in life. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and CNKI databases, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar were searched up to July 2017. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies with vitamin D level in blood (maternal or cord or infant) or intake (maternal intake during pregnancy or infant intake) and asthma and/or wheeze. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to summarize the risk estimates of comparisons between highest vs. lowest vitamin D categories. RESULTS: Of the 1485 studies identified, three RCTs and 33 cohort studies were included. We did not include the RCTs (1619 participants) in the meta-analysis as the comparators and outcome definitions were heterogenous. Three RCTs reported a non-statistically significant effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on offspring wheeze/asthma at 3 years of age. Pooled estimates of cohort studies suggest no association between antenatal blood vitamin D levels or vitamin D intake and offspring asthma assessed either > 5 years or ≤ 5 years. The estimate for blood vitamin D remained unchanged when two studies assessing asthma in adulthood were excluded, but a significant inverse association emerged between vitamin D intake and childhood asthma. We found no association between antenatal vitamin D level and wheeze. On the other hand, vitamin D intake during pregnancy may have a protective effect against wheeze. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled estimates from cohort studies show no association between antenatal blood vitamin D level and asthma/wheeze in later life. Whereas, the pooled estimates from cohort studies suggest that antenatal vitamin D intake may have an effect on childhood asthma > 5 years or childhood wheeze. The inconsistent results from studies assessing vitamin D either in blood or intake may be explained by previously reported non-linear association between blood vitamin D3 and childhood asthma. Further trials with enough power and longer follow-up time should be conducted to confirm the results.

6.
Gigascience ; 6(8): 1-12, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873967

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome can modulate metabolic health and affect insulin resistance, and it may play an important role in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, we compared the gut microbial composition of 43 GDM patients and 81 healthy pregnant women via whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of their fecal samples, collected at 21-29 weeks, to explore associations between GDM and the composition of microbial taxonomic units and functional genes. A metagenome-wide association study identified 154 837 genes, which clustered into 129 metagenome linkage groups (MLGs) for species description, with significant relative abundance differences between the 2 cohorts. Parabacteroides distasonis, Klebsiella variicola, etc., were enriched in GDM patients, whereas Methanobrevibacter smithii, Alistipes spp., Bifidobacterium spp., and Eubacterium spp. were enriched in controls. The ratios of the gross abundances of GDM-enriched MLGs to control-enriched MLGs were positively correlated with blood glucose levels. A random forest model shows that fecal MLGs have excellent discriminatory power to predict GDM status. Our study discovered novel relationships between the gut microbiome and GDM status and suggests that changes in microbial composition may potentially be used to identify individuals at risk for GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Metagenoma , Metagenômica , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Gravidez , Curva ROC
7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1031, 2017 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28432291

RESUMO

Estimates of trends in birth weight may be useful in evaluating population health. We aimed to determine whether temporal changes in birth weight have occurred amongst 2.3 million neonates born in Guangzhou, China, during 2001-2015 and investigate the socioeconomic determinants of any changes. Trends in mean birth weight and annualized changes with the associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA), defined as birth weight <10th or >90th centile respectively for gestational age and sex, were examined using linear and Poisson regression models. We found that mean birth weight declined by 1.07 grams/year from 2001 to 2015. After adjustment for gestational length, the decline in birth weight was attenuated (0.37 grams/year). The incidence of both SGA and LGA significantly decreased during the study period (annual decrease of 1.6% [95% CI, 1.5% to 1.7%] for SGA, 1.6% [95% CI, 1.5% to 1.8%] for LGA). We found a narrowing of disparities in SGA and LGA incidence across different maternal educational levels and residence location. Our results demonstrate that there has been an increase in the proportion of neonates born in the healthy birth weight range in Guangzhou.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 32(4): 337-346, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28321694

