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1.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 383-388, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The association between a vegetarian diet and bone mineral density (BMD) remains unclear, particularly in young adults. This study was designed to compare the bone health status of young vegetarians and omnivores in Shanghai, China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 246 vegetarians (following a vegan or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet for at least 1 year) and 246 age- and sex-matched omnivores were recruited among young adult residents of Shanghai, China. The ultrasound bone mineral density analyser CM-200 was employed to measure calcaneus mineral densities, and blood samples were collected to determine serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D status. Intakes of protein, calcium and vitamin D were assessed by the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS: The average age of the vegetarians was 32.7±6.5 years, 83.3% of whom were female; 71.3% of the participants had been vegetarians for no more than 5 years. After adjusting for some potential cofounding factors, the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration of vegans (15.0±13.4 µg/L) was significantly lower than that of omnivores (17.6±8.8 µg/L, p<0.05). The protein, calcium and vitamin D intakes of vegetarians were all lower than those of omnivores (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in calcaneus mineral density between vegetarians and omnivores or between vegans and lacto-ovo vegetarians. CONCLUSIONS: Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in vegans, but not in lacto-ovo vegetarians, were slightly lower than those in omnivores. However, short-term vegetarian diets did not result in adverse effects on bone mineral density in young Chinese adults.

2.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 139, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is still unclear if and at which trimester gestational weight gain is related to childhood adiposity. Thus we aimed to evaluate the association between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and body-fat compositions in Chinese children. METHODS: Maternal gestational weight were measured by trained nurses every 2 to 4 weeks from the first prenatal care, and body-fat compositions of 407 children from the Shanghai Obesity Cohort at 5 years of age were measured by nutritionist through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Overweight/obesity of children was defined according to the criteria of International Obesity Task Force. Logistic and linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders were conducted to evaluate the associations of gestational weight gains with childhood obesity and body-fat compositions. Two-sided P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Greater gestational weight gain in the 1st-trimester was significantly associated with a higher risk of childhood overweight/obesity [OR: 1.40 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.86)], fat mass index [ß: 0.25 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.38)], body fat percentage [ß: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.65)], and waist-to-height ratio [ß: 0.005 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.008)]. A positive but nonsignificant association was found between greater 3rd-trimester gestational weight gain and a higher risk of offspring overweight/obesity, and we speculated that the association between 2nd-trimester gestational weight gain and offspring overweight/obesity is the "U" type. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain in the first trimester gestation is positively correlated with the risk of childhood overweight/obesity and with body adiposity distributions of children at 5 years of age. Weight gain should be well controlled and monitored from early pregnancy.

3.
Clin Rheumatol ; 38(9): 2373-2381, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Neck circumference (NC) is associated with metabolic abnormalities, independent of other obesity indices. However, data are limited regarding the potential relation between NC and serum uric acid (UA) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the cross-sectional association between NC and UA concentration, and odds of having hyperuricemia in a community-based cohort. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The current study included 87,782 participants (16,317 women and 71,465 men, 52.2 ± 14.1 y) of the Kailuan Study. NC and UA concentration were measured in 2014. We used generalized linear model to investigate the association between NC and serum UA concentration and logistic regression model to investigate the association between NC and likelihood of having hyperuricemia (≥ 7 mg/dl in men and ≥ 6 mg/dl in women), adjusting for demographic factor, anthropometric indices, plasma lipid profiles, blood glucose, blood pressure, physical exercise, snoring, smoking, diet quality, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Higher NC was associated with higher serum UA concentration, and higher odds of hyperuricemia in both men and women after adjusting for potential confounders (both p < 0.001). Each additional 5-cm increase in NC was associated with 6% higher likelihood of having hyperuricemia (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.02, 1.1) in men and 17% in women (adjusted OR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.06, 1.28) (p interaction = 0.01). Similar pattern was observed after excluding participants who reported use of anti-hypertensive drugs, participants with obesity or higher waist circumference, and participants with history of gout and chronic kidney diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Higher NC was associated with higher serum UA concentration and higher risk of hyperuricemia in Chinese adult population. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: Kailuan Study (ChiCTR-TNRC-11001489).

