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1.
Planta Med ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545720

RESUMO

Abrus mollis is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of liver diseases due to its hepatoprotection and anti-inflammation, but the absorption properties of its main bioactive ingredients remain unclear. Our previous studies verified that the flavonoid C-glycosides, including vicenin-2 (1: ), isoschaftoside (2: ), and schaftoside (3: ), were the major active components in A. mollis for hepatic protection against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis, and hepatic fibrosis. This study investigated the bioaccessibility and transport mechanisms of total flavonoid C-glycoside, as well as vicenin-2 (1: ), isoschaftoside (2: ), and schaftoside (3: ), in A. mollis by simulated digestion and use of the Caco-2 cell model. Moreover, this study attempted to verify their absorption properties by in situ gastrointestinal perfusion in rats. Total flavonoid C-glycoside and 1, 2: , and 3: exhibited similar bioaccessibility of 84.58%, 85.13%, 83.05%, and 81.65% respectively after simulated digestion. The transport of total flavonoid C-glycoside in the Caco-2 cell model increased with the concentration, and the transport showed saturation characteristics with the time and concentration of total flavonoid C-glycoside to a certain degree. The Papp values of total flavonoid C-glycoside and the 3 flavonoid C-glycosides were significantly improved by verapamil, probenecid, and EDTA-Na2. Their absorption properties in the gastrointestinal tract were consistent with that found in Caco-2 cells, and superior absorption rates were observed in the duodenum and jejunum. The absorption pattern of total flavonoid C-glycoside may involve multiple transport pathways, including active transport, passive diffusion, and the paracellular pathway. TFC was actively pumped out by P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein. These results revealed that the bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption characteristic of total flavonoid C-glycoside were consistent with the 3 major flavonoids.

2.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548009

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is the end stage of many cardiovascular diseases and seriously threatens people's health. This article aimed to explore the biological role of fat-mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) in HF. We constructed HF mouse model by transverse aortic constriction or intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin. Mouse myocardial cells were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). FTO and Mhrt were downregulated in heart tissues of HF mice. HF mice exhibited an increase in the total levels of N6 methyladenosine (m6A) and the m6A levels of Mhrt. Moreover, FTO overexpression caused an upregulation of Mhrt and reduced m6A modification of Mhrt in the H/R-treated myocardial cells. FTO upregulation repressed apoptosis of H/R-treated myocardial cells. FTO knockdown had the opposite results. Mhrt overexpression reduced apoptosis of H/R-treated myocardial cells. Moreover, the influence conferred by FTO upregulation was abolished by Mhrt knockdown. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that FTO overexpression inhibits apoptosis of hypoxia/reoxygenation-treated myocardial cells by regulating m6A modification of Mhrt. Thus, FTO may be a target gene for HF treatment.

3.
Tree Physiol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595075

RESUMO

The role of carbon (C) and nutrient uptake, allocation, storage and especially their interactions in survival and recovery of trees under increased frequencies and intensities of drought events is not well understood. A full factorial experiment with four soil water content regimes ranging from extreme drought to well-watered conditions and two fertilization levels was carried out. We aimed to investigate whether nutrient addition mitigates drought effects on downy oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) and whether storage pools of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are modified to enhance survival after 2.5 years of drought and recovery after drought relief. Physiological traits, such as photosynthesis, predawn leaf water potential as well as tissue biomass together with pools and dynamics of NSC and nutrients at the whole-tree level were investigated. Our results showed that fertilization played a minor role in saplings' physiological processes to cope with drought and drought relief, but reduced sapling mortality during extreme drought. Irrespective of nutrient supply, Q. pubescens showed increased soluble sugar concentration in all tissues with increasing drought intensity, mostly because of starch degradation. After 28 days of drought relief, tissue sugar concentrations decreased, reaching comparable values to those of well-watered plants. Only during the recovery process from extreme drought, root NSC concentration strongly declined, leading to an almost complete NSC depletion after 28 days of rewetting, simultaneously with new leaves flushing. These findings suggest that extreme drought can lead to root carbon exhaustion. After drought relief, the repair and regrowth of organs can even exacerbate the root carbon depletion. We concluded that under future climate conditions with repeated drought events, the insufficient and lagged carbon replenishment in roots might eventually lead to carbon starvation and further mortality.

