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1.
J Food Sci ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931852

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA), which is a carcinogen in humans, has been a research focus in terms of food risk assessment. However, few published studies have explored protein strategies to reduce the health risks of AA. The objective of this study was to investigate the binding of AA with soy protein isolate (SPI) and elucidate the binding mechanism. The results showed that AA could bind with nontreated, heat-treated, high-pressure homogenization-treated, and ultrasound-treated SPI in vitro. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that secondary structure of SPI changed significantly after binding with AA in the nontreated and different treated groups. Moreover, fluorescence quenching experiments suggested that the quenching of SPI by AA was static quenching and hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals forces were involved in this process. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The study of SPI and AA binding could provide a new perspective for reducing the bioaccessibility of AA in human body by using protein. The results showed that SPI could potentially be used as a novel health strategy to reduce the harm of AA in the human body.

3.
Eur J Radiol ; 139: 109717, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962110

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US), a flexible green imaging modality, is expanding globally as a first-line imaging technique in various clinical fields following with the continual emergence of advanced ultrasonic technologies and the well-established US-based digital health system. Actually, in US practice, qualified physicians should manually collect and visually evaluate images for the detection, identification and monitoring of diseases. The diagnostic performance is inevitably reduced due to the intrinsic property of high operator-dependence from US. In contrast, artificial intelligence (AI) excels at automatically recognizing complex patterns and providing quantitative assessment for imaging data, showing high potential to assist physicians in acquiring more accurate and reproducible results. In this article, we will provide a general understanding of AI, machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) technologies; We then review the rapidly growing applications of AI-especially DL technology in the field of US-based on the following anatomical regions: thyroid, breast, abdomen and pelvis, obstetrics heart and blood vessels, musculoskeletal system and other organs by covering image quality control, anatomy localization, object detection, lesion segmentation, and computer-aided diagnosis and prognosis evaluation; Finally, we offer our perspective on the challenges and opportunities for the clinical practice of biomedical AI systems in US.

4.
Stat Med ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942352

RESUMO

Pathologic complete response (pCR) is a common primary endpoint for a phase II trial or even accelerated approval of neoadjuvant cancer therapy. If granted, a two-arm confirmatory trial is often required to demonstrate the efficacy with a time-to-event outcome such as overall survival. However, the design of a subsequent phase III trial based on prior information on the pCR effect is not straightforward. Aiming at designing such phase III trials with overall survival as primary endpoint using pCR information from previous trials, we consider a mixture model that incorporates both the survival and the binary endpoints. We propose to base the comparison between arms on the difference of the restricted mean survival times, and show how the effect size and sample size for overall survival rely on the probability of the binary response and the survival distribution by response status, both for each treatment arm. Moreover, we provide the sample size calculation under different scenarios and accompany them with the R package survmixer where all the computations have been implemented. We evaluate our proposal with a simulation study, and illustrate its application through a neoadjuvant breast cancer trial.

6.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To use magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF)-derived T1 and T2 values to differentiate gonadotroph from non-gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas based on the 2017 World Health Organization classification of pituitary adenomas. METHODS: A total of 57 patients with suspected pituitary macroadenomas were enrolled for analyses in this study between May 2018 and January 2020. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRF were performed in all patients before surgery using a 3-T MRI scanner. MRF-derived T1 and T2 values were compared between the gonadotroph and non-gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas using a Mann-Whitney U test. The Knosp classification was used to evaluate cavernous sinus invasion by the adenomas. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to determine the diagnostic performance of T1 and T2 values. RESULTS: Quantitative T1 and T2 values yielded from MRF of gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas were significantly higher than those of the non-gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas (p < 0.001 and = 0.002, respectively). The AUC for the T2 value (0.888) was significantly greater than that for the T1 value (0.742) (p = 0.034). The AUC for combined T1 and T2 values was 0.885. Non-gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas were more likely to invade the cavernous sinus than gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas (55% vs 26%, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: MRF may help to preoperatively differentiate between gonadotroph and non-gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas and may be useful in guiding the treatment of these adenomas. KEY POINTS: • Somatostatin receptor type 3 is the most abundant receptor subtype in gonadotroph pituitary adenomas. • Magnetic resonance fingerprinting may help to preoperatively differentiate between gonadotroph and non-gonadotroph pituitary macroadenomas. • Magnetic resonance fingerprinting shows potential for guiding the treatment of pituitary macroadenomas.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(16): 4911-4917, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870684

