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2.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 14(2): 85-92, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922886

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have emerged in the field of RNA research and their biological functions are now being gradually identified. circRNAs are divided into three categories: exonic circular RNAs (ecircRNAs), exon-intron circular RNAs (EIciRNAs), and intronic circular RNAs (ciRNAs). The circular structure of circRNAs confers unique biological characteristics upon them, such as enhanced stability over linear RNAs.Areas covered: circRNAs function to competitively bind with microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins, participate in protein coding, regulate transcription, and form pseudogenes after reverse transcription. In gastric cancer, the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA axis is the most studied mechanisms underlying gastric cancer occurrence and development. Some specific and sensitive circRNAs, such as hsa_circ_102958, hsa_circ_0000520, and hsa_circ_0001017 may have potential diagnostic potential in early-stage gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of some circRNAs, including circ-LMTK2, circ-PSMC3, and circ-DLST are associated with the development of gastric cancer. Other circRNAs, such as hsa_circ_0001368, circ-ZFR, and circ-ERBB2, may also play important roles in gastric cancer treatment.Expert opinion: Exploring the roles of circRNAs in gastric cancer occurrence and development will help us to elucidate the functions of circRNAs and develop potential tools for early diagnosis and effective treatment of gastric cancer.

3.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(1): e23049, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In addition to non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous RNAs with various functions, which have recently become a research hotspot. CircRNAs are a kind of closed circular RNA molecule widely existing in transcriptomes. Due to lack of free ends, they are not easily cleaved by RNase R, thus avoiding degradation. They are more stable than linear RNAs. METHODS: Data were collected through PubMed. The following search terms were used: "circular RNA," "circRNA," "cancer," "mechanism," "biogenesis," "biomarker," "diagnosis." Only articles published in English were included. RESULTS: Most circRNAs express tissue/developmental stage specificity. Moreover, circRNAs are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological activities. In this review, we discuss the formation, classification, and biological functions of circRNAs, especially their molecular diagnostic values in common cancers, including gastric cancer (hsa_circ_002059, circ_LARP4, hsa_circ_0000190, hsa_circ_0000096, circ-SFMBT2, and circ_PVT1), hepatocellular carcinoma (circ_104075, circRNA_100338, circ_MTO1, and circZKSCAN1), colorectal cancer (hsa_circ_0136666 and hsa_circ_0000523), lung cancer (hsa_circ_0006427, circ_100876, and circ_ABCB10), breast cancer (hsa_circ_0089105, circAGFG1, and circEPSTI1), bladder cancer (circFNDC3B and circTFRC), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (circ_100876 and circ-DLG1). CONCLUSION: CircRNAs not only play important roles in tumorigenesis, but also may become new diagnostic biomarkers.

5.
Cancer Sci ; 110(12): 3630-3638, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599076

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have a covalently closed circular conformation and are structurally stable. Those circRNAs with tumor-suppressive properties play an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis and thus may be used as therapeutic targets of cancers. Herein, we review the current understanding of the classification of circRNAs and summarize the functions and mechanisms of circRNAs that have tumor-suppressive roles in various cancers, including liver cancer (circARSP91, circADAMTS13, circADAMTS14, circMTO1, hsa_circ_0079299, and circC3P1), bladder cancer (circFNDC3B, circITCH, circHIPK3, circRNA-3, cdrlas, and circLPAR1), gastric cancer (circLARP4, circYAP1, hsa_cric_0000096, hsa_circ_0000993, and circPSMC3), breast cancer (circ_000911, hsa_circ_0072309, and circASS1), lung cancer (hsa_circ_0000977, circPTK2, circ_0001649, hsa_circ_100395, and circ_0006916), glioma (circ_0001946, circSHPRH, and circFBXW7), and colorectal cancer (circITGA7 and hsa_circ_0014717). Thanks to their structural stability, these tumor-suppressive circRNAs may be used as potential and potent therapeutic targets. Moreover, we propose a new method for the classification of circRNAs. Based on whether they can be translated, circRNAs can be divided into noncoding circRNAs and coding circRNAs.