4.
Endocr Pract ; 25(7): 717-728, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013149

RESUMO

Objective: The optimal treatment for girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) is unknown. We conducted a network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of existing treatments to provide credible clinical guidelines. Methods: We compared gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) therapy, GnRHa plus growth hormone (GH) combination therapy, and no-treatment therapy for girls with CPP by performing an electronic search for studies in PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and Wanfang Data from their inception until September 30, 2018. Six outcomes, including bone maturation ratio, final height, final height compared with target height, growth velocity, height gain, and gain in predicted adult height (ΔPAH), were expressed as the mean difference with 95% confidence interval. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) value illustrated the rank probability of each treatment under different outcomes. Results: Twenty-two studies with 1,268 patients were included. GnRHa plus GH had the best performance on final height, final height compared with target height, growth velocity, height gain, and ΔPAH, with the highest SUCRA values of 0.919, 0.975, 0.909, 0.999, and 0.957, respectively. For bone maturation ratio, GnRHa ranked the highest, with a SUCRA value of 0.663. No severe adverse effects were reported. Conclusion: For girls with CPP, GnRHa plus GH had the highest probability of being the optimal therapy for improving final height, and no severe adverse effects were reported. Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; CPP = central precocious puberty; GH = growth hormone; GnRHa = gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue; HPG = hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal; LH = luteinizing hormone; NMA = network meta-analysis; PAH = predicted adult height; PCOS = polycystic ovary syndrome; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SUCRA = surface under the cumulative ranking curve.


Assuntos
Puberdade Precoce , Estatura , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede
5.
Nutr Res ; 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077351

RESUMO

A dietitian has qualifications in nutrition and dietetics and applies the science of food and nutrition to improve the health of individuals, groups, and communities. The Registered Dietitian (RD) credential has gained recognition over the years for its expertise. The accreditation systems were developed and have been used to ensure quality of this profession. Accreditation systems set standards for academic and professional training in nutrition and dietetics and reflect current research-based information. The purpose of this paper is to review a few countries that have a RD accreditation system including China and several other countries, e.g. the United States, Japan, and the United Kingdom. The aims are to introduce the newly established RD system in China and to compare the differences among the countries' systems.

6.
Endocr Pract ; 24(9): 823-832, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29975579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether liver steatosis severity affects the risk of developing diabetes in a large cohort study. METHODS: We prospectively examined the association in 41,650 Chinese adults with negative hepatitis-B surface antigen who were free of alcohol consumption, diabetes, and liver cirrhosis at baseline. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the risk of diabetes after a mean of 3.6 years of follow-up. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was assessed with hepatic ultrasonography. Elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) was defined as ALT concentrations >19 and >30 U/L in females and males, respectively. Diabetes was defined as a fasting glucose 37.0 mmol/L or treatment with hypoglycemic medication. RESULTS: Liver steatosis severity was significantly associated with higher risks of developing diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for severe vs. without NAFLD = 2.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.17-3.25, P-trend<.001) and impaired fasting glucose (fasting glucose between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/L, adjusted HR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.16-1.59, P-trend<.001), as well as a faster increase rate of fasting glucose concentrations ( P-trend<.001), during 3.6 years of follow-up. Elevated ALT was also associated with incident diabetes (HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22), adjusting for NAFLD and other covariates. CONCLUSION: We observed a dose-response relationship between liver steatosis severity and increased diabetes risk, and ALT may predict incident diabetes independently of NAFLD. ABBREVIATIONS: ALT = alanine transaminase; BP = blood pressure; CI = confidence interval; HCV = hepatitis C virus; HR = hazard ratio; IFG = impaired fasting glucose; NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; ULN = upper limit of normal.

7.
Food Nutr Res ; 622018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881333

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the high prevalence of food allergy but the underlying mechanisms are far from clear. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of maternal and early-life vitamin D deficiency in the development of food allergy. Design: BALB/c mice were treated with ovalbumin (OVA) to trigger allergic reactions, under vitamin D-deficient (by maternal and early-life feeding of vitamin D deprived chow diet) or vitamin D-sufficient conditions. Results: Increased occurrence and severity of allergic diarrhea as well as decreased rectal temperature were observed after OVA sensitization. For vitamin D deficiency groups, OVA-specific IgE and IL-4 levels were significantly increased, while IFN-γ levels were unchanged. Vitamin D deficiency also attenuated the structure of small intestinal villi and decreased the expression of the tight junction protein between adjacent epithelial cells and the percentages of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cell in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusions: Maternal and early-life vitamin D deficiency have notable influence on the susceptibility to food allergy, which may relate with the reduced population of Treg cell and the dysfunction of intestinal epithelial barrier.