RESUMO

The non-toxic immunoassay for mycotoxins is being paid more attention due to its advantages of higher safety and cost savings by using anti-idiotype antibodies to substitute toxins. In this study, with tenuazonic acid (TeA), a kind of highly toxic Alternaria mycotoxin as the target, an enhanced non-toxic immunoassay was developed based on the ferritin-displayed anti-idiotypic nanobody-nanoluciferase multimers. First, three specific ß-type anti-idiotype nanobodies (AId-Nbs) bearing the internal image of TeA mycotoxin were selected from an immune phage display library. Then, the AId-Nb 2D with the best performance was exploited to generate a nanoluciferase (Nluc)-functionalized fusion monomer, by which a one-step non-toxic immunodetection format for TeA was established and proven to be effective. To further improve the affinity of the monomer, a ferritin display strategy was used to prepare 2D-Nluc fusion multimers. Finally, an enhanced bioluminescent enzyme immunoassay (BLEIA) was established in which the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for TeA was 6.5 ng/mL with a 10.5-fold improvement of the 2D-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proposed assay exhibited high selectivities and good recoveries of 80.0-95.2%. The generated AId-Nb and ferritin-displayed AId-Nb-Nluc multimers were successfully extended to the application of TeA in food samples. This study brings a new strategy for production of multivalent AId-Nbs and non-toxic immunoassays for trace toxic contaminants.

8.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation was reported to be the signature genetic event in most cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Hepassocin (HPS/FGL1) is involved in regulating lipid metabolism and the progression of several cancer types; however, the underlying mechanism of HPS/FGL1 in the KRAS mutant PDAC cells undergoing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) treatment remains unclear. METHODS: We measured HPS/FGL1 protein expressions in a human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPNE) normal pancreas cell line, a KRAS-wild-type PDAC cell line (BxPC-3), and KRAS-mutant PDAC cell lines (PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2, and SUIT-2) by Western blot methods. HEK293T cells were transiently transfected with corresponding KRAS-expressing plasmids to examine the level of HPS expression with KRAS activation. We knocked-down HPS/FGL1 using lentiviral vectors in SUIT-2 cells and measured the cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and clonogenicity assays. Furthermore, a lipidomic analysis was performed to profile changes in lipid metabolism after HPS/FGL1 knockdown. RESULTS: We found that the HPS/FGL1 level was significantly upregulated in KRAS-mutated PDAC cells and was involved in KRAS/phosphorylated (p)-signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling, and the knockdown of HPS/FGL1 in SUIT-2 cells decreased cell proliferation through increasing G2/M cell cycle arrest and cyclin B1 expression. In addition, the knockdown of HPS/FGL1 in SUIT-2 cells significantly increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and EPA production but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Moreover, EPA treatment in SUIT-2 cells reduced the expression of de novo lipogenic protein, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC)-1, and decreased p-STAT3 and HPS/FGL1 expressions, resulting in the suppression of cell viability. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicate that HPS is highly expressed by KRAS-mutated PDAC cells, and HPS/FGL1 plays a crucial role in altering lipid metabolism and increasing cell growth in pancreatic cancer. EPA supplements could potentially inhibit or reduce ACC-1-involved lipogenesis and HPS/FGL1-mediated cell survival in KRAS-mutated pancreatic cancer cells.

9.
Environ Res ; 197: 111178, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865818

RESUMO

The adaptation mechanism of a wild type (WT) and resistant type (Re) strain of the aerobic denitrifier Enterobacter cloacae strain HNR to short-term ZnO nanoparticle (NP) stresses was investigated. The results showed that Re maintained higher nitrite reductase (NIR) and nitrate reductase (NR) activities and showed lower increment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than WT, under ZnO NP stresses. The affinity constant (KA) of WT to Zn2+ was 5.06 times that of Re, indicating that Re was more repulsive to Zn2+ released by ZnO NPs. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the up-regulation of the nitrogen metabolism of Re helped maintain NIR and NR activities, that the enhancement of purine metabolism lowered the intracellular ROS increment, and that the up-regulation of cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance contributed to the lower KA of Re to Zn2+. These findings provided new insights into the adaptation mechanism of aerobic denitrifying bacteria to ZnO NPs.