Assuntos
Genes Supressores de Tumor/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , /classificação
6.
Cancer Biomark ; 25(2): 169-176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: tRNA halves (tiRNAs) are produced from mature tRNAs. They have important roles both with in normal cells and cancer cells. However, the diagnostic value of tiRNAs in cancers have not yet been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic value of tiRNA-5034-GluTTC-2 in gastric cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of tiRNA-5034-GluTTC-2 in paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues, plasmas from patients with gastric cancer and healthy people, and gastric cancer cell lines. Then, the relationship between its levels and clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer was analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was established to predict the diagnostic value. RESULTS: tiRNA-5034-GluTTC-2 was first found to be down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and plasmas. Its levels were significantly associated with tumor size. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.779 and 0.835 in tissue and plasma, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 84.7%, 92.8%, and 0.915 when tissues and plasmas were used in combination, respectively. The overall survival rate of patients with a lower expression of tiRNA-5034-GluTTC-2 was significantly lower than those with a higher expression. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that tiRNA-5034-GluTTC-2 may be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , RNA de Transferência/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC
8.
Cancer Lett ; 452: 31-37, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905816

RESUMO

tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) and tRNA halves (tiRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs derived from precursor tRNAs or mature tRNAs. Depending on the sources, tRFs can be divided into tRF-1, tRF-2, tRF-3, tRF-5, and i-tRF; tiRNAs can be divided into 5'tiRNA and 3'tiRNA. Both tRFs and tiRNAs play important roles in tumorigenesis. Some tRFs and tiRNAs promote cell proliferation and cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of oncogenes. Other tRFs and tiRNAs inhibit cancer progression. Mechanism studies have shown that tRFs and tiRNAs may bind to RNA binding proteins such as Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) and prevent transcription, inactivate initiation factor eIF4G/A, promote translation of ribosomal proteins, or activate aurora kinase A, the regulator of mitosis. Therefore, tRFs and tiRNAs regulate the occurrence and development of cancers, including lung cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, B cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, etc. This article reviews the classification of tRFs and tiRNAs, their biological functions in the occurrence of cancers, and their relationships with some common cancers. It will provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Precursores de RNA/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Precursores de RNA/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
9.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 96(11): 1167-1176, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232504

RESUMO

The number of studies on non-coding RNAs has increased substantially in recent years owing to their importance in gene regulation. However, the biological functions of small RNAs from abundant species of housekeeping non-coding RNAs (rRNA, tRNA, etc.) remain a highly studied topic. tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) refer to the specific cleavage of tRNAs by specific nucleases [e.g., Dicer and angiogenin (ANG)] in particular cells or tissues or under certain conditions such as stress and hypoxia. tsRNAs are a type of non-coding small RNA that are widely found in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcriptomes and are generated from mature tRNAs or precursor tRNAs at different sites. There are two main types of tsRNAs, tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) and tRNA halves. tRFs are 14-30 nucleotides (nt) long and mainly consist of three subclasses: tRF-5, tRF-3, and tRF-1. tRNA halves, which are 31-40 nt long, are generated by specific cleavage in the anticodon loops of mature tRNAs. There are two types of tRNA halves, 5'-tRNA halves and 3'-tRNA halves. tsRNAs have multiple biological functions including acting as signaling molecules in stress responses and as regulators of gene expression. Additionally, they have been considered to be involved in RNA processing, cell proliferation, translation suppression, the modulation of DNA damage response, and neurodegeneration. More importantly, they are closely related to the occurrence of many human diseases such as tumors, infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, and neurological diseases. Moreover, tsRNAs have the potential to become new biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Continuous investigations will help us to understand their generation and regulatory mechanisms as well as the possible roles of tRFs and tRNA halves.


