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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure white and gray matter volume (WMV, GMV) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). MATERIAL: Eighteen patients (9 men, 9 women) with nAMD and 18 (9 men, 9 women) healthy controls (HCs) aligned were recruited. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and VBM of three-dimensional T1 brain images were analyzed. And we also apply t-tests to look for GMV and WMV differences between groups. Correlation analysis was utilized to probe the connection between observational GMV and WMV values of diverse brain areas and the severity of HADS (hospital anxiety and depression scale). Also, distinctions between nAMD and HCs in GMV can be presented with the help of a ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, GMV values were significantly lower in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the right inferior frontal gyrus, temporal pole of left superior temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate and para cingulate gyrus. While WMV was slightly increased in these areas. HADS (hospital anxiety and depression scale) scores portrayed a non-linear correlation with the GMV value of the right inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyrus of the nAMD group (r=-0.6629, P=0.0027)(r=-0.9451, P<0.0001)(r=-0.6183, P=0.0062). Moreover, the ROC curve analysis of the mean VBM values for altered brain regions indicated high diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that patients with nAMD have abnormal GMV and WMV and formed a basis for future research on pathological mechanisms in this disease. Moreover, decreased gray matter volume in particular brain regions might be associated with choroidal neovascularization and abnormal HADS score. It might help to explain the pathological mechanism of anxiety and depression in patients with nAMD.

2.
Appl Opt ; 60(29): 9036-9041, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623983

RESUMO

A terahertz (THz) photoconductive antenna is prepared using, to the best of our knowledge, a novel method, which has high yield and strong stability. It eliminates the stripping process of a thin-film THz antenna and effectively prevents the toxicity of the corrosion solution, the easy damage in the transfer process, and the weak bonding with the substrate. First, a 200 µm copper wire is bundled on a low-temperature GaAs epitaxial wafer, and then the electrode of the photoconductive antenna is fabricated using the vacuum evaporation method. Finally, the THz time-domain signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio and good repeatability is obtained using an 800 nm laser. Additionally, the influence of pump light and detection light power on THz signal intensity is studied when the total optical power is unchanged. Results show that when the total power of the laser is greater than a certain value, there is an optimal ratio between the pump power and the detection power, which can maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the THz wave. This provides a basis for the effective application of a THz antenna and lays a foundation for improving the detection sensitivity of samples.

3.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 7758206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616537

RESUMO

Objective: The study focused on the correlation between lower extremity arteriosclerosis and diabetic mellitus (DM) foot, and it was explored by virtue of ultrasound images processed by an intelligent algorithm. Methods: A total of 60 DM foot patients admitted to our hospital in the past three years were selected and divided into two groups according to their condition. Patients with DM foot alone were in group B (30 cases), and patients with DM foot combined with lower extremity arteriosclerosis occlusion were in group C (30 cases). 30 healthy people were in group A as a control. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to examine the arteries of the lower extremities of all subjects. It the intramedia thickness (IMT) from the femoral artery to the dorsal foot artery was recorded, whether there was plaque in the artery or knowing the size of the plaque, its echo, and distribution, and whether the artery had stenosis. Next, the stenosis percentage was calculated. Additionally, the general information of patients was analyzed. At the same time, an intelligent algorithm was used to process ultrasound images, and its effects on image quality were evaluated. Results: Doppler ultrasound images processed by Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) had less noise and better quality, and key information about the lesion was clearly displayed. There was no statistical difference between the general data of the three groups of patients; group B and group C had higher IMT value, plaque incidence, arterial stenosis incidence, and degree of stenosis versus group A, and there were statistically significant differences between groups B and C. In particular, the incidence of femoral artery stenosis and the degree of stenosis were significantly higher in group C than in group B. The rate of stenosis above grade I in group C was as high as 71%, while that in group B was only 19%; in Group C, the incidence of stenosis above grade II was 30%, and that in group B was 13.1%. Compared with group A, group B and group C had decreased peak arterial blood velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulse index (PI), and there were statistically significant differences between groups B and C. Conclusion: DM foot is a risk factor for arteriosclerosis occlusion; color Doppler ultrasound demonstrates good diagnostic effects on arteriosclerosis occlusion; the algorithm proposed in this study can improve the quality of Doppler ultrasound images and has a high application value.

