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2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(6): e23317, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249459

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is one of the most commonly seen bone malignancies with high incidence rate in both children and adults. Although the regulatory network of osteosarcoma has been greatly concerned for years, the mechanisms regarding its oncogenesis and development are still not clear. Recent discoveries have revealed that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in the development, progression, and invasion of osteosarcoma. Deregulated expression of lncRNAs has been found to participate in the regulation of various signaling transduction pathways in osteosarcoma. This review summarized roles of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis, development, and potential therapeutic of osteosarcoma via different signaling pathways. For examples, MALAT1, CCAT2, FER1L4, LOXL1-AS1, OIP5-AS1, PVT1, DBH-AS1, and AWPPH regulate PI3K/Akt signaling; AWPPH and BE503655 regulate Wnt/ß-catenin signaling; NKILA and XIST regulate NF-κB signaling; MEG3 and SNHG12 regulate Notch signaling; FOXD2-AS1 and LINK-A regulate HIF-1α signaling; GClnc1 and HOTAIR regulate P53 signaling; ZFAS1, H19, and MALAT1 regulate MAPK, Hedgehog and Rac1/JNK signaling, respectively.

3.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(7): 1345-1352, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154763

RESUMO

Astragaloside IV (AS#IV) has previously demonstrated antitumoractivity. We investigated the effect and mechanisms of AS#IV in relation to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), viainterference with the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in gliomaU251 cells. Induction of glioma U251 cells by transforming growthfactor (TGF)#ß1 activated EMT, including switching E#cadherin toN-cadherin and altering the expression of Wnt/ß-catenin signalingpathway components such as vimentin, ß-catenin, and cyclin-D1.AS-IV inhibited the viability, invasion, and migration of TGF-ß1-induced glioma U251 cells. AS-IV also interfered with the TGF#ß1-induced Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway in glioma U251 cells.These findings indicate that AS#IV prohibits TGF#ß1-induced EMTby disrupting the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in glioma U251 cells. AS#IV may thus be a potential candidate agent for treating glioma andother central nervous system tumors.

4.
J Pathol ; 246(2): 141-153, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876933

RESUMO

Some histone deacetylases (HDACs) promote tumor cell growth and pan- or selective HDAC inhibitors are active in some cancers; however, the pivotal HDAC enzyme and its functions in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remain largely unknown. Using NanoString nCounter assays, we profiled HDAC mRNA expression and identified HDAC6 as an upregulated HDAC family member in DLBCL tissue samples. We then found that HDAC6 plays an oncogenic role in DLBCL, as evidenced by its promotion of cell proliferation in vitro and tumor xenograft growth in vivo. Mechanistically, the interaction between HDAC6 and HR23B downregulated HR23B expression, thereby reducing the levels of casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), an E3 ubiquitin ligase for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), which resulted in the inhibition of MET ubiquitination-dependent degradation. In addition, enhanced HDAC6 expression and decreased HR23B expression were correlated with poor overall survival rates among patients with DLBCL. Taken together, these results establish an HDAC6-HR23B-MET axis and indicate that HDAC6 is a potent promoter of lymphomagenesis in DLBCL. Thus, a therapeutic strategy based on HDAC6 inhibitors in combination with MET inhibitors is promising. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Crizotinibe/farmacologia , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/genética , Desacetilase 6 de Histona/metabolismo , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/enzimologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteólise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitinação , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7054, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728586

RESUMO

We experimentally demonstrated a narrowband acoustic phonon source with simultaneous tunabilities of the centre frequency and the spectral bandwidth in the GHz-sub THz frequency range based on photoacoustic excitation using intensity-modulated optical pulses. The centre frequency and bandwidth are tunable from 65 to 381 GHz and 17 to 73 GHz, respectively. The dispersion of the sound velocity and the attenuation of acoustic phonons in silicon dioxide (SiO2) and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were investigated using the acoustic phonon source. The sound velocities of SiO2 and ITO films were frequency-independent in the measured frequency range. On the other hand, the phonon attenuations of both of SiO2 and ITO films showed quadratic frequency dependences, and polycrystalline ITO showed several times larger attenuation than those in amorphous SiO2. In addition, the selective excitation of mechanical resonance modes was demonstrated in nanoscale tungsten (W) film using acoustic pulses with various centre frequencies and spectral widths.