Assuntos
RNA de Transferência , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
10.
N Engl J Med ; 378(24): 2288-2301, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cancer-cell-killing property of atezolizumab may be enhanced by the blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated immunosuppression with bevacizumab. This open-label, phase 3 study evaluated atezolizumab plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not previously received chemotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients to receive atezolizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (ACP), bevacizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (BCP), or atezolizumab plus BCP (ABCP) every 3 weeks for four or six cycles, followed by maintenance therapy with atezolizumab, bevacizumab, or both. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival both among patients in the intention-to-treat population who had a wild-type genotype (WT population; patients with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations were excluded) and among patients in the WT population who had high expression of an effector T-cell (Teff) gene signature in the tumor (Teff-high WT population) and overall survival in the WT population. The ABCP group was compared with the BCP group before the ACP group was compared with the BCP group. RESULTS: In the WT population, 356 patients were assigned to the ABCP group, and 336 to the BCP group. The median progression-free survival was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (8.3 months vs. 6.8 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.74; P<0.001); the corresponding values in the Teff-high WT population were 11.3 months and 6.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.38 to 0.68]; P<0.001). Progression-free survival was also longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group in the entire intention-to-treat population (including those with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations) and among patients with low or negative programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, those with low Teff gene-signature expression, and those with liver metastases. Median overall survival among the patients in the WT population was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (19.2 months vs. 14.7 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of ABCP was consistent with previously reported safety risks of the individual medicines. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of atezolizumab to bevacizumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival among patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression and EGFR or ALK genetic alteration status. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower150 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02366143 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Feminino , Genes erbB-1 , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e60635, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23585841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease activity measurement is a key component of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management. Biomarkers that capture the complex and heterogeneous biology of RA have the potential to complement clinical disease activity assessment. OBJECTIVES: To develop a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) test for rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Candidate serum protein biomarkers were selected from extensive literature screens, bioinformatics databases, mRNA expression and protein microarray data. Quantitative assays were identified and optimized for measuring candidate biomarkers in RA patient sera. Biomarkers with qualifying assays were prioritized in a series of studies based on their correlations to RA clinical disease activity (e.g. the Disease Activity Score 28-C-Reactive Protein [DAS28-CRP], a validated metric commonly used in clinical trials) and their contributions to multivariate models. Prioritized biomarkers were used to train an algorithm to measure disease activity, assessed by correlation to DAS and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for classification of low vs. moderate/high disease activity. The effect of comorbidities on the MBDA score was evaluated using linear models with adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing. RESULTS: 130 candidate biomarkers were tested in feasibility studies and 25 were selected for algorithm training. Multi-biomarker statistical models outperformed individual biomarkers at estimating disease activity. Biomarker-based scores were significantly correlated with DAS28-CRP and could discriminate patients with low vs. moderate/high clinical disease activity. Such scores were also able to track changes in DAS28-CRP and were significantly associated with both joint inflammation measured by ultrasound and damage progression measured by radiography. The final MBDA algorithm uses 12 biomarkers to generate an MBDA score between 1 and 100. No significant effects on the MBDA score were found for common comorbidities. CONCLUSION: We followed a stepwise approach to develop a quantitative serum-based measure of RA disease activity, based on 12-biomarkers, which was consistently associated with clinical disease activity levels.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Modelos Estatísticos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC
12.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 52(7): 1202-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23392591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score, a novel index based on 12 serum proteins, as a tool to guide management of RA patients. METHODS: A total of 125 patients with RA from the Behandel Strategieën study were studied. Clinical data and serum samples were available from 179 visits, 91 at baseline and 88 at year 1. In each serum sample, 12 biomarkers were measured by quantitative multiplex immunoassays and the concentrations were used as input to a pre-specified algorithm to calculate MBDA scores. RESULTS: MBDA scores had significant correlation with DAS28-ESR (Spearman's ρ = 0.66, P < 0.0001) and also correlated with simplified disease activity index, clinical disease activity index and HAQ Disability Index (all P < 0.0001). Changes in MBDA between baseline and year 1 were also correlated with changes in DAS28-ESR (ρ = 0.55, P < 0.0001). Groups stratified by European League Against Rheumatism disease activity (DAS28-ESR ≤ 3.2, 3.2-5.1 and > 5.1) had significantly different MBDA scores (P < 0.0001) and MBDA score could discriminate ACR/EULAR Boolean remission with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.83 (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The MBDA score reflects current clinical disease activity and can track changes in disease activity over time.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Citocinas/sangue , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
