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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114601, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487847

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yanggan Huayu granule (YGHY) is a formula of traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used to treat patients with liver cancer. But its working mechanism is still poorly understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the anti-tumor effect of YGHY and its working mechanisms in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: H22 mouse xenograft model was used to detect the effect of YGHY on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MTT and CCK8 assays were performed to assess the effect of YGHY on HCC cell growth. Transwell assay was performed to detect the invasion and migration activities of HCC cells. Effect of YGHY drug-contained serum on apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expressions. RESULTS: Results showed that YGHY inhibited tumor volume and weight, induced the apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells and increased the protein expressions of Cleaved-Caspase3 and Cleaved-PARP. Furthermore, YGHY significantly down-regulated the protein expression of p-AKT. SC79, as an activator of AKT signaling, was able to increase the expression of p-AKT, and regulate the protein expressions of Cleaved-Caspase3, Cleaved-PARP, BCL-2 and BAX. YGHY drug-contained serum negated the protein expression change provided by SC79. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this data indicates that YGHY could inhibit HCC growth by inducing apoptosis, operating through AKT signaling.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 434-442, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventive intervention can significantly reduce the human and economic costs of postpartum depression (PPD) compared with treatment post-diagnosis. However, identifying women with a high PPD risk and making a judgement as to the benefits of preventive intervention is a major challenge. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of parturients that underwent a cesarean delivery. Control group was used as development cohort and validation cohort to construct the risk prediction model of PPD and determine a risk threshold. Ketamine group and development cohort were used to verify the risk classification of parturients by evaluating whether the incidence of PPD decreased significantly after ketamine treatment in high-risk for PPD population. RESULTS: The AUC for the development cohort and validation cohort of the PPD prediction model were 0.751 (95%CI:0.700-0.802) and 0.748 (95%CI:0.680-0.816), respectively. A threshold of 19% PPD risk probability was determined, with a specificity and sensitivity in the validation cohort are 0.766 and 0.604, respectively. After matching the high-risk group and the low-risk group by propensity score, the results demonstrated that PPD incidence significantly reduced in the high-risk group following ketamine, versus non-ketamine, intervention (p < 0.01). In contrast, intervention in the low-risk group showed no significant difference in PPD outcomes (p > 0.01). LIMITATION: Randomized trials are needed to further verify the feasibility of the model and the thresholds proposed. CONCLUSION: This prediction model developed in this study shows utility in predicting PPD risk. Ketamine intervention significantly lowers PPD incidence in parturients with a risk classification threshold greater than 19%.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(22): 15484-15494, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730345

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) biomethylation is an important component of the As biogeochemical cycle, which produces methylarsenite [MAs(III)] as an intermediate product. Its high toxicity is used by some microbes as an antibiotic to kill off other microbes and gain a competitive advantage. Some aerobic microbes have evolved a detoxification mechanism to demethylate MAs(III) via the dioxygenase C-As lyase ArsI. How MAs(III) is demethylated under anoxic conditions is unclear. We found that nitrate addition to a flooded paddy soil enhanced MAs(III) demethylation. A facultative anaerobe Bacillus sp. CZDM1 isolated from the soil was able to demethylate MAs(III) under anoxic nitrate-reducing conditions. A putative C-As lyase gene (BcarsI) was identified in the genome of strain CZDM1. The expression of BcarsI in the As-sensitive Escherichia coli AW3110 conferred the bacterium the ability to demethylate MAs(III) under anoxic nitrate-reducing condition and enhanced its resistance to MAs(III). Both Bacillus sp. CZDM1 and E. coli AW3110 harboring BcarsI could not demethylate MAs(III) under fermentative conditions. Five conserved amino acid resides of cysteine, histidine, and glutamic acid are essential for MAs(III) demethylation under anoxic nitrate-reducing conditions. Putative arsI genes are widely present in denitrifying bacteria, with 75% of the sequenced genomes containing arsI, also possessing dissimilatory nitrate reductase genes narG or napA. These results reveal a novel mechanism in which MAs(III) is demethylated via ArsI by coupling to denitrification, and such a mechanism is likely to be common in an anoxic environment such as paddy soils and wetlands.