8.
Med Hypotheses ; 95: 24-26, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27692159

RESUMO

Precocious puberty which impacts children physically and psychologically has become one of the health problem over the world. However, the mechanism and preventive measures of precocious puberty is still not clear. Recent studies suggested that leptin may act as the 'permissive factor' to initiate the puberty by regulating gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion. Previous evidence from animal and human studies found that tea polyphenols can reduce serum leptin levels in vivo and inhibit the expression of leptin in adipose tissue. This article focus on whether tea polyphenols could delay the onset of puberty by reducing leptin levels. To verify the possibility of tea polyphenols on preventing precocious puberty, animal experiment can be used. Our hypothesis that tea polyphenols could prevent the precocious puberty may provide important potential way for the prevention and control of children precocious puberty.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/química , Puberdade Precoce/prevenção & controle , Chá/química , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/química , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Maturidade Sexual , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Endocr Pract ; 22(9): 1119-29, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27295015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review trends in the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and related risk factors in China. METHODS: We searched the literature using PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and China Wanfang Digital Database for large epidemiologic studies and national surveys. RESULTS: During the past 30 years (1980-2010), 7 national diabetes mellitus surveys were conducted in China mainland, indicating that the prevalence of DM has increased 17-fold, from 0.67 to 11.6% of the population. The prevalence of impaired glucose regulation (IGR, including impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance) also increased, from 2.09 in 1994 to 27.2% in 2010. There was no national representative study of the incidence of diabetes to date; the reported incidence of type 2 diabetes during past 25 years in several cohort studies varied (2.7 to 15.8 per 1,000 person-years). Potential risk factors which could have contributed to the increasing prevalence and incidence of DM and IGR in the Chinese population include social and economic development, urbanization, dietary pattern, and Westernized lifestyle. Further, genetic studies have suggested that unique inheritable risk factors in the Chinese population may increase the risk for DM when compared to Caucasians. CONCLUSION: DM and IGR have become epidemic in China. Public health strategies should focus on modifying lifestyle and dietary factors, particularly among those with a susceptible genetic background. ABBREVIATIONS: BMI = body mass index DM = diabetes mellitus FBG = fasting blood glucose GWAS = genome-wide association study IGR = impaired glucose regulation IGT = impaired glucose tolerance OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test T2D = type 2 diabetes WC = waist circumference WHR = waist-hip ratio.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Nutrients ; 7(10): 8871-86, 2015 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26516907

RESUMO

Little is known about the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on angiogenesis in adipocytes. We aimed to test the effect of EGCG on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in adipocytes. The levels of VEGF secretion, the expression of VEGF message ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and VEGF protein in 3T3-L1 cells were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The xCELLigence real time cell analysis system was used to study the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A coculture system was used to test the effects of 3T3-L1 cells on proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The conditioned media derived from 3T3-L1 cells treated with or without EGCG was used to culture the HUVECs for a tube formation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), two transcription factors related to both adipogenesis and angiogenesis, were examined to explore the potential mechanism. We found that all the three measurements of VEGF expression in adipocytes (mRNA, protein and secretion in media) were reduced after EGCG treatment. The growth of HUVECs co-cultured with 3T3-L1 cells was significantly increased and the conditioned media from EGCG treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited tube formation in HUVECs. Both PPARγ and C/EBPα expression in adipocytes were decreased with EGCG treatment. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that EGCG may inhibit angiogenesis by regulating VEGF expression and secretion in adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Br J Nutr ; 114(6): 952-8, 2015 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26283622

