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2.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1281-1289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413687

RESUMO

Background: Type C behavior is a cancer-prone behavior that can affect the occurrence and development of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of type C behavior in patients with breast cancer during postoperative chemotherapy and determine its associated factors. Methods: This study enrolled 161 patients with breast cancer who received postoperative chemotherapy. Type C personality behavior pattern questionnaire was used to assess type C behavior patterns. The following instruments were employed: medical coping modes questionnaire, social support scale, social relational quality scale, Herth hope index. logistic regression was used to identify the factors affecting type C behavior. Results: The incidence of type C behavior was 28%. Participants aged 45-59 years (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.04-12.56, P = 0.043), and who adopted a resignation coping style (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.03-1.50, P = 0.021), were more likely to develop type C behavior. Type C behavior was less common in patients with employment (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.97, P = 0.043), with a high level of social support (OR = 0.89, 95% CI= 0.80-0.98, P = 0.023), and more hope (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.98, P = 0.079). Conclusion: In this study, 28% patients with breast cancer during postoperative chemotherapy exhibited type C behavior. Associated factors with type C behavior were identified, which could guide health care professionals to reduce the prevalence of type C behavior through guiding patients to adopt positive coping styles and improving their level of social support and hope, especially in those aged 45 to 59 years or in those without employment.

3.
Anal Chem ; 93(34): 11751-11757, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398599

RESUMO

Developing nanoplatforms that simultaneously integrate diagnostic imaging and therapy functions has been a promising but challenging task for cancer theranostics. Herein, we report the rational design of a smart nucleic acid-gated covalent organic framework (COF) nanosystem for cancer-specific imaging and microenvironment-responsive drug release. Cy5 dye-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) for mRNA recognition was adsorbed on the surface of doxorubicin (Dox)-loaded COF nanoparticles (NPs). Dox loaded in the pores of COF NPs could strengthen the interactions between ssDNA and COF and enhance the fluorescence quenching effect toward Cy5, while the densely coated ssDNA could prevent the leakage of Dox from COF NPs. The obtained nanosystem exhibited low fluorescence signal and Dox release in normal cells; however, the ssDNA could be released by the overexpressed TK1 mRNA in cancer cells to recover the intense fluorescence signal of Cy5, and the loaded Dox could be further released for chemotherapy. Therefore, cancer cell-specific diagnostic imaging and drug release were realized with the rationally developed nanosystem. This work offers a universal nanoplatform for cancer theranostics and a promising strategy for regulating the interaction between COFs and biomolecules.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Ácidos Nucleicos , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(35): 41498-41506, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435498

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have emerged as promising materials for biomedical applications, but their functions remain to be explored and the potential toxicity concerns should be resolved. Herein, it is presented that carbonization significantly enhances the fluorescence quenching efficiency and aqueous stability of nanoscale COFs. The probes prepared by physisorbing dye-labeled nucleic acid recognition sequences onto the carbonized COF nanoparticles (termed C-COF) were employed for cell imaging, which could effectively light up biomarkers (survivin and TK1 mRNA) in living cells. The C-COF has enhanced photothermal conversion capacity, indicating that the probes are also promising candidates for photothermal therapy. The potential toxicity concern from the aromatic rigid building units of COFs was detoured by carbonization. Overall, carbonization is a promising strategy for developing biocompatible and multifunctional COF-derived nanoprobes for biomedical applications. This work may inspire more versatile COF-derived nanoprobes for bioanalysis and nanomedicine.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 6(61)2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266981

RESUMO

Ongoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development is focused on identifying stable, cost-effective, and accessible candidates for global use, specifically in low and middle-income countries. Here, we report the efficacy of a rapidly scalable, novel yeast expressed SARS-CoV-2 specific receptor-binding domain (RBD) based vaccine in rhesus macaques. We formulated the RBD immunogen in alum, a licensed and an emerging alum adsorbed TLR-7/8 targeted, 3M-052-alum adjuvants. The RBD+3M-052-alum adjuvanted vaccine promoted better RBD binding and effector antibodies, higher CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, improved Th1 biased CD4+T cell reactions, and increased CD8+ T cell responses when compared to the alum-alone adjuvanted vaccine. RBD+3M-052-alum induced a significant reduction of SARS-CoV-2 virus in respiratory tract upon challenge, accompanied by reduced lung inflammation when compared with unvaccinated controls. Anti-RBD antibody responses in vaccinated animals inversely correlated with viral load in nasal secretions and BAL. RBD+3M-052-alum blocked a post SARS-CoV-2 challenge increase in CD14+CD16++ intermediate blood monocytes, and Fractalkine, MCP-1, and TRAIL in the plasma. Decreased plasma analytes and intermediate monocyte frequencies correlated with reduced nasal and BAL viral loads. Lastly, RBD-specific plasma cells accumulated in the draining lymph nodes and not in the bone marrow, contrary to previous findings. Together, these data show that a yeast expressed, RBD-based vaccine+3M-052-alum provides robust immune responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2, making it a strong and scalable vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Alúmen/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Saccharomycetales/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Administração por Inalação , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009624, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086838