RESUMO

The Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS) is a large-scale prospective observational study investigating the role of social, biological and environmental influences on pregnancy and child health and development in an urban setting in southern China. Pregnant women who reside in Guangzhou and who attend Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center (GWCMC) for antenatal care in early pregnancy (<20 weeks' gestation) are eligible for inclusion. Study recruitment commenced in February 2012, with an overall participation rate of 76.3%. Study recruitment will continue until December 2018 to achieve the target sample size of 30,000 mother-child pairs. At 30 April 2016, a total of 75,422 questionnaires have been collected, while 14,696 live births have occurred with planned follow-up of cohort children until age 18 years. During the same period a total of 1,053,000 biological samples have been collected from participants, including maternal, paternal and infant blood, cord blood, placenta, umbilical cord, and maternal and infant stool samples. The dataset has been enhanced by record linkage to routine health and administrative records. We plan future record linkage to school enrolment and national examination records.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Birth ; 44(3): 281-289, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28321896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tea, a common beverage, has been suggested to exhibit a number of health benefits. However, one of its active ingredients, caffeine, has been associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We investigated whether tea consumption during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and abnormal fetal growth. METHODS: A total of 8775 pregnant women were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Tea consumption (type, frequency, and strength) during their first trimester and social and demographic factors were obtained by way of questionnaires administered during pregnancy. Information on birth outcomes and complications during pregnancy was obtained from hospital medical records. RESULTS: Overall habitual tea drinking (≥1 serving/week) prevalence among pregnant women was low, at 16%. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (eg, maternal age, educational level, monthly income) tea drinking during early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth (small or large for gestational age) (P>.05). CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify a consistent association between frequency of tea consumption or tea strength and adverse birth outcomes among Chinese pregnant women with low tea consumption. Our findings suggest that occasional tea drinking during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth. Given the high overall number of annual births in China, our findings have important public health significance.


Assuntos
Renda , Idade Materna , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Chá , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 8(8)2016 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27483304

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the reproducibility and validity of a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in a birth cohort study to estimate the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy. The reference measure was the average of three inconsecutive 24 h diet recalls (24 HR) administrated between two FFQs, and the reproducibility was measured by repeating the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately eight weeks later (FFQ2). A total of 210 pregnant women from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS) with full data were included in the analysis. The Spearman's correlation coefficients of FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from 0.33 to 0.71. The intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQs ranged from 0.22 to 0.71. The Spearman's correlation coefficients of the 24 HR and FFQ2 ranged from 0.23 to 0.62. Cross-classification analysis showed 65.1% of participants were classified into same and contiguous quintiles, while only 3.2% were misclassified into the distant quintiles. Bland-Altman methods showed good agreement for most food groups across the range of frequencies between FFQ1 and FFQ2. Our findings indicated that the reproducibility and validity of the FFQ used in BIGCS for assessing the usual consumption frequencies of foods during pregnancy were acceptable.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/etnologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Alimentos/classificação , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/etnologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Bull World Health Organ ; 89(11): 798-805, 2011 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22084525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine syphilis testing capacity, screening coverage rates and types of syphilis tests used in medical facilities in southern China. METHODS: Eleven of the 14 municipalities in Guangdong province participated. Data on syphilis testing capacity, screening coverage and types of syphilis tests used were collected from all types of public medical facilities offering prenatal care (n = 109). A total of 494 680 women who delivered during 2004-2008 were studied. FINDINGS: In 2008, 54 196 pregnant women (43.1%) were not screened for syphilis. Among such women, 32 863 (60.6%) attended clinics without any syphilis testing capacity and 21 333 (39.4%) attended clinics that performed testing but were not screened. The likelihood of not having syphilis test capacity was much higher for hygiene stations (odds ratio, OR: 10; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4-25), services at the township level (OR: 33; 95% CI: 10-100) and services with ≤ 1000 deliveries per year (OR: 1.002; 95% CI: 1.001-1.003). These same service characteristics correlated with lower screening coverage rates (P < 0.01). Only one antenatal clinic had the capacity to conduct both treponemal and non-treponemal tests for diagnosing syphilis. CONCLUSION: Syphilis screening is available in very few of the basic medical facilities offering prenatal care where most neonates in southern China are delivered. In light of this and of the increasing incidence of syphilis in the area, expanding point-of-care rapid syphilis testing is a priority.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Aglutinação , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMC Public Health ; 11: 693, 2011 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21899764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many injection drug users (IDUs) in China have high risk sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of HIV infection. Although many IDUs in China move through drug rehabilitation centers, this opportunity for sexual health education has largely been overlooked. METHODS: A convenience sample of 667 drug users from two rehabilitation centers in South China was recruited in the study. Two hundred and forty seven drug users from a single Guangdong Province rehabilitation center received the peer-based education intervention, while 420 drug users from another rehabilitation center received routine HIV/STI education and was used as the control. One hundred and eighty nine (22.1%) individuals refused to participate in the study. HIV/STI behavioral and knowledge domains were assessed at 3 months in rehabilitation centers after the intervention (first follow-up) and at 2-23 months in the community after release (second follow-up). RESULTS: Drug users who completed the intervention reported more frequent condom use with casual sex partners (60.0% vs. 12.5% condom use every time, p = 0.011) and less frequent injection (56.7% vs. 26.4% no injection per day, p = 0.008) at the second follow-up compared to those in the routine education group. Loss to follow up was substantial in both control and intervention groups, and was associated with living far from the detention center and having poor HIV knowledge at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that rehabilitation centers may be a useful location for providing behavioral HIV/STI prevention services and referral of individuals to community-based programs upon release. More research is needed on behalf of detained drug users in China who have complex social, medical, and legal needs.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Grupo Associado , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , China , Usuários de Drogas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias , Adulto Jovem
13.
AIDS Behav ; 15(7): 1298-308, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21811843