4.
Nano Lett ; 21(3): 1375-1383, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562964

RESUMO

T lymphocytes infiltrate the most devastating metastatic tumors for immunotherapy, allowing the potential for tumor metastasis suppression. However, tumor heterogeneity often restricts the infiltration of immune cells and possesses immune privilege that leads to protection from the immune attack, especially for invading metastatic clusters. Here, an exosome-camouflaged nanoraspberry (RB@Exo) doubling as a metastases-targeting agent and T cell-infiltration inducer that delivers an anticancer drug and energy is reported. The RB@Exo integrated an exosome-derived margination effect, and density-mediated nanoparticle-induced extracellular leakiness (nanoEL) exhibited more than a 70% colocalization of the RB@Exo to metastatic tumors in the lung in vivo. The release of cancer cell-cell interactions at the metastasis via nanoEL also elicited the 10-fold infiltration of T lymphocytes. The synergy of the T cell infiltration and photolytic effects transported by the RB@Exo deep into the metastatic tumors effectively inhibited the tumor in 60 days when treated with a single alternating magnetic field (AMF).

5.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; PP2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600311

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in the United States. Predicting tumors like PDACs (including both classification and segmentation) from medical images by deep learning is becoming a growing trend, but usually a large number of annotated data are required for training, which is very labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we consider a partially supervised setting, where cheap image-level annotations are provided for all the training data, and the costly per-voxel annotations are only available for a subset of them. We propose an Inductive Attention Guidance Network (IAG-Net) to jointly learn a global image-level classifier for normal/PDAC classification and a local voxel-level classifier for semi-supervised PDAC segmentation. We instantiate both the global and the local classifiers by multiple instance learning (MIL), where the attention guidance, indicating roughly where the PDAC regions are, is the key to bridging them: For global MIL based normal/PDAC classification, attention serves as a weight for each instance (voxel) during MIL pooling, which eliminates the distraction from the background; For local MIL based semi-supervised PDAC segmentation, the attention guidance is inductive, which not only provides bag-level pseudo-labels to training data without per-voxel annotations for MIL training, but also acts as a proxy of an instance-level classifier. Experimental results show that our IAG-Net boosts PDAC segmentation accuracy by more than 5% compared with the state-of-the-arts.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0245961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539430

RESUMO

The income imbalance between urban and rural areas has seriously affected social fairness and justice and has become a key factor restricting the sustainable development of the economy and society. The analysis of the spatiotemporal laws and causes of urban-rural income disparity is of great significance to realizing the coordinated and integrated development of regional urban and rural areas. In this study, the coefficient of variation, Theil decomposition index, spatial autocorrelation method and GeoDetector model were used to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of the urban-rural income gap and its driving force in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2000 to 2017. The results show that the per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents in the study area shows a trend of rapid growth from 2000 to 2017. The urban-rural income gap in the study area showed an inverted "U"-shaped development process as a whole, and the relative difference showed an increasing trend. Regarding the spatial pattern, the study area showed a significant east-west differentiation pattern. The spatial distribution of the urban-rural income gap in the study area has an obvious positive spatial correlation, that is, the phenomena of high-value agglomeration and low-value agglomeration were significant. The economic development level, the industrial structure, the regional development policy, transportation, topographical conditions and resource endowments can strongly explain the spatial differentiation pattern of the urban-rural income gap in the study area. The spatial differentiation pattern of the urban-rural income gap is affected by both natural factors and socioeconomic factors. Among them, socioeconomic factors are the dominant factors, followed by natural factors. There is a significant interaction between natural factors and socio-economic factors, and the combination of socio-economic factors and adverse natural factors can significantly affect the regional urban-rural income gap.