RESUMO

A primary goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is the consistent elicitation of protective, neutralizing antibodies. While highly similar neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been isolated from multiple HIV-infected individuals, it is unclear whether vaccination can consistently elicit highly similar nAbs in genetically diverse primates. Here, we show in three outbred rhesus macaques that immunization with Env elicits a genotypically and phenotypically conserved nAb response. From these vaccinated macaques, we isolated four antibody lineages that had commonalities in immunoglobulin variable, diversity, and joining gene segment usage. Atomic-level structures of the antigen binding fragments of the two most similar antibodies showed nearly identical paratopes. The Env binding modes of each of the four vaccine-induced nAbs were distinct from previously known monoclonal HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies, but were nearly identical to each other. The similarities of these antibodies show that the immune system in outbred primates can respond to HIV-1 Env vaccination with a similar structural and genotypic solution for recognizing a particular neutralizing epitope. These results support rational vaccine design for HIV-1 that aims to reproducibly elicit, in genetically diverse primates, nAbs with specific paratope structures capable of binding conserved epitopes.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta
7.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 56, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859204

RESUMO

We studied mucosal immune responses in six HIV-1 vaccine trials investigating different envelope (Env)-containing immunogens. Regimens were classified into four categories: DNA/vector, DNA/vector plus protein, protein alone, and vector alone. We measured HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA in secretions from cervical (n = 111) and rectal swabs (n = 154), saliva (n = 141), and seminal plasma (n = 124) and compared to corresponding blood levels. Protein-containing regimens had up to 100% response rates and the highest Env-specific IgG response rates. DNA/vector groups elicited mucosal Env-specific IgG response rates of up to 67% that varied across specimen types. Little to no mucosal IgA responses were observed. Overall, gp41- and gp140-specific antibodies dominated gp120 mucosal responses. In one trial, prior vaccination with a protein-containing immunogen maintained durability of cervical and rectal IgG for up to 17 years. Mucosal IgG responses were boosted after revaccination. These findings highlight a role for protein immunization in eliciting HIV-1-specific mucosal antibodies and the ability of HIV-1 vaccines to elicit durable HIV-1-specific mucosal IgG.

8.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 50, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837212

RESUMO

The development of an effective AIDS vaccine remains a challenge. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs formulated in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) have proved to be a potent mode of immunization against infectious diseases in preclinical studies, and are being tested for SARS-CoV-2 in humans. A critical question is how mRNA-LNP vaccine immunogenicity compares to that of traditional adjuvanted protein vaccines in primates. Here, we show that mRNA-LNP immunization compared to protein immunization elicits either the same or superior magnitude and breadth of HIV-1 Env-specific polyfunctional antibodies. Immunization with mRNA-LNP encoding Zika premembrane and envelope or HIV-1 Env gp160 induces durable neutralizing antibodies for at least 41 weeks. Doses of mRNA-LNP as low as 5 µg are immunogenic in macaques. Thus, mRNA-LNP can be used to rapidly generate single or multi-component vaccines, such as sequential vaccines needed to protect against HIV-1 infection. Such vaccines would be as or more immunogenic than adjuvanted recombinant protein vaccines in primates.