6.
Opt Express ; 24(12): 12730-9, 2016 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27410292

RESUMO

The new optical gating technique uses a femtosecond optical laser pulses for the photoconductive detection of short pulses of terahertz (THz) radiation. This technique reproduces the shape of the THz pulse and after pulse plasmonic response of the two-dimensional electron gas in a short channel high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The results are in excellent agreement with the electro-optic effect measurements and with the simulation results obtained in the frame of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The femtosecond optical laser pulse time is delayed with respect to the THz pulse and generates a large concentration of the electron-hole pairs in the AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT. This drastically increases the channel conductivity on the femtosecond scale and effectively shorts the device quenching the transistor response. The achieved time resolution is better than 250 femtoseconds and could be improved using shorter femtosecond laser pulses. The spatial resolution of this technique is on the order of tens of nanometers or even smaller. It could be applied for studying the electron transport in a variety of electronic devices ranging from silicon MOSFETs to heterostructure bipolar transistors.

7.
Gastric Cancer ; 19(1): 107-15, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumor-transforming gene-1 (PTTG1) is a transcription factor that can affect transcriptional activity, angiogenesis, and cell senescence. We examined PTTG1 mRNA and protein expression in gastric cancer (GC) cell lines and tissues to determine its value as a biomarker for GC diagnosis and therapy. METHODS: PTTG1 mRNA expression from 78 GC cases and paired adjacent normal mucosa (PCR cohort) as well as from five gastric cell lines was assessed using qRT-PCR. Nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA were extracted from two gastric cell lines to determine PTTG1 mRNA localization. PTTG1 protein expression from 98 GC cases, their paired adjacent normal mucosa, and 23 gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) cases was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC cohort). The correlation between PTTG1 mRNA and protein expression and GC clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: PTTG1 mRNA expression in GC tissues and cell lines was significantly increased compared with adjacent normal gastric mucosa and normal gastric mucous cell lines (p < 0.05). PTTG1 expression was nuclear and cytoplasmic, with higher cytoplasmic expression. PTTG1 immunostaining significantly differed in GC (95.66 ± 20.65), GIN (84.00 ± 34.16), and normal adjacent mucosa (28 ± 22.25) (p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that PTTG1 mRNA and protein expression are independent prognostic factors for GC patient survival. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PTTG1 is a promising target for GC diagnosis and therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Securina/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Securina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
8.
Am J Cancer Res ; 5(4): 1542-52, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26101717

RESUMO

The MYBL2 gene plays an important role in the genesis and progression of tumors; however, few studies to date have defined the role of this gene in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between MYBL2 and the prognosis of patients with CRC and to determine the possible effect of MYBL2 on colorectal carcinogenesis. Solid CRC tissues (n=180) preserved with RNAlater were collected to examine the mRNA levels of MYBL2 by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of CRC tissues (n=97) and adjacent noncancerous tissues (ANCTs, n=104) were obtained to detect MYBL2 protein levels by immunohistochemistry (IHC). siRNA was used to downregulate MYBL2 expression in the SW480 cell line to detect changes in proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The protein levels of MYBL2 were significantly higher in CRC tissues compared with ANCTs (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in CRC patients in whom MYBL2 was overexpressed (at both the mRNA and protein levels) compared with patients not overexpressing MYBL2. Cox multivariate analysis revealed MYBL2 overexpression as an independent prognostic factor for poor patient survival. In addition, siRNA downregulation of MYBL2 suppressed SW480 cell proliferation, delayed cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis; however, changes in cell migration were minor. Western blot analysis demonstrated an association between MYBL2 expression and that of MMP9, Vimentin, and E-cadherin. MYBL2 is overexpressed in CRC and may therefore play an important role in tumourigenesis.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 137(6): 1269-78, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25765901