4.
Perfusion ; : 2676591211046868, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617832

RESUMO

Aluminium phosphide (ALP) and aluminium zinc phosphide (ZnP), the two main ingredients of fumigation drugs, are commonly used to kill insects or rodents in grain. When exposed to water, highly toxic phosphine gas is released and absorbed through the respiratory or digestive tract. Phosphine gas could non-selectively block cytochrome oxidase, inhibit electron transfer and suppress oxidative phosphorylation, leading to cellular hypoxia and organ dysfunction. The characteristic clinical manifestations are refractory shock and metabolic acidosis with high mortality. However, patients with ALP poisoning have a chance to be cured. Here, we report a case of oral ALP poisoning that was successfully treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) combined with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during frequent ventricular fibrillation and cardiac dysfunction.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637278

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) tin halide perovskites have recently emerged as very promising materials for eco-friendly lead-free photovoltaic devices. However, the fine control of the bulky organic cations orderly embedding into the perovskite structure with a narrow quantum-well width distribution and favorable orientation is rather complicated. In this study, we proposed to introduce the F-substituted phenylethlammonium (PEA) cation (i.e., 4-fluorophenethylammonium FPEA) in 2D tin halide perovskite, which may mitigate phase polydispersity and crystal orientation, thus potentially increasing attainable charge-carrier mobility. A strong interlayer electrostatic attraction between electron-deficient F atoms and its adjacent phenyl rings aligns the crystal structure, working together with the validated dipole interaction. Therefore, the fluorination of organic cation leads to orderly self-assembly of solvated intermediates and promotes vertical crystal orientation. Furthermore, the interlayer electrostatic interaction serves as a supramolecular anchor to stabilize the 2D tin halide perovskite structure. Our work uncovers the effect of interlayer molecular interaction on efficiency and stability, which contributes to the development of stable and efficient low-toxicity perovskite solar cells.

6.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 689629, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646113

RESUMO

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of recognition and memory. Neuroinflammation plays pivotal roles in the pathology of AD and affects the progression of the disease. Astrocyte and microglia, as main immune executors in the central nervous system (CNS), participate into the inflammatory response in AD. Glia polarize into different phenotypes during neurodegeneration. Pro-inflammatory glia produce cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6) resulting into debris aggregates and neurotoxicity. Anti-inflammatory phenotypes produce cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) to release the inflammation. Electroacupuncture is a useful treatment that has been found to slow the neurodegeneration in animals through experimentation and in humans through clinical trials. The aim of this study was to uncover the mechanisms of glia activation, microglia polarization, and cytokine secretion regulated by electroacupuncture as a treatment for AD. Methods: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group (Control), Normal saline group (NS), AD group (AD), and Electroacupuncture group (Acupuncture). The AD and Acupuncture groups were bilaterally injected with Aß1 - 42 into the CA1 field of the hippocampus. The Acupuncture group received electroacupuncture stimulation on the acupoint "Baihui" (GV20) for 6 days per week for a total of 3 weeks. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory capacity. Immunofluorescence was used to stain GFAP and Iba1 of the DG and CA1 in the hippocampus, which, respectively, expressed the activation of astrocyte and microglia. The M1 microglia marker, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and M2 marker Arginase 1 (Arg1) were used to analyze the polarization of microglia. The pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10), and pathway-molecules (p65 and Stat6) were tested to analyze the glia inflammatory response by immunofluorescence and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The MWM results showed that electroacupuncture improves the escape latency time and the swimming distance of AD rats. The number of GFAP and Iba1 cells significantly increased in AD rats, but electroacupuncture decreased the cells. The iNOS-positive cells were significantly increased in AD, and electroacupuncture decreased the positive cells. Electroacupuncture elevated Arg1-positive cells in AD rats. Electroacupuncture decreased the glia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in AD rats. Furthermore, electroacupuncture inhibited the NF-κB pathway molecule (p65) while raising the Stat6 pathway molecule (Stat6). Conclusion: These results provide evidence that electroacupuncture improves the recognition abilities and memory of AD rats. Electroacupuncture inhibits the activation of glia and polarizes microglia toward the M2 phenotype. Electroacupuncture decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6) and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Furthermore, electroacupuncture affects the immune responses through inhibition of NF-κB pathway but activation of Stat6 pathway.