10.
Clin J Pain ; 37(6): 429-436, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with herpes zoster (HZ) would benefit from accurate prediction of whether they are likely to develop postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). We investigated whether a circulating biomarker of neuronal damage could be a predictor of PHN in this nonmatched prospective, nested, case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients with HZ who were within 90 days after rash onset. Volunteers without a history of HZ were recruited as controls. We evaluated epidemiologic factors and circulating neuronal damage biomarkers, including cell-free DNA, myelin basic protein (MBP), and soluble protein-100B (S100B). We conducted logistic regression analyses to develop a prediction model of PHN. RESULTS: We found that cell-free DNA and MBP levels were higher in patients with HZ (n=71) than in controls (n=37). However, only MBP level was higher in patients who developed PHN (n=25), in comparison with those who did not (n=46). MBP level and 3 clinical factors, age, acute pain severity, and response to treatment drugs were identified as independent predictors of PHN. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the prediction made using a combination of MBP level and clinical factors had an area under ROC curve of 0.853 (95% confidence interval: 0.764 to 0.943), which was better than prediction using clinical factors alone (area under ROC curve: 0.823, 95% confidence interval: 0.728 to 0.917). DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that circulating MBP level in patients with HZ is a predictor for PHN. The combination of clinical predictors and MBP level enhanced the prediction performance.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117204, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910135

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous organic pollutants in the environment, can accumulate in humans via the food chain and then harm human health. MiRNAs (microRNAs), a kind of non-coding small RNAs with a length of 18-30 nucleotides, regulate plant growth and development and respond to environmental stress. In this study, it is demonstrated that miR164 can regulate root growth and adventitious root generation of wheat under phenanthrene exposure by targeting NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) transcription factor. We observed that phenanthrene treatment accelerated the senescence and death of wheat roots, and stimulated the occurrence of new roots. However, it is difficult to compensate for the loss caused by old root senescence and death, due to the slower growth of new roots under phenanthrene exposure. Phenanthrene accumulation in wheat roots caused to generate a lot of reactive oxygen species, and enhanced lipoxygenase activity and malonaldehyde concentration, meaning that lipid peroxidation is the main reason for root damage. MiR164 was up-regulated by phenanthrene, enhancing the silence of NAC1, weakening the association with auxin signal, and inhibiting the occurrence of adventitious roots. Phenanthrene also affected the expression of CDK (the coding gene of cyclin-dependent kinase) and CDC2 (a gene regulating cell division cycle), the key genes in the cell cycle of pericycle cells, thereby affecting the occurrence and growth of lateral roots. In addition, NAM (a gene regulating no apical meristem) and NAC23 may also be related to the root growth and development in wheat exposed to phenanthrene. These results provide not only theoretical basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of crop response to PAHs accumulation, but also knowledge support for improving phytoremediation of soil or water contaminated by PAHs.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(4): 489-498, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpelisib, a PI3Kα-selective inhibitor and degrader, plus fulvestrant showed efficacy in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, PIK3CA-mutated advanced breast cancer in SOLAR-1; limited data are available in the post-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor setting. BYLieve aimed to assess alpelisib plus endocrine therapy in this setting in three cohorts defined by immediate previous treatment; here, we report results from cohort A. METHODS: This ongoing, phase 2, multicentre, open-label, non-comparative study enrolled patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer with tumour PIK3CA mutation, following progression on or after previous therapy, including CDK4/6 inhibitors, from 114 study locations (cancer centres, medical centres, university hospitals, and hospitals) in 18 countries worldwide. Participants aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, with no more than two previous anticancer treatments and no more than one previous chemotherapy regimen, were enrolled in three cohorts. In cohort A, patients must have had progression on or after a CDK4/6 inhibitor plus an aromatase inhibitor as the immediate previous treatment. Patients received oral alpelisib 300 mg/day (continuously) plus fulvestrant 500 mg intramuscularly on day 1 of each 28-day cycle and on day 15 of cycle 1. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients alive without disease progression at 6 months per local assessment using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in patients with a centrally confirmed PIK3CA mutation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03056755. FINDINGS: Between Aug 14, 2017, and Dec 17, 2019 (data cutoff), 127 patients with at least 6 months' follow-up were enrolled into cohort A. 121 patients had a centrally confirmed PIK3CA mutation. At data cutoff, median follow-up was 11·7 months (IQR 8·5-15·9). 61 (50·4%; 95% CI 41·2-59·6) of 121 patients were alive without disease progression at 6 months. The most frequent grade 3 or worse adverse events were hyperglycaemia (36 [28%] of 127 patients), rash (12 [9%]), and rash maculopapular (12 [9%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 33 (26%) of 127 patients. No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: BYLieve showed activity of alpelisib plus fulvestrant with manageable toxicity in patients with PIK3CA-mutated, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer, after progression on a CDK4/6 inhibitor plus an aromatase inhibitor. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Antagonistas do Receptor de Estrogênio/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fulvestranto/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805124