RESUMO

Effective sexually transmitted infection (STIs)/HIV prevention programs are urgently needed, but translating evidence-based methods of STI/HIV prevention into sustainable programs has been difficult. Social influences are critical for establishing condom use norms. This study systematically reviewed social network-based interventions focused on condom promotion. Social networks were defined as groups who self-identified prior to the research study. Eleven eligible research studies were identified and included in this review. Only three studies measured biological endpoints and five studies used validated measures of condom use. Among the nine studies with control groups, eight showed significant improvements in at least one measure of condom use. There were large differences in how social network members were identified and involved in the interventions. This systematic review highlights the potential utility of social network-based condom promotion programs. More research is needed to show how these promising studies can be expanded.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Sexo Seguro , Apoio Social , Humanos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
14.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 57(5): e106-11, 2011 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21522016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV testing is still stigmatized among many high-risk groups in China, whereas routine syphilis testing has been widely accepted at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. This project used the platform of a rapid syphilis screening test to expand HIV test uptake. The objective of this study was to use multilevel modeling to analyze determinants of syphilis and HIV-testing uptake at STI clinics in China. METHODS: 2061 STI patients at 6 clinics in Guangdong Province were offered free rapid syphilis and free rapid HIV testing. Test uptake was defined by patient receipt of results and a multilevel model was used to analyze predictors of uptake. RESULTS: This was the first syphilis or HIV test for the large majority (1388, 77.7%) of participants. Syphilis test uptake and HIV test uptake were high (1681, 81.6%, syphilis test uptake; 1673, 81.2% HIV test uptake). HIV test uptake was significantly concordant with syphilis test uptake (τb = 0.89, P < 0.001). The most parsimonious model of refusing HIV test uptake included the following variables: being married, having a previous HIV test, being unaccompanied, and participating in the last 2 months of the study. CONCLUSIONS: STI clinic-based screening for syphilis and HIV represents an excellent opportunity for scaling up integrated services, especially in South China where syphilis and sexually transmitted HIV cases are both rapidly increasing. Effective integration of HIV testing into routine clinical practice requires an understanding not only of individual test uptake but also of the broader social context of HIV testing.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Sífilis/psicologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 10: 793, 2010 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21192782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syphilis cases have risen in many parts of China, with developed regions reporting the greatest share of cases. Since syphilis increases in these areas are likely driven by both increased screening and changes in sexual behaviours, distinguishing between these two factors is important. Examining municipal-level primary syphilis cases with spatial analysis allows a more direct understanding of changing sexual behaviours at a more policy-relevant level. METHODS: In this study we examined all reported primary syphilis cases from Guangdong Province, a southern province in China, since the disease was first incorporated into the mandatory reporting system in 1995. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were used to correlate municipal-level clustering of reported primary syphilis cases and gross domestic product (GDP). RESULTS: A total of 52,036 primary syphilis cases were reported over the period 1995-2008, and the primary syphilis cases increased from 0.88 per 100,000 population in 1995 to 7.61 per 100,000 in 2008. The Pearl River Delta region has a disproportionate share (44.7%) of syphilis cases compared to other regions. Syphilis cases were spatially clustered (p = 0.01) and Moran's I analysis found that syphilis cases were clustered in municipalities with higher GDP (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Primary syphilis cases continue to increase in Guangdong Province, especially in the Pearl River Delta region. Considering the economic impact of syphilis and its tendency to spatially cluster, expanded syphilis testing in specific municipalities and further investigating the costs and benefits of syphilis screening are critical next steps.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
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