7.
Rare Tumors ; 13: 20363613211052506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646431

RESUMO

Non-gestational choriocarcinoma (NGCO) of the ovary is rare, with a prevalence of less than 0.6% of all ovarian germ-cell tumors; and when found with other germ cell tumors, pure NGCO is exceedingly rare. We herein report the case of a 22-year-old woman who complained of menstrual disorders for over 2 months. MRI examination revealed an 11.4 cm right adnexal mass of the uterus, and the patients manifested an elevated serum level of ß-hCG of 77,928 mIU/ml. Fertility-preserving surgery was performed, and the pathologic diagnosis was pure NGCO; immunohistochemical staining showed cancer cells that were positive for ß-hCG, CK, hPL, SALL4, and Ki-67 (>80% of cells stained). We performed polymorphic DNA analysis and non-gestational origin was confirmed. The patient was then treated with six courses of chemotherapy with a BEP regimen, after which her serum ß-hCG levels declined to normal levels, and she was free of disease at the 30-month follow-up.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649996

RESUMO

Infusing CRISPR/donor-loaded adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV/CRISPR) could enable in vivo hepatic gene editing to remedy hemophilia B (HB) with inherited deficiency of clotting factor IX (FIX). Yet, current regimens focus on correcting HB with simple mutations in the coding region of the F9, overlooking those carrying complicated mutations involving the regulatory region. Moreover, a possible adverse effect of treatment-related inflammation remains unaddressed. Here we report that a single DNA cutting-mediated long-range replacement restored the FIX-encoding function of a mutant F9 (mF9) carrying both regulatory and coding defects in a severe mouse HB model, wherein incorporation of a synthetic Alb enhancer/promoter-mimic (P2) ensured FIX elevation to clinically meaningful levels. Through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of liver tissues, we revealed that a subclinical hepatic inflammation post-AAV/CRISPR administration regulated the vulnerability of the edited mF9-harboring host cells to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and the P2 activity in a hepatocytic subset-dependent manner via modulating specific sets of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). Collectively, our study establishes an AAV/CRISPR-mediated gene-editing protocol applicable to complicated monogenetic disorders, underscoring the potentiality of improving therapeutic benefits through managing inflammation.

9.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651202

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) derived from exosomes had the potential to be diagnostic markers for lung cancer. However, the diagnostic value of lncRNAs from epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive exosomes remains unclear. In the study, serum EpCAM-positive exosomes were isolated with magnetic beads, and their role in lung cancer was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The copy numbers of lncRNAs RP11-77G23.5 and PHEX-AS1 in EpCAM-specific exosomes were quantified by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). The diagnostic value of RP11-77G23.5 and PHEX-AS1 was tested in the training cohort and verified in the validation cohort. We found that EpCAM-specific exosomes could promote lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo. RP11-77G23.5 and PHEX-AS1 were significantly elevated in EpCAM-specific exosomes from lung cancer patients and could distinguish malignant from benign lung tumors. The amounts of RP11-77G23.5 were statistically higher in the subtype of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAC) than that of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), showing its capability to subtype LUAC and LUSC, while PHEX-AS1 exhibited distinct expression signatures between lower and higher tumor stages, and without and with distant metastasis, indicating its association with lung cancer progression. In conclusion, the EpCAM-specific exosomal lncRNAs RP11-77G23.5 and PHEX-AS1 may be promising diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer. KEY MESSAGES: Serum EpCAM-positive exosomes promote lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo. Two EpCAM-specific exosomal lncRNAs can be simultaneously detected by RT-ddPCR. EpCAM-specific exosomal RP11-77G23.5 has the potential to subtype LUAC and LUSC. EpCAM-specific exosomal PHEX-AS1 is associated with lung cancer progression.