7.
Neurosignals ; 29(1): 1-13, 2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuroendocrine dysregulation has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of neuroendocrine hormones such as epinephrine, is also expressed in T lymphocytes and regulates balance between helper T (Th) 17 cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Herein, we aimed to show that TH expression in joints alleviates joint inflammation and Th17/Treg imbalance in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of RA, and these effects may be implemented by the mechanism of epinephrine action on α1-adrenoreceptor (α1-AR) in T cells. METHODS: CIA was prepared by intradermal injection of collagen type II in tail base of DBA1/J mice. On the 33rd day post-immunization, lentiviral vectors encoding TH or TH shRNA were injected into ankle joints of CIA mice. Limb inflammation of the mice was assessed beginning from day 21 until day 69 post-immunization by measurement of limb swelling, erythema and rigidity. Th17 and Treg differentiation and function in ankle joints were assessed on day 69 post-immunization by test of the expression of Th17 transcriptional factor ROR-γt and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 as well as the expression of Treg transcriptional factor Foxp3 and the levels of antiinflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 and IL-10. T cells were obtained from the spleen of mice that had been immunized with collagen type II 41 day earlier and treated with epinephrine or α1-AR agonist phenylephrine in vitro. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the percentages of CD25-IL-17+ cells and CD25+Foxp3+ cells in CD4+ T cells. RESULTS: TH gene overexpression in ankle joints of CIA mice reduced limb inflammation and Th17-related transcription factor expression and inflammatory cytokine production but increased Treg-related antiinflammatory cytokine production in the joints. In contrast, TH gene silence in ankle joints of CIA mice enhanced limb inflammation and Th17 cell activity but decreased Treg cell function in the joints. Epinephrine upregulated α1-AR expression in T cells derived from CIA mice. Both epinephrine and phenylephrine reduced CIA-induced Th17 transcription factor expression and inflammatory cytokine production but enhanced Treg antiinflammatory cytokine production in vitro. CONCLUSION: Upregulating TH expression in joints alleviates joint inflammation and Th17/Treg imbalance in CIA at least partially by enhancing epinephrine action on α1-AR in T cells.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 132021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621950

RESUMO

Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is the most severe form of male infertility owing to the absence of sperm during ejaculation as a result of failed spermatogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of NOA have not been well studied. Here, we revealed the dysregulated differentially expressed genes in NOA and related signaling pathways or biological processes. Cluster features of biological processes include spermatogenesis, fertilization, cilium movement, penetration of zona pellucida, sperm chromatin condensation, and being significantly enriched metabolic pathways in proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation, aldosterone synthesis and secretion, glycolysis and glycogenesis pathways in NOA using Gene Ontology analysis and pathway enrichment analysis. The NOA gene co-expression network was constructed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify the hub genes (CHD5 and SPTBN2). In addition, we used another Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (GSE45887) to validate these hub genes. Furthermore, we used the Seurat package to classify testicular tissue cells from NOA patients and to characterize the differential expression of hub genes in different cell types from different adult males based on the scRNA-seq dataset (GSE106487). These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of NOA. Of particular note, CHD5 and SPTBN2 may be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of NOA.

9.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624340

RESUMO

The new technology of high throughput single cell RNA sequencing (10 × scRNA-seq) was developed recently with many advantages. However, it was not commonly used in farm animal research. There are few reports for the gene expression of goat ovarian follicle granulosa cells (GCs) during different developmental stages. In current investigation, the gene expression of follicle GCs at different stages from two populations of Ji'ning grey goats: high litter size (HL; ≥3/ litter; two litters) and low litter size (LL; ≤2 /litter; two litters) were analyzed by scRNA-seq. Many GCs marker genes were identified; and the pseudo-time showed that GCs developed during the time course which reflected the follicular development and differentiation trajectory. Moreover, the gene expression difference between the two populations HL vs LL was very clear at different developmental stages. Many marker genes differentially expressed at different developmental stages. ASIP and ASPN were found to be highly expressed in the early stage of GCs; INHA, INHBA, MFGE8, and HSD17B1 were identified to be highly expressed in the growing stage of GCs; while IGFBP2, IGFBP5, and CYP11A1 were found to be highly expressed in late stage. These marker genes could be used as reference genes of goat follicle GCs development. This investigation for the first time discovered the gene expression patterns in goat follicle GCs in high or low fertility populations (based on litter size) by scRNA-seq which may be useful for the uncovering the oocyte development potential.