9.
Nature ; 594(7862): 253-258, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873199

RESUMO

The development of a portfolio of COVID-19 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative1. Here we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on an I53-50 protein nanoparticle scaffold (hereafter designated RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing-antibody responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. We evaluated five adjuvants including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an α-tocopherol-containing oil-in-water emulsion; AS37, a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist adsorbed to alum; CpG1018-alum, a TLR9 agonist formulated in alum; and alum. RBD-NP immunization with AS03, CpG1018-alum, AS37 or alum induced substantial neutralizing-antibody and CD4 T cell responses, and conferred protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and bronchoalveolar lavage. The neutralizing-antibody response to live virus was maintained up to 180 days after vaccination with RBD-NP in AS03 (RBD-NP-AS03), and correlated with protection from infection. RBD-NP immunization cross-neutralized the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant efficiently but showed a reduced response against the B.1.351 variant. RBD-NP-AS03 produced a 4.5-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351 whereas the group immunized with RBD-NP-AS37 produced a 16-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351, suggesting differences in the breadth of the neutralizing-antibody response induced by these adjuvants. Furthermore, RBD-NP-AS03 was as immunogenic as a prefusion-stabilized spike immunogen (HexaPro) with AS03 adjuvant. These data highlight the efficacy of the adjuvanted RBD-NP vaccine in promoting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and have led to phase I/II clinical trials of this vaccine (NCT04742738 and NCT04750343).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Compostos de Alúmen , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Masculino , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Esqualeno
11.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(4): 529-539.e3, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705729

RESUMO

All current vaccines for COVID-19 utilize ancestral SARS-CoV-2 spike with the goal of generating protective neutralizing antibodies. The recent emergence and rapid spread of several SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying multiple spike mutations raise concerns about possible immune escape. One variant, first identified in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7, also called 20I/501Y.V1), contains eight spike mutations with potential to impact antibody therapy, vaccine efficacy, and risk of reinfection. Here, we show that B.1.1.7 remains sensitive to neutralization, albeit at moderately reduced levels (∼sim;2-fold), by serum samples from convalescent individuals and recipients of an mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273, Moderna) and a protein nanoparticle vaccine (NVX-CoV2373, Novavax). A subset of monoclonal antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike are less effective against the variant, while others are largely unaffected. These findings indicate that variant B.1.1.7 is unlikely to be a major concern for current vaccines or for an increased risk of reinfection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Testes de Neutralização , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532764

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein mediates virus entry and is a major target for neutralizing antibodies. All current vaccines are based on the ancestral Spike with the goal of generating a protective neutralizing antibody response. Several novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with multiple Spike mutations have emerged, and their rapid spread and potential for immune escape have raised concerns. One of these variants, first identified in the United Kingdom, B.1.1.7 (also called VUI202012/01), contains eight Spike mutations with potential to impact antibody therapy, vaccine efficacy and risk of reinfection. Here we employed a lentivirus-based pseudovirus assay to show that variant B.1.1.7 remains sensitive to neutralization, albeit at moderately reduced levels (~2-fold), by serum samples from convalescent individuals and recipients of two different vaccines based on ancestral Spike: mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and protein nanoparticle NVX-CoV2373 (Novavax). Some monoclonal antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Spike were less effective against the variant while others were largely unaffected. These findings indicate that B.1.1.7 is not a neutralization escape variant that would be a major concern for current vaccines, or for an increased risk of reinfection.

13.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594366

RESUMO

The development of a portfolio of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine under clinical development, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on a two-component protein nanoparticle (RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates. We evaluated five different adjuvants combined with RBD-NP including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an alpha-tocopherol-containing squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion used in pandemic influenza vaccines; AS37, a TLR-7 agonist adsorbed to Alum; CpG 1018-Alum (CpG-Alum), a TLR-9 agonist formulated in Alum; or Alum, the most widely used adjuvant. All five adjuvants induced substantial nAb and CD4 T cell responses after two consecutive immunizations. Durable nAb responses were evaluated for RBD-NP/AS03 immunization and the live-virus nAb response was durably maintained up to 154 days post-vaccination. AS03, CpG-Alum, AS37 and Alum groups conferred significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The nAb titers were highly correlated with protection against infection. Furthermore, RBD-NP when used in conjunction with AS03 was as potent as the prefusion stabilized Spike immunogen, HexaPro. Taken together, these data highlight the efficacy of the RBD-NP formulated with clinically relevant adjuvants in promoting robust immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates.