10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) derived from plasma exosomes are potential diagnostic biomarkers. However, little is known about the expression of miRNAs derived from plasma exosomes in patients with intestinal Behçet's syndrome (BS). This study aimed to explore the difference of miRNAs derived from plasma exosomes between intestinal BS patients and healthy people, and further identify potential biomarkers that predict the disease activity of intestinal BS. METHODS: A total of 43 intestinal BS patients and 23 healthy volunteers were enrolled, among whom 23 were active intestinal BS and 20 were stable intestinal BS. The miRNAs expression profiles of plasma exosomes in 3 active intestinal BS patients and 3 healthy volunteers were determined using next-generation high throughput sequencing. Additionally, significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were further analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in a validation cohort of 60 subjects. RESULTS: From the sequencing analysis, 15 miRNAs were identified to be differently expressed (p<0.05). Of these, 13 miRNAs were up-regulated, and 2 were down-regulated in intestinal BS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis confirmed that miR-141-3p was down-regulated and miR-122-5p, miR-150-3p, miR-183-5p, miR-224-5p and miR-342-5p were up-regulated in intestinal BS patients' plasma exosomes. Additionally, the level of miR-141-3p was negatively correlated with disease activity indicators of intestinal BS, while miR-122-5p, miR-150-3p, miR-183-5p, miR-224-5p and miR-342-5p was positively correlated with disease activity indicators of intestinal BS. CONCLUSIONS: Circulating miR-141-3p, miR-122-5p, miR-150-3p, miR-183-5p, miR-224-5p and miR-342-5p derived from plasma exosomes may serve as biomarkers of disease activity in intestinal BS.

11.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679900

RESUMO

Laboratory mice are commonly euthanised with carbon dioxide (CO2); however, there is ample evidence that this gas is aversive. Previous work suggests that sedation achieved via injection with benzodiazepines prior to CO2 administration could reduce aversive behaviours during euthanasia. We explored the potential of using a voluntarily ingested sedative (tiletamine-zolazepam, Zoletil®) prior to euthanasia. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were allocated into one of the five experimental groups, which differed in the dose of Zoletil: 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 or 100 mg/kg. A dose of 20 mg/kg was found to achieve mild sedation prior to euthanasia; mice which received this dose numerically reared and walked on the cage lid less, and showed ataxia, immobility and recumbency for longer than mice that received a lower dose. During euthanasia, mice that received 20 mg/kg showed fewer aversive responses to CO2. Doses of 40 to 100 mg/kg were associated with signs of moderate to severe sedation, but resulted in an incomplete intake of the sedative, which made the interpretation of the aversiveness to CO2 difficult. Voluntary oral administration of a sedative is an effective, affordable, and easy way to minimize the stress of mice to euthanasia with CO2.

12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108239, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653728

RESUMO

At present, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) seriously threatens human health, and its treatment is a huge challenge for people. In our studies, we found that meisoindigo, a derivative of indirubin, significantly ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in mice. Meisoindigo treatment markedly elevated the level of glutathione, while suppressed the activities of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase in colonic tissues. Moreover, the mRNA expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, cyclooxygenase-2 which are important colitis-related molecules and the levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-18, IL-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were suppressed dose-dependently following treatment with meisoindigo. Immunofluorescence results indicated that meisoindigo inhibited macrophage infiltration and nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in colons from DSS-treated mice. Therefore, mouse RAW264.7 and human THP-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone or combined adenosine triphosphate to activate NF-κB pathway in vitro. It was shown that meisoindigo reduced the elevated levels of NO, IL-18, IL-1ß and TNF-α after LPS treatment in both cells. In addition, meisoindigo showed inhibitory effects on NF-κB by using a luciferase reporter gene that depends on NF-κB. Through molecular docking, microscale thermophoresis and cellular thermal shift assay. It was further found that meisoindigo targeted transforming growth factor ß activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which is an important regulator in the upstream of NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, our findings show that meisoindigo can alleviate IBD effectively at low doses, and negatively regulate proinflammatory responses by inhibiting the activation of TAK1, which provides new ideas for clinical anti-inflammatory therapy.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113887, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624824