10.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(1): e80-e83, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458998

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming is a global public health problem. The pediatric population poisoned by snakebite envenoming has different features than adult patients. Bungarus multicinctus is a highly venomous species of the elapid snake. The documented clinical presentations following Bungarus multicinctus envenoming are minimal local reactions, respiratory failure, general pain, and life-threatening hyponatremia. We present an uncommon case of Bungarus multicinctus envenomation in a girl with unusual clinical findings, including severe tissue necrosis and thrombocytopenia with coagulopathy.

11.
Nanoscale ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433543

RESUMO

A donor-acceptor ligand, 3-amino-2-bromo-6-methoxypyridine (ABMeoPy), was introduced to passivate FA0.8Cs0.2PbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) by a post-processing method. The donor-acceptor interaction can greatly enhance the coordination bond of pyridine-Pb2+, and improve FA0.8Cs0.2PbBr3 NC performance with 95.99% photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), 6-month stability in solution, and 26% trap density decrease. In the light of ABMeoPy passivation of FA0.8Cs0.2PbBr3 NCs, the maximum luminance, the maximum current efficiency, and EQE of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) increased 69%, 110%, and 111%, respectively. The strategy of using D-A molecules to passivate perovskite NCs is quite simple and effective, which can be widely promoted in perovskite-based LEDs or solar cells.

12.
Food Chem ; 346: 128953, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412487

RESUMO

Tartary buckwheat is widely accepted as its nutritionalvalue. Some allergic reactions hinder its utilization. This research focused on evaluating the core epitope of 16 kDa allergen (Fag t 2) in tartary buckwheat. Six B- and seven T cell epitopes of Fag t 2 were predicted, and six B cell epitope-mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris. Bioinformatics analysis and SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the molecular weight, isoelectric point and spatial structures of six mutant allergens were similar with Fag t 2, with the same signal peptide sequences and α-amylase inhibitor domain. There was no significant change in mutants' spatial conformation confirmed by Circular Dichroism. The position K132N and peptides at 108-117 and 132-141 were the core B- and T cell epitopes of Fag t 2 confirmed by competitive inhibition ELISA and dot blot. This result was of great significance on the study of allergen epitopes in prevention and treatment of hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Alérgenos/química , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Dicroísmo Circular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/metabolismo , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Pichia/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação
13.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(1): 18-24, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the safety of two ventilator weaning strategies after high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) in preterm infants. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted for 101 preterm infants with NRDS, with a gestational age of ≤32+6 weeks or a birth weight of ≤1 500 g, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Xiamen Maternal and Child Health Hospital from January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020. The infants underwent HFOV as the preferred treatment. The infants were randomly divided into an observation group (50 infants with direct weaning from HFOV) and a control group (51 infants with weaning after HFOV was switched to conventional mechanical ventilation). The two groups were compared in terms of failure rate of ventilator weaning within 72 hours, changes in blood gas parameters at 2 hours before weaning and at 2 and 24 hours after weaning, respiratory support therapy, incidence rates of complications, and outcome at discharge. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the failure rate of ventilator weaning within 72 hours (8% vs 14%, P > 0.05). The observation group had a significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation than the control group [(64±39) hours vs (88±69) hours, P < 0.05]. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the duration of mechanical ventilation, total oxygen supply time, blood gas parameters before and after ventilator weaning, incidence rates of complications, and outcome at discharge (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: For preterm infants with NRDS, the strategy of weaning directly from HFOV is safe and reliable and can reduce the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Desmame do Respirador
14.
Gut ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effects of the diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis reach far beyond the gut. We aim to uncover the direct evidence involving the gut-testis axis in the aetiology of impaired spermatogenesis. DESIGN: An excessive-energy diet-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) sheep model was established. The testicular samples, host metabolomes and gut microbiome were analysed. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) confirmed the linkage between gut microbiota and spermatogenesis. RESULTS: We demonstrated that the number of arrested spermatogonia was markedly elevated by using 10× single-cell RNA-seq in the MetS model. Furthermore, through using metabolomics profiling and 16S rDNA-seq, we discovered that the absorption of vitamin A in the gut was abolished due to a notable reduction of bile acid levels, which was significantly associated with reduced abundance of Ruminococcaceae_NK4A214_group. Notably, the abnormal metabolic effects of vitamin A were transferable to the testicular cells through the circulating blood, which contributed to abnormal spermatogenesis, as confirmed by FMT. CONCLUSION: These findings define a starting point for linking the testicular function and regulation of gut microbiota via host metabolomes and will be of potential value for the treatment of male infertility in MetS.