RESUMO

Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were demonstrated to play important regulatory roles in biological processes and cancer biology. However, the overall pathophysiological contribution of lncRNAs to gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. In this study, differentially expressed lncRNAs in GC and paired adjacent normal tissue samples were identified by microarray and were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). One particular lncRNA, tumour suppressor candidate 7 (TUSC7), was analyzed in sequential large cohorts, and the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test for comparisons was used to analyse the survival data. The results indicated that TUSC7 was downregulated in GC samples and was an independent prognostic indicator of disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in GC patients. Applying loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches, we determined that TUSC7 suppressed tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that TUSC7 was a direct transcriptional target of p53 via interaction of p53 with the putative p53-response element in the upstream region of TUSC7. Finally, we demonstrated reciprocal repression between TUSC7 and miR-23b; in contrast to TUSC7, miR-23b promoted cell growth. The results indicated that TUSC7 is a p53-regulated tumour suppressor that acts in part by repressing miR-23b and that TUSC7 may be a key regulatory hub in GC.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Células HEK293 , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
10.
Mol Cancer ; 14: 22, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25645394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several clinical and pathological factors have an impact on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), but they are not yet adequate for risk assessment. We aimed to identify a molecular signature that can reliably identify CRC patients at high risk for recurrence. RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-one CRC samples (stage II/III) were included in this study. A two-step gene expression profiling study was conducted. First, gene expression measurements from 81 fresh frozen CRC samples were obtained using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. Second, a focused gene expression assay, including prognostic genes and genes of interest from literature reviews, was performed using 200 fresh frozen samples and a Taqman low-density array (TLDA) analysis. An optimal 31-gene expression classifier for the prediction of recurrence among patients with stage II/III CRC was developed using logistic regression analysis. This gene expression signature classified 58.5% of patients as low-risk and 41.5% as high-risk (P < 0.001). The signature was the strongest independent prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. The five-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rates for the low-risk patients and the high-risk patients were 88.5% and 41.3% (P < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: We identified a 31-gene expression signature that is closely associated with the clinical outcome of stage II/III CRC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
11.
Mod Pathol ; 28(1): 4-13, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24925053

RESUMO

Recent large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that the human genome contains more than just protein-coding genes. Indeed, a large number of transcripts, including long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), lack protein-coding capacity, and increasing evidence suggests that lncRNAs could have a critical role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, such as stem cell pluripotency, development, cell growth and apoptosis, and cancer invasion and/or metastasis. Furthermore, the aberrant expression of several lncRNAs is closely linked to cancer invasion and/or metastasis. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs regulate cancer invasion and/or metastasis are not clearly understood, recent studies have revealed that aberrant lncRNAs expression affects the progression of cancer. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding the roles of lncRNAs in cancer invasion and/or metastasis.


Assuntos
Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Humanos
12.
Mol Carcinog ; 54(9): 742-50, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24519959

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in regulating cellular processes, such as cell growth and apoptosis, as well as cancer progression and metastasis. ncRAN (non-coding RNA expressed in aggressive neuroblastoma) was previously shown to be dramatically up-regulated and associated with poor prognosis in human neuroblastoma. This lncRNA also plays an important role in bladder cancer growth and invasion. Colorectal cancer (CRC) progression typically follows a complex cascade from primary malignancy to distant metastasis, but whether the aberrant expression of ncRAN in CRC is associated with malignancy, metastasis or prognosis remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that ncRAN expression is significantly down-regulated in tumor tissue and CRC cell lines compared with adjacent normal tissue and a normal intestinal mucous cell line. Reduced expression of ncRAN was detected in poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tumors and in tumors with liver metastases. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with lower ncRAN expression have a worse overall survival. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that decreased expression of ncRAN is an independent predictor of overall survival. Our experimental data indicated that ncRAN mediates the in vitro migration and invasion of CRC cells. Together, these results suggest that ncRAN might represent a novel prognostic indicator, a biomarker for the early detection of metastasis and a target for gene therapy in CRC.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Reto/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Prognóstico , Reto/metabolismo
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 93(28): e303, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25526476