14.
iScience ; 24(2): 102047, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554060

RESUMO

The efficacy of ALVAC-based HIV and SIV vaccines in humans and macaques correlates with antibodies to envelope variable region 2 (V2). We show here that vaccine-induced antibodies to SIV variable region 1 (V1) inhibit anti-V2 antibody-mediated cytotoxicity and reverse their ability to block V2 peptide interaction with the α4ß7 integrin. SIV vaccines engineered to delete V1 and favor an α helix, rather than a ß sheet V2 conformation, induced V2-specific ADCC correlating with decreased risk of SIV acquisition. Removal of V1 from the HIV-1 clade A/E A244 envelope resulted in decreased binding to antibodies recognizing V2 in the ß sheet conformation. Thus, deletion of V1 in HIV envelope immunogens may improve antibody responses to V2 virus vulnerability sites and increase the efficacy of HIV vaccine candidates.

15.
NPJ Vaccines ; 5(1): 107, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298954

RESUMO

A preventative HIV-1 vaccine is an essential intervention needed to halt the HIV-1 pandemic. Neutralizing antibodies protect against HIV-1 infection in animal models, and thus an approach toward a protective HIV-1 vaccine is to induce broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). One strategy to achieve this goal is to define envelope (Env) evolution that drives bnAb development in infection and to recreate those events by vaccination. In this study, we report the immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy in rhesus macaques of an SIV-based integrase defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) expressing sequential gp140 Env immunogens derived from the CH505 HIV-1-infected individual who made the CH103 and CH235 bnAb lineages. Immunization with IDLV expressing sequential CH505 Envs induced higher magnitude and more durable binding and neutralizing antibody responses compared to protein or DNA +/- protein immunizations using the same sequential envelopes. Compared to monkeys immunized with a vector expressing Envs alone, those immunized with the combination of IDLV expressing Env and CH505 Env protein demonstrated improved durability of antibody responses at six months after the last immunization as well as lower peak viremia and better virus control following autologous SHIV-CH505 challenge. There was no evidence of vector mobilization or recombination in the immunized and challenged monkeys. Although the tested vaccines failed to induce bnAbs and to mediate significant protection following SHIV-challenge, our results show that IDLV proved safe and successful at inducing higher titer and more durable immune responses compared to other vaccine platforms.

16.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(6)2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33286371

RESUMO

Dual receiver encryption (DRE), being originally conceived at CCS 2004 as a proof technique, enables a ciphertext to be decrypted to the same plaintext by two different but dual receivers and becomes popular recently due to itself useful application potentials such secure outsourcing, trusted third party supervising, client puzzling, etc. Identity-based DRE (IB-DRE) further combines the bilateral advantages/facilities of DRE and identity-based encryption (IBE). Most previous constructions of IB-DRE are based on bilinear pairings, and thus suffers from known quantum algorithmic attacks. It is interesting to build IB-DRE schemes based on the well-known post quantum platforms, such as lattices. At ACISP 2018, Zhang et al. gave the first lattice-based construction of IB-DRE, and the main part of the public parameter in this scheme consists of 2 n + 2 matrices where n is the bit-length of arbitrary identity. In this paper, by introducing an injective map and a homomorphic computation technique due to Yamada at EUROCRYPT 2016, we propose another lattice-based construction of IB-DRE in an even efficient manner: The main part of the public parameters consists only of 2 p n 1 p + 2 matrices of the same dimensions, where p ( ≥ 2 ) is a flexible constant. The larger the p and n, the more observable of our proposal. Typically, when p = 2 and n = 284 according to the suggestion given by Peikert et al., the size of public parameters in our proposal is reduced to merely 12% of Zhang et al.'s method. In addition, to lighten the pressure of key generation center, we extend our lattice-based IB-DRE scheme to hierarchical scenario. Finally, both the IB-DRE scheme and the HIB-DRE scheme are proved to be indistinguishable against adaptively chosen identity and plaintext attacks (IND-ID-CPA).

17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e22857, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma has a high incidence rate and the high mortality rate has always been an important global health challenge. Surgical treatment is widely performed in patients with colorectal carcinoma. Fast track surgery (FTS) applies evidence-based medical concept to optimize the management during the operation, so as to reduce the psychological and physical trauma stress of surgical patients and make them recover rapidly. We perform this protocol for randomized controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of a rapid rehabilitation care in colorectal carcinoma surgery. METHODS: It is a single-center randomized controlled study to be conducted from January 2021 to December 2021. It was authorized via the Ethics Committee of the Huzhou Central Hospital (20191127-01). Eighty participants who undergo colorectal carcinoma surgery will be included in this research. Patients are randomly assigned to control group (standard management group, including 40 samples) and study group (the FTS group, including 40 samples). The main results are times of postoperative exhaust, first defecation, ambulation, first eating, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are incidence of nausea and emesis, wound infection, urinary tract infection, lung infection, deep vein thrombosis, and rehospitalization rate among the 2 groups. All analyses are conducted using the SPSS for Windows Release 15.0. RESULTS: Figure 1 shows the clinical results between groups. CONCLUSION: The research can offer a reliable basis for the effectiveness of a rapid recovery nursing program in patients with colorectal carcinoma. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry6038).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/reabilitação , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Enfermagem em Reabilitação
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008764, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881968