RESUMO

In order to determine whether Taiwanese vegetarian diets reduce the risks of depression, we analyzed data from the Tzu Chi Vegetarian Study (TCVS), which is a prospective cohort study following 12,062 participants from the Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation of Taiwan since 2005. The cohort was prospectively followed by linking to the National Health Institute Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan and hazard ratios of depression between vegetarian and non-vegetarian groups were calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression. We assessed dietary intake using a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Incident depression was ascertained through linkage to NHIRD which had claim records with the International Classification of Diseases, and a total of 3571 vegetarians and 7006 non-vegetarians were included in this analysis. Compared with non-vegetarians, the vegetarian group had a lower incidence of depressive disorders (2.37 vs. 3.21 per 10,000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 0.70; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.52-0.93). Thus, Taiwanese vegetarians had a lower risk of developing subsequent depressive disorders compared with non-vegetarians. This indicated that diet may be an important measure for the prevention of depression. However, to generalize to the global population requires further study.

14.
Anal Methods ; 13(15): 1795-1802, 2021 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33885655

RESUMO

The natural mycotoxin tenuazonic acid (TeA) in foods is identified as the most toxic mycotoxin among the over 70 kinds of secondary toxic metabolites produced by Alternaria alternata. Some hapten-antibody-mediated immunoassays have been developed for TeA detection in food samples, but these methods show unsatisfactory sensitivity and specificity. In this study, a rationally designed hapten for TeA mycotoxin generated with computer-assisted modeling was prepared to produce a highly specific camel polyclonal antibody, and an indirect competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (icCLEIA) was established with a limit of detection of 0.2 ng mL-1 under optimized conditions. The cross-reactivity results showed that several analogs and some common mycotoxins had negligible recognition by the anti-TeA polyclonal antibody. The average recoveries spiked in fruit juices were determined to be 92.7% with an acceptable coefficient of variation, and good correlations between icCLEIA and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results were obtained in spiked samples. This developed icCLEIA for TeA detection with significantly improved sensitivity and satisfactory specificity is a promising alternative for environmental monitoring and food safety.

15.
Anal Methods ; 13(16): 1911-1918, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913967

RESUMO

Diazinon (DAZ) is an organophosphorus pesticide (OP), which is commonly used to prevent and control harmful pests that endanger agricultural products. In this study, we developed a novel heterology coating strategy for the immunoassay of DAZ. The DAZ coating hapten can be directly conjugated to the carrier protein without requiring a spacer arm. This proposed hapten coating strategy is time-saving and significantly improves the sensitivity of the immunoassay due to the lack of a spacer arm. The as-synthesized coating antigen was used to screen the monoclonal antibody (mAb). Finally, the developed indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay (icELISA) showed IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) values of 0.58 ng mL-1 and 8 pg mL-1, respectively. This method exhibited negligible cross-reactivity towards other analogues, and the recoveries of samples (cucumber, cabbage, and lettuce) ranged from 92.6% to 125.4%, with coefficients of variance (CV) below 12%. Good correlation between icELISA and high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was obtained. The proposed icELISA was an ideal tool for monitoring DAZ residues in food samples.

16.
Biomed J ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is a common procedure in complicated prosthodontic treatment. The swallowing technique had been verified as a functional method to determine the VDO. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between increasing VDO and mandibular movement during swallowing. METHODS: 26 females and 14 males were enrolled (age range: 21 to 30 year-old). Under different increased VDO (3, 5, and 8 mm), the mandibular trajectory during swallowing was measured by K7 Evaluation System (Myotronics®). When the subjects were instructed to salivary swallowing, the range of mandibular movement in vertical, anteroposterior and lateral directions were recorded. RESULTS: Increasing VDO significantly impacted the range of mandibular movement in lateral direction during swallowing (p < 0.0001, F value = 40.09). The average variance of the mandibular movement distance in lateral direction during swallowing raise 1.58 (p = 0.001); 3.59 (p = 0.0001) and 2.01 (p = 0.001) when th VDO was raised from 3 mm to 5 mm; from 3 mm to 8 mm and from 5 to 8 mm respectively. The range of mandibular movement was significantly correlated to the increasing VDO (p ≤ 0.05) under the analysis of the Post Hoc test. CONCLUSIONS: VDO was closely correlated to the trajectory of mandibular motion during swallowing. The increase in VDO could change the extent of mandibular trajectory during swallowing if the increase was more than 3 mm. The range of mandibular motion when swallowing had positive correlative tendency as the VDO was increased.