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently discovered RNA transcripts that are aberrantly expressed in many tumor types. Numerous studies have suggested that lncRNAs can be utilized for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. LSINCT5 (long stress-induced non-coding transcript 5) is dramatically upregulated in breast and ovarian cancer and affects cellular proliferation. However, the expression pattern of LSINCT5 in gastrointestinal cancer and the association between aberrant expression of LSINCT5 in gastrointestinal cancer and malignancy, metastasis, or prognosis remain unknown. LSINCT5 expression was detected in gastrointestinal cancer and paired adjacent normal tissue samples or cell lines using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). We also investigated the potential relationship between tumor LSINCT5 levels and clinicopathological features of gastrointestinal cancer. Finally, we assessed whether LSINCT5 influences in vitro cell proliferation. The expression of LSINCT5 is significantly upregulated in gastrointestinal cancer tissues and cell lines relative to their normal counterparts. In addition, increased LSINCT5 expression was correlated with a larger tumor size, deeper tumor depth, and advanced clinical stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with higher LSINCT5 expression levels have worse disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that increased expression of LSINCT5 is an independent predictor of DFS and DSS rates in GC patients. The ectopic expression of LSINCT5 in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines resulted in an increase in cellular proliferation; conversely, knock down of LSINCT5 significantly inhibited proliferation. These results suggest that LSINCT5 may represent a novel prognostic indicator and a target for gene therapy in gastrointestinal cancer.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , RNA Longo não Codificante/biossíntese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 7(5): 2421-9, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24966952

RESUMO

Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT)-like follicular dendritic cell (FDC) sarcoma is a recently described rare tumor and considered a unique entity, with different histologic appearances and behavior from those of the classical FDC sarcoma. This study analyzed the clinical and pathological findings of two such cases that the authors encountered and 36 previously reported cases identified in the literature. Assessment of all 38 cases showed a slight female predominance (2.2:1) with a median age of 56.5 years. Seventeen patients complained of abdominal discomfort or pain, while fifteen patients had no clinical symptom. Almost all cases occurred in liver (n=20) or spleen (n=17). Except in one case, all patients underwent surgical resection of the tumor alone. Histologic features showed a mixture of chronic inflammatory cells and variable amounts of spindle cells with vesicular nuclei and distinct nucleoli. The tumor cells expressed conventional FDC markers such as CD21 (75%), CD35 (92%), CD23 (62%), clusterin (75%), and CNA.42 (100%). EBV was detected in thirty-five cases (92.1%) by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA in situ hybridization, and EBV-latent membrane protein-1 was expressed in 90% of the cases. With a median follow-up of 21 months, 29 patients (85.3%) were alive and well, 4 (11.8%) were alive with disease, one patient (2.9%) died of disease. Only four patients with hepatic tumors underwent recurrence or metastasis after initial treatment. Epstein-Barr virus is thought to play a role in the development of the tumor; however, the pathogenesis of the disease and the origin of tumor cells remain unclear.


Assuntos
Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/patologia , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/patologia , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Esplênicas/patologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biópsia , DNA Viral/genética , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/complicações , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/mortalidade , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/cirurgia , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/virologia , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/química , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/virologia , Feminino , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/complicações , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/metabolismo , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/mortalidade , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/cirurgia , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas/virologia , Hepatectomia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Neoplasias Hepáticas/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Esplenectomia , Neoplasias Esplênicas/química , Neoplasias Esplênicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esplênicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esplênicas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Esplênicas/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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