RESUMO

It has been shown that food insecurity is associated with poor diet quality and unfavourable health outcomes. However, little is known about the potential effects of food insecurity on the overall malnutrition status among children. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of food insecurity among 1583 elementary school students, aged 6-14 years, living in Chinese rural areas and examined its association with four malnutrition signs, including rickets sequelae, anaemia, stunting and wasting. Information on food security was collected via questionnaires. Rickets sequelae were assessed by an experienced paediatrician during the interview. Anaemia was determined by the WHO Hb thresholds adjusted by the local altitude. Weight and height were measured during the interview. Stunting and wasting were then evaluated according to WHO child growth standards (2007). We examined the association between food insecurity and the number of malnutrition signs (total number = 4), and the likelihood of having severe malnutrition (presence of 3+ signs), after adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, social-economic status and dietary intakes. During the previous 12 months, the overall prevalence of food insecurity was 6.1% in the entire studied population and 16.3% in participants with severe malnutrition. Participants with food insecurity had a slightly higher number of malnutrition signs (1.14 v. 0.96; P=0.043) relative to those who were food secure, after adjusting for potential confounders. Food insecurity was also associated with increased likelihood of having severe malnutrition (adjusted OR 3.08; 95% CI 1.47, 6.46; P=0.003). In conclusion, food insecurity is significantly associated with malnutrition among Chinese children in this community.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente/etnologia , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/etnologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/psicologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/economia , Desnutrição/etnologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Raquitismo/etiologia , Saúde da População Rural/etnologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/economia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/etnologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/etiologia
12.
Cancer Lett ; 366(1): 100-11, 2015 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26095601

RESUMO

Radiation induced normal tissue damage is the most important limitation for the delivery of a high potentially curative radiation dose. Genistein (GEN), one of the main soy isoflavone components, has drawn wide attention for its bioactivity in alleviating radiation damage. However, the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying the radioprotective effects of GEN remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that low concentration of GEN (1.5 µM) protected L-02 cells against radiation damage via inhibition of apoptosis, alleviation of DNA damage and chromosome aberration, down-regulation of GRP78 and up-regulation of HERP, HUS1 and hHR23A. In contrast, high concentration of GEN (20 µM) demonstrated radiosensitizing characteristics through the promotion of apoptosis and chromosome aberration, impairment of DNA repair, up-regulation of GRP78, and down-regulation of HUS1, SIRT1, RAD17, RAD51 and RNF8. These findings shed light on using low, but not high-concentration GEN, as a potential candidate for adjuvant therapy to alleviate radiation-induced injuries to human recipients of ionizing radiation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Genisteína/farmacologia , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Raios X
13.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 44(2): 237-41, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25997226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of vegetarians in the whole Shanghai population, and to know the vegetarians' brief and behavior on diet, nutrition and health. METHODS: First, a multi-staged, stratified, clustered random sampling design was used. A total representative sample of 4 004 Shanghai resident subjects were asked if they were vegetarians and what type of vegetarian they were by a well-designed questionnaire. Second, from ten vegetarian restaurants located in Shanghai. 473 adult vegetarians completed a questionnaire about vegetarian status, among whom 274 vegetarians completed a detailed questionnaire about their brief and behaviors on diet, nutrition and health status. RESULTS: Of 4 004 subjects, 0.77% were vegetarians (0.45% were lacto-vegetarians and 0. 12% were vegans). The average age was 65. 0 years. 74. 2% of the vegetarians were female. Of 473 vegetarians, 70. 2% of the vegetarians had college or higher education. Compared to vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians were significantly younger and had higher educational level. The main reasons for choosing a vegetarian lifestyle were religion (49. 3%) and health (31. 3%). Furthermore, more vegan tend to be Buddhist. Vegetarians were more concerned about their health (209/274, 76. 5%) , the consumption of balance diets (183/274, 66. 8%). Comparing with lacto-ovo-vegetarians (58. 3%) more vegans (70. 4%) believed in that vegetarian diet is a kind of healthy dietary pattern and will not have any nutrients deficiency (P = 0. 037). Vegetarians consumed more healthy foods (e. g.,whole grains, vegetables, soy products, and nuts) than the general population (P < 0. 01). Only 5. 8% of the vegetarians took dietary supplements. CONCLUSION: 0. 77% of population in Shanghai was vegetarian. The two main reasons for adopting a vegetarian lifestyle were religion and health. The vegetarians tend to have more nutrition knowledge, better attitude and behavior on health. However, most of the vegetarians had not realized the nutrient deficiency risk of vegetarian diets.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , China , Dieta , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
14.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 23(3): 459-64, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25164458