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Early diagnosis is the key to treatment but is still a great challenge in the clinic now. The discovery of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates ligands has become an attractive strategy to meet the early diagnosis of PD. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of styrylaniline derivatives as novel α-syn aggregates ligands. Several compounds displayed good potency to α-syn aggregates with Kd values less than 0.1 µM. The docking study revealed that the hydrogen bonds and cation-pi interaction between ligands and α-syn aggregates would be crucial for the activity. The representative compound 7-16 not only detected α-syn aggregates in both SH-SY5Y cells and brain tissues prepared from two kinds of α-syn preformed-fibrils-injected mice models but also showed good blood-brain barrier penetration characteristics in vivo with a brain/plasma ratio over 1.0, which demonstrates its potential as a lead compound for further development of in vivo imaging agents.

14.
Brain Res Bull ; 176: 174-183, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478811

RESUMO

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor expressed in various brain regions. However, little is known about the role of AHR during neuroinflammation in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model. Here, mice were sacrificed at day 4, day 6 and day 8 respectively after MPTP or saline treatment. Behavioral tests, Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, glial reaction, and AHR expression and activation were then assayed. As expected, mice treated with MPTP showed apparent behavioral dysfunctions and significantly reduced TH content. Immunofluorescence (IF) labeling showed an increased trend of phosphorylated AHR activation in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum after MPTP treatment. Western blot analysis demonstrated that MPTP treatment induced a significantly increased level of AHR at each time point tested, with the highest level observed at day 6 in the striatum. To determine exactly the AHR activation in relation to changes of glial cell reactivity, double IF labeling was performed for either IBA1 (microglia marker) and p-AHR, or GFAP (astrocyte marker) and p-AHR. The results demonstrated that MPTP treatment not only increases the number of p-AHR-positive IBA1-expressing cells in the striatum and the SNpc, but also increases that of p-AHR-positive GFAP-expressing cells in the striatum. Intriguingly, the increase of the number of cells co-expressing both p-AHR and IBA1 was highest at day 4 in response to MPTP in the striatum and at day 8 in the SNpc. The number of cells co-expressing both p-AHR and GFAP was increased at days 4, 6 and 8 in the striatum. In conclusion, our study suggests that AHR activation may facilitate PD diagnosis and serve as a target for the treatment of PD.

16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 293, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the fastest-growing cancer among females and the second leading cause of female death. At present, targeted antibodies combined with hyperthermia locally in tumor has been identified as a potential combination therapy to combat tumors. But in fact, the uniformly deep distribution of photosensitizer in tumor sites is still an urgent problem, which limited the clinical application. We reported an HER2-modified thermosensitive liposome (immunoliposome)-assisted complex by reducing gold nanocluster on the surface (GTSL-CYC-HER2) to obtain a new type of bioplasma resonance structured carrier. The HER2 decoration on the surface enhanced targeting to the breast cancer tumor site and forming irregular, dense, "petal-like" shells of gold nanoclusters. Due to the good photothermal conversion ability under near-infrared light (NIR) irradiation, the thermosensitive liposome released the antitumor Chinese traditional medicine, cyclopamine, accompanied with the degradation of gold clusters into 3-5 nm nanoparticles which can accelerate renal metabolism of the gold clusters. With the help of cyclopamine to degrade the tumor associated matrix, this size-tunable gold wrapped immunoliposome was more likely to penetrate the deeper layers of the tumor, while the presence of gold nanoparticles makes GTSL-CYC-HER2 multimodal imaging feasible. RESULTS: The prepared GTSL-CYC-HER2 had a size of 113.5 nm and displayed excellent colloidal stability, photo-thermal conversion ability and NIR-sensitive drug release. These GTSL-CYC-HER2 were taken up selectively by cancer cells in vitro and accumulated at tumour sites in vivo. As for the in vivo experiments, compared to the other groups, under near-infrared laser irradiation, the temperature of GTSL-CYC-HER2 rises rapidly to the phase transition temperature, and released the cyclopamine locally in the tumor. Then, the released cyclopamine destroyed the stroma of the tumor tissue while killing the tumor cells, which in turn increased the penetration of the liposomes in deep tumor tissues. Moreover, the GTSL-CYC-HER2 enhanced the performance of multimodal computed tomography (CT) and photothermal (PT) imaging and enabled chemo-thermal combination therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This optically controlled biodegradable plasmonic resonance structures not only improves the safety of the inorganic carrier application in vivo, but also greatly improves the anti-tumor efficiency through the visibility of in vivo CT and PT imaging, as well as chemotherapy combined with hyperthermia, and provides a synergistic treatment strategy that can broaden the conventional treatment alone.