4.
Biomaterials ; 279: 121208, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749074

RESUMO

The dominant source of thromboembolism in heart comes from the left atrial appendage (LAA). An occluder can close LAA and significantly reduce the risk of strokes, particularly for those patients with atrial fibrillation. However, it is technically challenging to fabricate an LAA occluder that is appropriate for percutaneous implantation and can be rapidly endothelialized to accomplish complete closure and avoid severe complication. Hypothesizing that a fast migration rate of endothelial cells on the implant surface would lead to rapid endothelialization, we fabricated an LAA occlusion device for interventional treatment with a well-designed 3D architecture and a nanoscale 2D coating. Through screening of biomaterials surfaces with cellular studies in vitro including cell observations, qPCR, RNA sequencing, and implantation studies in vivo, we revealed that a titanium-nitrogen nanocoating on a NiTi alloy promoted high migration rate of endothelial cells on the surface. The effectiveness of this first nanocoating LAA occluder was validated in animal experiments and a patient case, both of which exhibited successful implantation, fast sealing and long-term safety of the device. The mechanistic insights gained in this study will be useful for the design of medical devices with appropriate surface modification, not necessarily for improved cell adhesion but sometimes for enhanced cell migration.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(46): 19306-19310, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757725

RESUMO

The 68-kDa homodimeric 3C-like protease of SARS-CoV-2, Mpro (3CLpro/Nsp5), is a promising antiviral drug target. We evaluate the concordance of models generated by the newly introduced AlphaFold2 structure prediction program with residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) measured in solution for 15N-1HN and 13C'-1HN atom pairs. The latter were measured using a new, highly precise TROSY-AntiTROSY Encoded RDC (TATER) experiment. Three sets of AlphaFold2 models were evaluated: (1) MproAF, generated using the standard AlphaFold2 input structural database; (2) MproAFD, where the AlphaFold2 implementation was modified to exclude all candidate template X-ray structures deposited after Jan 1, 2020; and (3) MproAFS, which excluded all structures homologous to coronaviral Mpro. Close agreement between all three sets of AlphaFold models and experimental RDC data is found for most of the protein. For residues in well-defined secondary structure, the agreement decreases somewhat upon Amber relaxation. For these regions, MproAF agreement exceeds that of most high-resolution X-ray structures. Residues from domain 2 that comprise elements of both the active site and the homo-dimerization interface fit less well across all structures. These results indicate novel opportunities for combining experimentation with molecular dynamics simulations, where solution RDCs provide highly precise input for QM/MM simulations of substrate binding/reaction trajectories.

6.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935562, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815377

RESUMO

On Authors request due to not being able to reproduce the experiment. Reference: Yichen Fang, Jie Li, Yinan Wu, Jing Gui, Yang Shen. Costunolide Inhibits the Growth of OAW42-A Multidrug-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells by Activating Apoptotic and Autophagic Pathways, Production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Cleaved Caspase-3 and Cleaved Caspase-9. Med Sci Monit, 2019; 25: 3231-3237. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.914029.

7.
J Bone Oncol ; 31: 100403, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804789

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma frequently presents as recurrence and metastasis, even if the primary lesion was eradicated and/or radiotherapy and chemotherapy were administered. Osteosarcoma cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the key factors for the recurrence and metastasis of osteosarcoma. We have shown that interleukin-24 (IL-24) inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. In the current study, we investigated the role of IL-24 in inhibiting the growth of osteosarcoma CSCs. IL-24 inhibited proliferation and invasion and decreased the stemness of osteosarcoma CSCs in vitro. In a nude mouse xenograft model, IL-24 significantly inhibited the growth of tumors originating from osteosarcoma CSCs. Moreover, we found that IL-24 was able to inactivate both Notch and Wnt/ß-Catenin signaling, which are important for the development of the biological characteristics of CSCs. These data demonstrate that IL-24 is able to kill not only cancer cells but also CSCs in osteosarcoma, suggesting that IL-24 might eradicate osteosarcoma and enhance long-term cure rates in patients with osteosarcoma.

8.
Front Nutr ; 8: 781998, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805254

RESUMO

The basic ingredients of yogurt include lactose and protein. Yogurt undergoes the Maillard reaction easily, producing many advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that cause some chronic diseases. Lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidin (LSOPC) have demonstrated a strong inhibitory effect on AGE formation in simulated models; however, the inhibition of procyanidin on AGE formation and the subsequent effects on yogurt quality remains unknown. Our study demonstrated that LSOPC had a good inhibitory effect on the formation of fluorescent AGEs and Nε-carboxymethyl lysine (P < 0.05). The inhibitory capacity on AGEs and antioxidant activity of yogurt were positively correlated with the concentration of LSOPC. The effect of LSOPC on the physicochemical properties of yogurt was also evaluated. Bound water content, viscosity, and flavor of yogurt were significantly increased after LSOPC addition (P < 0.05). Therefore, LSOPC may lead to significant benefits for controlling AGE formation and improving the quality of yogurt.