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a combined intervention of diet and physical activity on body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE) and metabolic factors in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Twenty obese children and adolescents aged 7 to 17 years completed a 4-week summer camp program which focussed on personal behaviour, including energy-restricted diets and supervised physical activity. Anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography (US) for subcutaneous and hepatic fat, and abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging assessments were made and blood pressure (BP) recorded before and after the 4-week intervention. RESULTS: 1) Weight loss was 7.2 ± 2.2 kg, with losses of 5.5 ± 2.2 kg and 1.7 ± 1.2 kg in fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM), respectively, with associated reductions in abdominal and hip fat and in the waist/hip circumference ratio and in BP. 2) There were no significant changes in REE or in its ratio with weight. 3) Reductions in uric acid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HbA1C, insulin, C-Peptide and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the ratio of fatty liver were observed, but not in the inflammatory marker hsCRP. CONCLUSIONS: With behavioural intervention during a summer camp, body fat and its distribution were favourably changed, but with some loss of lean mass. However, there were no detectable reductions in REE. Weight management programs which achieve fat loss with maintenance of REE ought to be more sustainable.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Gordura Abdominal/patologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , China , Dieta Redutora/estatística & dados numéricos , Impedância Elétrica , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
15.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 42(4): 571-5, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the nutritional status of pupils and to provide basic evidence for the nutritional interventions. METHODS: The subjects of the study were 2046 pupils from 9 primary schools in poor counties of Guangxi and Yunnan. The contents of the investigation included medical physical examination, haematoglobin determination and dietary survey. Nutritional Status was evaluated according to WHO growth standards. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting and wasting in children from 6 to 14 years old in poor areas of Guangxi and Yunnan were 34.3% and 6.5% respectively. The anemia prevalence of them was 20.5%. The diet provided by the canteens of local school was mainly composed of plant food. Animal food was deficient. The cooking oil in local school was most of lard oil. The per pupil average daily intake of energy, protein, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C and calcium was 1491.29 kcal, 36.36 g, 179.15 ug, 0.57 mg, 0.37 mg, 53.67 mg and 163.14 mg respectively, which were lower than RNI or Al. CONCLUSION: The chronic malnutrition of pupils in poor areas is still serious. The variety of food provided by the canteens of local school is quite single, and the quality of the meals is low. Intakes of energy, protein and micronutrient from school diet are insufficient for pupils.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
16.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 237(8): 912-8, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22875341

RESUMO

The prenatal and early postnatal period is a key developmental window for nutrition status, and high-fat exposure in this period has been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes, obesity and other features of metabolic disorders later in life. The present study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms and role of relative genes involved in this process. We investigated the impact of prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet on the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway and myogenic genes in skeletal muscle of rat offspring as well as the serum and muscle physiological outcomes. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (C, 16% kcal fat) or high-saturated-fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, female offspring were fed a control diet to generate two offspring groups: control diet-fed offspring of control diet-fed dams (C/C) and control diet-fed offspring of HF diet-fed dams (HF/C). The serum glucose of the HF/C offspring (5.58 ± 0.26 mmol/L) was significantly higher than that of C/C offspring (4.97 ± 0.28 mmol/L), and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance of HF/C offspring (2.00 ± 0.11) was also significantly higher when compared with C/C (1.84 ± 0.09). Furthermore, HF/C offspring presented excessive intramuscular fat accumulation (1.8-fold, P < 0.05) and decreased muscle glycogen (1.3-fold, P < 0.05), as well as impairment of muscle development at the age of 12 weeks. Meanwhile, we observed the repression of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling and myogenic genes in HF/C offspring. The present study indicates that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to a high-saturated-fat diet suppresses the development of skeletal muscle and myogenic genes via Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, and the inappropriate muscle development could potentially contribute to the predisposition of offspring to develop metabolic-syndrome-like phenotype in adulthood.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/biossíntese , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Wnt/biossíntese
17.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 235(1): 47-51, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20404018