17.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2021: 4488822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484847

RESUMO

A sensitive method has been developed for simultaneous determination of ginsenoside Rh1 (G-Rh1), ginsenoside Rb1 (G-Rb1), ginsenoside Rc (G-Rc), and ginsenoside Rd (G-Rd) in rat plasma of normal and depression model group after oral administration of their solutions by using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-QQQ-MS). The biological samples were prepared by protein precipitation. Ginsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3) was used as an internal standard (IS). MS analysis was performed under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with electron spray ionization (ESI) operated in the negative mode. The method showed good linearity over a wide concentration range (R 2 > 0.999) and obtained lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of 5 ng/mL. The whole analysis procedure could be completed in as short as 16.5 min. The intraday precisions, interday precisions, and stabilities were less than 10%. The extraction recoveries from rat plasma were exceeded 86.0%. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the two groups on pharmacokinetics parameters; the absorptions of four analytes in the depression group were higher than those in the normal group because the liver metabolism and internal environment of the model rats had been affected.

18.
Food Chem ; 371: 131092, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543924

RESUMO

After the co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Pleurotus ostreatus, the obtained extracellular crude enzymes solution was employed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) degradation. The maximum AFB1 degradation with co-culture reached 93.4%, which increased by 65.9% and 37.6%, respectively, compared with those of the mono-culture of Pleurotus ostreatus and Aspergillus niger. The molecular weight of the key detoxifying enzymes isolated by ultrafiltration was 58 and 63 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis. The purified detoxifying enzymes had a high detoxification effect on AFB1 with the degradation rate of 94.7%. It was found that the co-culture of Pleurotus ostreatus and Aspergillus niger promoted the production of 58 and 63 kDa detoxifying enzymes to enhance the AFB1 degradation. The chemical structure of major degradation products of AFB1 by the mixed cultures were preliminarily identified by LC-Triple TOF MS. Two pathways of AFB1 degradation were inferred with the high potential of fungal co-cultivations for AFB1 detoxification applications.

19.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 6141-6156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511911

RESUMO

At present, some bacteria have developed significant resistance to almost all available antibiotics. One of the reasons that cannot be ignored is long-term exposure of bacteria to the sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a targeted antibiotic delivery system to improve drug delivery behavior, in order to delay the generation of bacterial drug resistance. In recent years, with the continuous development of nanotechnology, various types of nanocarriers that respond to the infection microenvironment, targeting specific bacterial targets, and targeting infected cells, and so on, are gradually being used in the delivery of antibacterial agents to increase the concentration of drugs at the site of infection and reduce the side effects of drugs in normal tissues. Here, this article describes in detail the latest research progress on nanocarriers for antimicrobial, and commonly used targeted antimicrobial strategies. The advantages of the combination of nanotechnology and targeting strategies in combating bacterial infections are highlighted in this review, and the upcoming opportunities and remaining challenges in this field are rationally prospected.

20.
Front Psychol ; 12: 731628, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512486

RESUMO

Although the impact entrepreneurial learning on firm performance has attracted significant attention, a comprehensive understanding by integrating entrepreneurial orientation and individual self-efficacy remain poorly understood. We fill this void by integrating the above variables into a model and examine these relations. Findings from a sample of 411 nascent entrepreneurs support that entrepreneurial learning is positively related to firm performance, and this relationship is fully mediated by entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). We also found entrepreneurial orientation strengthens the positive impact of entrepreneurial learning on ESE. The findings indicate that ESE must be in place to maximize the effect of entrepreneurial learning on performance, and entrepreneurial orientation is an important contingency in shaping entrepreneurial learning's impact on nascent entrepreneur's self-efficacy.

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