9.
PLoS Genet ; 17(11): e1009933, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807912

RESUMO

In mammals, the circadian clock coordinates cell physiological processes including inflammation. Recent studies suggested a crosstalk between these two pathways. However, the mechanism of how inflammation affects the clock is not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in regulating clock function. Using a combination of genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that perturbation of the canonical NF-κB subunit RELA in the human U2OS cellular model altered core clock gene expression. While RELA activation shortened period length and dampened amplitude, its inhibition lengthened period length and caused amplitude phenotypes. NF-κB perturbation also altered circadian rhythms in the master suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) clock and locomotor activity behavior under different light/dark conditions. We show that RELA, like the clock repressor CRY1, repressed the transcriptional activity of BMAL1/CLOCK at the circadian E-box cis-element. Biochemical and biophysical analysis showed that RELA binds to the transactivation domain of BMAL1. These data support a model in which NF-kB competes with CRY1 and coactivator CBP/p300 for BMAL1 binding to affect circadian transcription. This is further supported by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showing that binding of RELA, BMAL1 and CLOCK converges on the E-boxes of clock genes. Taken together, these data support a significant role for NF-κB in directly regulating the circadian clock and highlight mutual regulation between the circadian and inflammatory pathways.

10.
Opt Express ; 29(23): 38939-38945, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808936

RESUMO

We investigate the room-temperature bandwidth performance of AlInAsSb avalanche photodiodes under 2-µm illumination. Parameter characterization denotes RC-limited performance. While measurements indicate a maximum gain-bandwidth product of 44 GHz for a 60-µm-diameter device, we scale this performance to smaller device sizes based on the RC response. For a 15-µm-diameter device, we predict a maximum gain-bandwidth product of approximately 144 GHz based on the reported measurements.

11.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749562

RESUMO

This research was aimed to explore whether the recovery of subjective symptoms and objective examination in nasal septum deviation (NSD) patients after septoplasty were related to the degree of preoperative anxiety or depression, in the hope of providing new ideas for clinical treatment. A total of 150 NSD patients were included in this prospective research. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scores, self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) scores, self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores, total inspiratory and expiratory nasal resistance were recorded before and 6 months after operation. The results showed preoperative anxiety or depression was not statistically different between groups in terms of age, gender and course, but positively correlated with nasal obstruction (VAS and NOSE). The recovery of nasal obstruction in patients with anxiety or depression was worse than that in normal NSD patients 6 months after surgery, and was decreased with the increase of anxiety or depression degree. And no significant difference showed in the reduction of total inspiratory and expiratory nasal resistance between groups. In conclusion, anxiety and depression affected the improvement of nasal obstruction feeling in NSD patients after septoplasty, and the improvement was negatively correlated with the degree of anxiety and depression. It is necessary to evaluate the anxiety and depression of NSD patients before septoplasty.

12.
Lasers Surg Med ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct keratometry and investigate the ultrastructural changes after microwave thermokeratoplasty (MTK) in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Eighteen New Zealand rabbits (18 eyes) were recruited for this study. Ten eyes were chosen for slit-lamp photography and corneal topography at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Two rabbits were sacrificed on 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. All remaining rabbits were sacrificed at 6 months postoperatively. The cornea was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. p value was determined using repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Corneal edema, disorganized corneal collagen fibers in the heated area, and necrotic fibroblasts were observed at 1 day and 1 week postoperatively. At 1 month postoperatively, corneal edema was not observed, and corneal cell morphology was normal. Moreover, corneal collagen fibers in the heated area shrunk and tended to be organized. The K1 and K2 values significantly decreased from 49.0 ± 1.2 D and 50.5 ± 0.9 D preoperatively to 40.3 ± 1.2 D and 43.2 ± 0.8 D 6 months postoperatively, respectively. The corneal thickness was 353.1 ± 9.3 µm preoperatively and 317.8 ± 27.7 µm at 6 months postoperatively; the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal keratometry showed flattening after MTK. Moreover, corneal collagen fibers in the heated area shrunk and tended to be organized at 6 months postoperatively. Further studies are required to determine the safety and stability of MTK.