13.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 64(12): 1794-803, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22736476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Quantitative assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is important for patient management, and additional objective information may aid rheumatologists in clinical decision making. We validated a recently developed multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) test relative to clinical disease activity in diverse RA cohorts. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from the Index for Rheumatoid Arthritis Measurement, Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study, and Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohorts. Levels of 12 biomarkers were measured and combined according to a prespecified algorithm to generate the composite MBDA score. The relationship of the MBDA score to clinical disease activity was characterized separately in seropositive and seronegative patients using Pearson's correlations and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to discriminate between patients with low and moderate/high disease activity. Associations between changes in MBDA score and clinical responses 6-12 weeks after initiation of anti-tumor necrosis factor or methotrexate treatment were evaluated by the AUROC. RESULTS: The MBDA score was significantly associated with the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the C-reactive protein level (DAS28-CRP) in both seropositive (AUROC 0.77, P < 0.001) and seronegative (AUROC 0.70, P < 0.001) patients. In subgroups based on age, sex, body mass index, and treatment, the MBDA score was associated with the DAS28-CRP (P < 0.05) in all seropositive and most seronegative subgroups. Changes in the MBDA score at 6-12 weeks could discriminate both American College of Rheumatology criteria for 50% improvement responses (P = 0.03) and DAS28-CRP improvement (P = 0.002). Changes in the MBDA score at 2 weeks were also associated with subsequent DAS28-CRP response (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings establish the criterion and discriminant validity of a novel multibiomarker test as an objective measure of RA disease activity to aid in the management of RA in patients with this condition.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Gravidade do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reumatologia/métodos , Reumatologia/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 71(10): 1692-7, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22596166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of individual biomarkers and a multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score in the early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient population from the computer assisted management in early rheumatoid arthritis (CAMERA) study. METHODS: Twenty biomarkers were measured in the CAMERA cohort, in which patients were treated with either intensive or conventional methotrexate-based treatment strategies. The MBDA score was calculated using the concentrations of 12 biomarkers (SAA, IL-6, TNF-RI, VEGF-A, MMP-1, YKL-40, MMP-3, EGF, VCAM-1, leptin, resistin and CRP) according to a previously trained algorithm. The performance of the scores was evaluated relative to clinical disease activity assessments. Change in MBDA score over time was assessed by paired Wilcoxon rank sum test. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the ability of disease activity measures to predict radiographic progression. RESULTS: The MBDA score had a significant correlation with the disease activity score based on 28 joints-C reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) (r=0.72; p<0.001) and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing remission/low from moderate/high disease activity of 0.86 (p<0.001) using a DAS28-CRP cut-off of 2.7. In multivariate analysis the MBDA score, but not CRP, was an independent predictor of disease activity measures. Additionally, mean (SD) MBDA score decreased from 53 (18) at baseline to 39 (16) at 6 months in response to study therapy (p<0.0001). Neither MBDA score nor clinical variables were predictive of radiographic progression. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-biomarker test performed well in the assessment of disease activity in RA patients in the CAMERA study. Upon further validation, this test could be used to complement currently available disease activity measures and improve patient care and outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Área Sob a Curva , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Curva ROC , Radiografia
15.
Bioinformatics ; 26(3): 341-7, 2010 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20007256

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Various clustering methods have been applied to microarray gene expression data for identifying genes with similar expression profiles. As the biological annotation data accumulated, more and more genes have been organized into functional categories. Functionally related genes may be regulated by common cellular signals, thus likely to be co-expressed. Consequently, utilizing the rapidly increasing functional annotation resources such as Gene Ontology (GO) to improve the performance of clustering methods is of great interest. On the opposite side of clustering, there are genes that have distinct expression profiles and do not co-express with other genes. Identification of these scattered genes could enhance the performance of clustering methods. RESULTS: We developed a new clustering algorithm, Dynamically Weighted Clustering with Noise set (DWCN), which makes use of gene annotation information and allows for a set of scattered genes, the noise set, to be left out of the main clusters. We tested the DWCN method and contrasted its results with those obtained using several common clustering techniques on a simulated dataset as well as on two public datasets: the Stanford yeast cell-cycle gene expression data, and a gene expression dataset for a group of genetically different yeast segregants. CONCLUSION: Our method produces clusters with more consistent functional annotations and more coherent expression patterns than existing clustering techniques. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
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