15.
Hum Pathol ; 110: 31-42, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476644

RESUMO

The KIT11 mutation is the most frequent mutation pattern in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, few studies have investigated the correlation between the KIT11-mutated grading system and imatinib mesylate (IM) sensitivity (the first choice for adjuvant treatment of GISTs). Here, we elucidated the clinical value of the KIT11-mutated grading system for prognostic prediction in patients with GISTs treated with IM. A total of 106 patients with GIST were treated with IM (8: intermediate-risk, 98: high-risk; 10: KIT9-mutated, 86: KIT11-mutated, 5: wild-type, and 5: other mutations). KIT11-mutated patients were divided into 3 grades based on the KIT11-mutated site and type. Clinical backgrounds and prognostic outcomes were retrospectively compared between the 3 groups. Of 86 KIT11-mutated patients treated with IM, 32 (37.21%) had grade 1 tumors, 37 (43.02%) had grade 2 tumors, and 17 (19.77%) had grade 3 tumors. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in patients with grade 3 KIT11-mutated GISTs (41.96%, p = 0.001) than in those with grade 1 (93%) and grade 2 (70.64%) cases. The multivariable analysis suggested that the KIT11-mutated grading system was an independent risk factor for DFS in patients treated with IM (hazard risk, 2.512; 95% confidence interval, 1.370-4.607; p = 0.003). In conclusion, the KIT11-mutated grading system provides good prognostic stratification for DFS in patients treated with IM. Grade 1 tumors predict a favorable response to IM.

16.
Psychogeriatrics ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apathy is a neuropsychiatric symptom frequently observed in patients with cognitive impairment. It has been found to be a predictor of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia of Alzheimer disease type. However, this association between apathy and dementia conversion has not yet been confirmed in vascular MCI, especially post-stroke MCI. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether apathy would increase the risk of dementia conversion in patients with post-stroke MCI after 6 months. METHOD: A prospective multi-centre cohort study was performed in 14 clinics in seven provinces and cities of China. A total of 989 subjects were included 2 weeks to 6 months after stroke, and met the diagnostic criteria of International Working Group for MCI. Symptoms of apathy were assessed using the apathy subscale of Geriatric Depression Scale. Subjects were divided into an apathy group (n = 128) and a non-apathy group (n = 861). The primary outcome was the dementia conversion after 6 months. To eliminate potential biases, subjects were chosen from 861 non-apathy patients with similarity in seven potential predictors of cognitive impairment to match with the apathy group (n = 128) at a 1:1 ratio, as a matched non-apathy group (n = 128). The dementia conversion rate was compared between the apathy group (n = 128) and its correspondingly matched non-apathy group (n = 128), and the relative risk (RR) was calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of apathy in post-stroke MCI was 12.9%. After 6 months, 5.2% of patients with post-stroke MCI converted to dementia. The dementia conversion rate of the apathy group was significantly higher than that of the non-apathy group before case-matching (17.2% vs 3.4%, P < 0.001), and also after case-matching (17.2% vs 6.3%, P < 0.001). Symptoms of apathy increased the risk of conversion from MCI to dementia (RR 2.75, 95% CI 1.272-5.947, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: For patients with post-stroke MCI, apathy symptoms increase the risk of conversion from MCI to dementia.