13.
Chem Rev ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766756

RESUMO

The measurement and application of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in solution NMR studies of biological macromolecules has become well established over the past quarter of a century. Numerous methods for generating the requisite anisotropic orientational molecular distribution have been demonstrated, each with its specific strengths and weaknesses. In parallel, an enormous number of pulse schemes have been introduced to measure the many different types of RDCs, ranging from the most widely measured backbone amide 15N-1H RDCs, to 1H-1H RDCs and couplings between low-γ nuclei. Applications of RDCs range from structure validation and refinement to the determination of relative domain orientations, the measurement of backbone and domain motions, and de novo structure determination. Nevertheless, it appears that the power of the RDC methodology remains underutilized. This review aims to highlight the practical aspects of sample preparation and RDC measurement while describing some of the most straightforward applications that take advantage of the exceptionally precise information contained in such data. Some emphasis will be placed on more recent developments that enable the accurate measurement of RDCs in larger systems, which is key to the ongoing shift in focus of biological NMR spectroscopy from structure determination toward gaining improved understanding of how molecular flexibility drives protein function.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767045

RESUMO

CD8+CD103+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRMs) are involved in tumor immune response and linked to favorable clinical outcome in human cancer. However, the distribution, phenotype, functional properties and clinical relevance of these cells in gastric cancer (GC) remain elusive. Here, our data show that, in comparison to non-tumor tissues, the percentages of CD8+CD103+ TRMs in tumors are significantly decreased. Most tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs are CD45RA-CCR7- effector-memory cells with higher PD-1 and 4-1BB expression than those from non-tumor tissues. Further, tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs show impaired cytolytic capacity due to decreased granzyme B and perforin expression. Moreover, ex vivo PD-1 blockade could restore the cytolytic capacity of tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs, and such anti-PD-1-mediated reinvigoration of CD8+CD103+ TRMs could be further enhanced by 4-1BB co-stimulation. Finally, lower levels of Tumor-infiltrating CD8+CD103+ TRMs are positively correlated with GC progression and poor patients' survival. Our data suggest that restoring CD8+CD103+ TRM function by combining PD-1 blockade and 4-1BB co-stimulation may be a promising strategy for treating GC.

15.
J Ovarian Res ; 14(1): 161, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789303

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most common malignancy in women with high mortality. Increasing studies have revealed that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MNX1-AS1 has a promoting effect on various cancers. However, the mechanisms of MNX1-AS1 in OC are still unclear. Therefore, this study focused on exploring the mechanisms of MNX1-AS1 in OC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of SOX12 at the protein level was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK8 assay and colony formation assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry. Wound-healing assay, transwell assay and western blot were used to detect the ability of cell migration and invasion. The target binding was confirmed through the luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS: The expression of MNX1-AS1 was increased in OC tumor tissues and cells. Elevated MNX1-AS1 expression is associated with advanced stage and lower overall survival rate. Knockdown of MNX1-AS1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, blocked cell cycle, and promoted cell apoptosis in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. MNX1-AS1 was competitively binding with miR-744-5p, and its downstream target gene was SOX12. miR-544-5p expression was decreased, while SOX12 expression was increased in OC tumor tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-744-5p inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and promoted cell apoptosis in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. CONCLUSION: MNX1-AS1 promoted the development of OC through miR-744-5p/SOX12 axis. This study revealed a novel mechanism of MNX1-AS1 in OC, which may provide a new treatment or scanning target for OC.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779914

RESUMO

GBA variants are associated with increased risk and earlier onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), and more rapid disease progression especially with "severe" variants typified by p.L483P. GBA mutation screening studies from South-East Asia, with > 650 million inhabitants of diverse ancestries, are very limited. We investigated the spectrum of GBA variants, and associated clinico-demographic features, in a multi-ethnic PD cohort in Malaysia. Patients (n = 496) were recruited from seven centres, primarily of Chinese (45%), Malay (37%), and Indian (13%) ethnicities. All GBA coding exons were screened using a next-generation sequencing-based PD gene panel and verified with Sanger sequencing. We identified 14 heterozygous GBA alleles consisting of altogether 17 missense variants (8 classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic for PD) in 25 (5.0%) patients, with a substantially higher yield among early (< 50 years) vs. late-onset patients across all three ethnicities (9.1-13.2% vs. 1.0-3.2%). The most common variant was p.L483P (including RecNciI, n = 11, 2.2%), detected in all three ethnicities. Three novel variants/recombinant alleles of uncertain significance were found; p.P71L, p.L411P, and p.L15S(;)S16G(;)I20V. The common European risk variants, p.E365K, p.T408M, and p.N409S, were not detected. A severe disease course was noted in the majority of GBA-variant carriers, across a range of detected variants. We report a potentially novel observation of spine posture abnormalities in GBA-variant carriers. This represents the largest study on GBA variation from South-East Asia, and highlights that these populations, especially those with EOPD, would be relevant for studies including clinical trials targeting GBA pathways.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 695697, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595185