RESUMO

To augment HIV-1 pox-protein vaccine immunogenicity using a next generation adjuvant, a prime-boost strategy of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara and multimeric Env gp145 was evaluated in macaques with either aluminum (alum) or a novel liposomal monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) formulation adsorbed to alum, ALFA. Binding antibody responses were robust and comparable between arms, while antibody-dependent neutrophil and monocyte phagocytotic responses were greatly enhanced by ALFA. Per-exposure vaccine efficacy against heterologous tier 2 SHIV mucosal challenge was 90% in ALFA-adjuvanted males (P = 0.002), while alum conferred no protection. Half of the ALFA-adjuvanted males remained uninfected after the full challenge series, which spanned seven months after the last vaccination. Antibody-dependent monocyte and neutrophil phagocytic responses both strongly correlated with protection. Significant sex differences in infection risk were observed, with much lower infection rates in females than males. In humans, MPLA-liposome-alum adjuvanted gp120 also increased HIV-1-specific phagocytic responses relative to alum. Thus, next-generation liposome-based adjuvants can drive vaccine elicited antibody effector activity towards potent phagocytic responses in both macaques and humans and these responses correlate with protection. Future protein vaccination strategies aiming to improve functional humoral responses may benefit from such adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas contra a SAIDS/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 126: 105820, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750425

RESUMO

Sorafenib resistance is a classic problem related to the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There is a recognized need to explore new drug resistance mechanisms and develop novel strategies to overcome the acquired resistance to sorafenib. Although one study has showed that the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) could sensitize transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß)-induced sorafenib-resistant HCC cells, it is unclear whether VPA could reverse resistance to long-term clinical treatment with sorafenib. In this study, we successfully established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells by long-term sorafenib exposure. Compared with sensitive HCC cells, the proliferation, anti-apoptotic capability and migration of the sorafenib-resistant cells were enhanced. In addition, we found that VPA combined with sorafenib could overcome drug resistance by downregulating Jagged2-mediated Notch1 signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins. Furthermore, the combination of VPA and sorafenib could obviously increase the sensitivity of drug-resistant cells in vitro and synergistically suppress tumor growth in vivo. These results provided a new insight that the use of VPA in combination with sorafenib was an effective method for clinically solving the problem of sorafenib resistance by modulating the Jagged2-mediated Notch1 signaling pathway and reversing the EMT phenotype.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Jagged-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14056, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820216

RESUMO

Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) strain 68-1-vectored simian immunodeficiency virus (RhCMV/SIV) vaccines are associated with complete clearance of pathogenic SIV challenge virus, non-canonical major histocompatibility complex restriction, and absent antibody responses in recipients previously infected with wild-type RhCMV. This report presents the first investigation of RhCMV/SIV vaccines in RhCMV-seronegative macaques lacking anti-vector immunity. Fifty percent of rhesus macaques (RM) vaccinated with a combined RhCMV-Gag, -Env, and -Retanef (RTN) vaccine controlled pathogenic SIV challenge despite high peak viremia. However, kinetics of viral load control by vaccinated RM were considerably delayed compared to previous reports. Impact of a TLR5 agonist (flagellin; FliC) on vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity was also examined. An altered vaccine regimen containing an SIV Gag-FliC fusion antigen instead of Gag was significantly less immunogenic and resulted in reduced protection. Notably, RhCMV-Gag and RhCMV-Env vaccines elicited anti-Gag and anti-Env antibodies in RhCMV-seronegative RM, an unexpected contrast to vaccination of RhCMV-seropositive RM. These findings confirm that RhCMV-vectored SIV vaccines significantly protect against SIV pathogenesis. However, pre-existing vector immunity and a pro-inflammatory vaccine adjuvant may influence RhCMV/SIV vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Future investigation of the impact of pre-existing anti-vector immune responses on protective immunity conferred by this vaccine platform is warranted.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Produtos do Gene gag/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Macaca mulatta , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral
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