17.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864541

RESUMO

The black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) is an important carnivorous freshwater-cultured species. To understand the molecular basis underlying the response of black carp to fasting, we used RNA-Seq to analyze the liver and brain transcriptome of fasting fish. Annotation to the NCBI database identified 66,609 unigenes, of which 22,841 were classified into the Gene Ontology database and 15,925 were identified in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Comparative analysis of the expression profile between fasting and normal feeding fish revealed 13,737 differentially expressed genes (P < 0.05), of which 12,480 were found in liver tissue and 1257 were found in brain tissue. The KEGG pathway analysis showed significant differences in expression of genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways, such as the insulin signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, endocytosis, and apoptosis. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that expression of the genes encoding the factors involved in those pathways differed between fasting and feeding fish. These results provide valuable information about the molecular response mechanism of black carp under fasting conditions.

18.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited accessibility of the tumour precludes longitudinal characterisation for therapy guidance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: We utilised dielectrophoresis-field flow fractionation (DEP-FFF) to isolate circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in 272 blood draws from 74 PDAC patients (41 localised, 33 metastatic) to non-invasively monitor disease progression. RESULTS: Analysis using multiplex imaging flow cytometry revealed four distinct sub-populations of CTCs: epithelial (E-CTC), mesenchymal (M-CTC), partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (pEMT-CTC) and stem cell-like (SC-CTC). Overall, CTC detection rate was 76.8% (209/272 draws) and total CTC counts did not correlate with any clinicopathological variables. However, the proportion of pEMT-CTCs (prop-pEMT) was correlated with advanced disease, worse progression-free and overall survival in all patients, and earlier recurrence after resection. CONCLUSION: Our results underscore the importance of immunophenotyping and quantifying specific CTC sub-populations in PDAC.

19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 180: 187-193, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675831

RESUMO

Cyclodextrinase (CDase) and cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase (CGTase) were synergistically used to provide a novel enzymatic method in lowing in vitro digestibility of waxy maize starch. The molecular structure, malto-oligosaccharide composition, and digestibility properties of the generated products were investigated. The molecular weight was reduced to 0.3 × 105 g/mol and 0.2 × 105 g/mol by simultaneous and sequential treatment with CDase and CGTase, while the highest proportion of chains with degree of polymerization (DP) < 13 was obtained by simultaneous treatment. The resistant starch contents were increased to 27.5% and 36.9% by simultaneous and sequential treatments respectively. Dual-enzyme treatment significantly promoted the content of malto-oligosaccharides (MOSs) by hydrolyzing cyclodextrins from CGTase with CDase. However, the replacement of cyclodextrins by MOSs did not obviously influence the digestibility of the products. The starch digestion kinetics further revealed the hydrolysis pattern of these two enzymes on the starch hydrolysate. It was proved that the starch digestibility could be lowered by modulating the molecular structure and beneficial MOSs content by this dual-enzyme treatment.

20.
J Control Release ; 333: 76-90, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771623

RESUMO

Open globe trauma is the major cause for single eye blindness that stem from subsequent proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Though biomaterials and tissue engineering have significantly advanced drug delivery and management of human diseases, currently there is no effective drug formulation or device to pharmacologically mitigate PVR formation after open-globe eye trauma. This highlighted the challenge we are facing to bring the technology from bench to bedside. The current study reported an engineered episcleral drug film using biodegradable material, Poly(L-lactide)-co-poly(ɛ-caprolactone), and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as a model drug. The film can be conveniently sized into any shape to fit the configuration of the eye globe trauma and easily installed onto the ruptured sclera during primary trauma repair surgery. The film allows therapeutic TA to slow release for at least 6 months without toxicity and demonstrated a significant benefit to reduce the odds of developing severe PVR by 5.7 times when compared with a no-drug film control on a rabbit trauma PVR model. Our results suggested this micro episcleral drug film as promising drug delivery carrier for the targeted treatment of various unwanted retinal proliferation diseases.

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