RESUMO

Significance: Our study found that SP-A1 (stiffness parameter at time of first applanation) was statistically different between post-laser-assisted subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) and post-small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) eyes. The stiffness of keratoconus was lower than that of post-refractive surgery corneas. Purpose: To compare corneal biomechanics among post-SMILE, post-LASEK, and keratoconic eyes. Methods: In this retrospective study, 36 eyes of 36 patients after SMILE, 36 eyes of 36 patients after LASEK, and 36 eyes of 36 patients with keratoconus with matching (±5 µm) central corneal thickness (CCT) were examined using Scheimpflug corneal topography (Pentacam HR) and dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer (CorVis ST). Mixed linear model analysis with Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc comparisons was performed to compare the differences in corneal biomechanics and topographic parameters among the three groups with the CCT and the bIOP (intraocular pressure with biomechanical correction) as the random factor. Results: All groups had comparable CCT at baseline. The bIOPs between the three groups were comparable. The mean values of the Belin/Ambrósio Deviation (BAD-D) in the keratoconus group were significantly higher than those of the SMILE (post hoc p < 0.001) and LASEK groups (post hoc p < 0.001). The SP-A1 in the keratoconus group was the lowest when compared with those of the SMILE (post hoc p = 0.003) and LASEK groups (post hoc p < 0.001). The SMILE group SP-A1 values were slightly lower than those of the LASEK group (post hoc p = 0.044). Conclusions: Keratoconus eyes were significantly softer when compared to post-refractive surgery corneas with comparable corneal thickness in terms of SP-A1 and BAD-D values, while the LASEK group may have the greatest stiffness. Post-SMILE and post-LASEK corneas showed significant differences in SP-A1.

18.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(9): 4380-4393, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659893

RESUMO

CSE1L is involved in the cancer progression of several types of cancer. Its expression status, potential oncogenic role and underlying mechanism in lung cancer, however, are unclear. Here, we investigated CSE1L expression in primary lung adenocarcinoma based on multiple datasets and then investigated its oncologic role in lung cancer. We also examined the potential molecular mechanisms of CSE1L in cancer progression. CSE1L levels were increased in cancer as compared to normal lung tissues. CSE1L expression was higher in poorly-differentiated late stage and lymph node positive metastatic tumors. Higher CSE1L level was correlated with worse patient outcome. Knockdown of CSE1L using siRNAs impaired cell proliferation, invasion, migration and induced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, MET, STAT3 and PD-L1 proteins were decreased upon CSE1L silencing. These results suggest that CSE1L may affect tumor progression through MET/STAT3/PD-L1 signaling. CSE1L may have potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target for lung cancer.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681719

RESUMO

Radiotherapy has been used for more than a hundred years to cure or locally control tumors. Regression of tumors outside of the irradiated field was occasionally observed and is known as the abscopal effect. However, the occurrence of systemic anti-tumor effects was deemed too rare and unpredictable to be a therapeutic goal. Recent studies suggest that immunotherapy and radiation in combination may enhance the abscopal response. Increasing numbers of cases are being reported since the routine implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors, showing that combined radiotherapy with immunotherapy has a synergistic effect on both local and distant (i.e., unirradiated) tumors. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical and clinical reports, with a specific focus on the mechanisms behind the immunostimulatory effects of radiation and how this is enhanced by immunotherapy.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640660

RESUMO

Digital twin (DT) and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies have grown rapidly in recent years and are considered by both academia and industry to be key enablers for Industry 4.0. As a digital replica of a physical entity, the basis of DT is the infrastructure and data, the core is the algorithm and model, and the application is the software and service. The grounding of DT and AI in industrial sectors is even more dependent on the systematic and in-depth integration of domain-specific expertise. This survey comprehensively reviews over 300 manuscripts on AI-driven DT technologies of Industry 4.0 used over the past five years and summarizes their general developments and the current state of AI-integration in the fields of smart manufacturing and advanced robotics. These cover conventional sophisticated metal machining and industrial automation as well as emerging techniques, such as 3D printing and human-robot interaction/cooperation. Furthermore, advantages of AI-driven DTs in the context of sustainable development are elaborated. Practical challenges and development prospects of AI-driven DTs are discussed with a respective focus on different levels. A route for AI-integration in multiscale/fidelity DTs with multiscale/fidelity data sources in Industry 4.0 is outlined.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Robótica , Algoritmos , Automação , Humanos , Indústrias
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