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the antioxidant vitamin E (VE) on adiponectin and leptin expression in obese rats. Thirty weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1) a control group, fed with normal chow; (2) a diet-induced obesity group (DIO), fed with a high-fat diet and (3) an intervention group, fed with a high-fat diet supplemented with VE (350 mg/kg). After 10 weeks of being fed according to these group assignments, rats were weighed and euthanized. Blood and adipose tissues were then immediately collected; mRNA and protein levels of leptin and adiponectin were measured by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum levels of 8-epi-prostaglandin-F(2)alpha (8-epi-PGF(2)alpha) and glutathione peroxidase activity, were also examined. Adiponectin and leptin levels were lower in the DIO group than in the control group. VE intervention increased the expression of both leptin and adiponectin (P values < 0.05). Association analysis showed that serum leptin levels correlated positively with body fat mass (r = 0.601, P < 0.05). Both serum leptin and adiponectin levels were associated with the presence of serum 8-epi-PGF2 alpha (leptin, r = 0.513, P < 0.05; adiponectin, r = -0.422, P < 0.05). Administration of VE decreases leptin and adiponectin expression in obese rats. This finding is consistent with the view that antioxidants can play an important role in the treatment of obesity-related diseases.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Adiponectina/genética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biomarcadores/sangue , Primers do DNA/genética , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ganho de Peso
18.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 79(4): 255-63, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20209477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of vitamin E on the level of oxidative stress in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Thirty weaning male rats were placed into three groups with 10 animals each: a control group with normal chow, a diet-induced obesity group (DIO) with high-fat diet, and an intervention group with high-fat diet supplemented with vitamin E (VE, 350 mg/kg). Blood and adipose tissue were collected from rats after 10 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were detected for plasma 8-epi-prostaglandin- F(2)alpha (8-epi-PGF(2)alpha), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), total anti-oxidative capacity (TAOC), alpha-tocopherol, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx). Lipid and glucose metabolism parameters such as plasma glucose, insulin, and triacylglycerol (TG) were also analyzed. RESULTS: After 10 weeks, all obese rats (both the DIO and VE groups) had higher plasma 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) and TBARS levels than the controls. Their plasma-adjusted alpha-tocopherol, SOD, and GPx activities were lower than the control levels but insulin was higher (p<0.01). The VE intervention increased plasma SOD, GPx, and T-AOC, and decreased 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) (p<0.05). VE intervention also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, and TG levels (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased oxidative stress could be an important target for the prevention of obesity-related diseases. Vitamin E has moderate effects for improvement of oxidative stress status and glucose metabolism in the animal model of diet-induced obesity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico , Análise de Variância , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vitamina E/farmacologia
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 36(4): 440-2, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17953210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the levels of antioxidative indexes, lipid metabolism and glycometabolism in high fat diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: A rat model of high fat diet induced obesity was established by feeding weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet for 10 weeks. plasma 8-epi-prostaglandin-F2 (8-epi-PGF2), alpha-tocopherol, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) were detected. Parameters of lipid metabolism and glycometabolism were also tested by standard methods. RESULTS: After 10 weeks, the high fat diet-induced obesity and lipid metabolism and glycometabolism disorders of obese rats (n = 10) were found. In the comparison with the control groups (n = 10), plasma 8-epi-PGF2 levels of obese rats were more higher, while plasma adjusted alpha-tocopherol (divided by plasma lipids), SOD and GSH-Px activities of obese rats were more lower. CONCLUSION: Obesity induced by high-fat feeding involves increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Dinoprosta/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 11(32): 4957-61, 2005 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16124045

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and selenium on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), in acute liver injury induced by CCl(4), and to explore their role in the recovery from hepatic fibrosis phase. METHODS: An acute liver damage model of rats was established by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (0.3 mL/100 g body weight) twice a week, then the rats were killed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after the first and third injection, respectively. A liver fibrosis model was established by the same injection for 8 wk. Then three rats were killed at 3, 7, 14, and 28 d after the last injection, respectively. The rats from the intervention group were fed with chow supplemented with vitamin E (250 mg/kg) and selenium (0.2 mg/kg), and the rats in the normal control group and pathological group were given standard chow. Livers were harvested and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Sirius red. Activated HSCs were determined by alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry staining. Apoptotic HSCs were determined by dual staining with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemistry. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were also analyzed. RESULTS: In the acute liver damage model, the degree of liver injury was more serious in the pathological group than in the intervention group. At each time point, the number of activated HSCs was less in the intervention group than in the pathological group, while the number of apoptotic HSCs was more in the intervention group than in the pathological group. In the liver fibrosis model, the degree of liver fibrosis was more serious in the pathological group than in the intervention group. At each time point, the number of activated HSCs was less in the intervention group than in the pathological group, and the number of apoptotic HSCs was more in the intervention group than in the pathological group. CONCLUSION: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation at the given level can inhibit CCl(4)-induced activation and proliferation of HSCs and promote the apoptosis of activated HSCs in acute damage phase. Vitamin E and selenium can also effectively decrease the degree of hepatic fibrosis and promote the recovery process.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Selênio/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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