18.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(1): 170-183, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910421

RESUMO

Early-life multiple anesthetics exposure causes neurotoxicity and hence cognitive dysfunction on developing brain. However, the effects of early-life multiple sevoflurane exposures on emotional changes, especially upon stress, are far beyond understood. In young male C57BL6/J mice, the present study showed that 3% sevoflurane inhalation for 2 h in three consecutive days did not influence anxiety-like behaviors as measured by open field test, light dark transition, and elevated plus maze test. In addition, foot shocks stress induced both the short- and long-term anxiety-like behaviors. However, triple sevoflurane exposures ameliorated the long-term anxiety-like behaviors induced by the foot shocks. In parallel, foot shocks stress upregulated the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which were significantly inhibited by triple sevoflurane exposures. Immunofluorescence further indicated that the increased p-ERK was mainly expressed in the proBDNF-positive staining cells. Intra-ACC injection of recombinant proBDNF protein upregulated the p-ERK expression and blocked the anxiolytic effect of sevoflurane exposure on long-term anxiety-like behaviors. Therefore, our study demonstrated that multiple sevoflurane exposures alleviate long-term anxiety-like behaviors upon acute stress in young mice by inhibiting proBDNF-ERK signaling in the ACC.

19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 172: 112788, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157407

RESUMO

The emergence of the smartphones has brought extensive changes to our lifestyles, from communicating with one another, to shopping and enjoyment of entertainment, and from studying to functioning at the workplace (and in the field). At the same time, this portable device has also provided new possibilities in scientific research and applications. Based on the growing awareness of good health management, researchers have coupled health monitoring to smartphone sensing technologies. Along the way, there have been developed a variety of smartphone-based optical detection platforms for analyzing biological samples, including standalone smartphone units and integrated smartphone sensing systems. In this review, we outline the applications of smartphone-based optical sensors for biosamples. These applications focus mainly on three aspects: Microscopic imaging sensing, colorimetric sensing and luminescence sensing. We also discuss briefly some limitations of the current state of smartphone-based spectroscopy and present prospects of the future applicability of smartphone sensors.

20.
J Integr Med ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture therapy has shown promise for effectively relieving preoperative anxiety. Nevertheless, previous findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are inconsistent and must be examined in detail. OBJECTIVE: This study systematically evaluates the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for preoperative anxiety as well as the quality of evidence supporting this application. SEARCH STRATEGY: The China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Wanfang Data Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chongqing VIP, Embase, PubMed and Cochrane Library Databases were queried from their inception to 19, February 2020, using keywords such as "acupuncture therapy," "preoperative" and "anxioty." Manual searches expanded the search breadth and included conference abstracts and other reference lists. INCLUSION CRITERIA: RCTs were included in the current study if they contained a comparison between a group of anxiety patients that received acupuncture therapy and a control group that received sham acupuncture. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Literature was reviewed, and various articles were selected using the NoteExpress 3.2.0 software. Two researchers independently screened and extracted data and evaluated the risk of bias in the included studies. The RevMan 5.3 software was used for data aggregation and the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) assessment was used to evaluate the quality of the study outcomes. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in the review, containing a total of 916 patients. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with the control group, patients who received acupuncture therapy had reduced State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Scale (STAI-S) score (mean difference [MD] = -9.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] [-13.19 to -4.96], P < 0.0001) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score (MD = -1.37, 95% CI [-2.29 to -0.45], P = 0.003). However, for the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score, there was no difference between the two groups (MD = -3.98, 95% CI [-12.89 to 4.92], P = 0.38). Further, the GRADE assessment demonstrated that the STAI-S was of moderate quality, the VAS of low quality and the HAMA of very low quality. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture therapy may be able to decrease anxiety in preoperative patients, but the results need to be further verified due to the small sample sizes and the low quality of evidence to date.

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