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1.
Virus Res ; 285: 198019, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417180

RESUMO

Rhabdoviruses cause devastating diseases in aquaculture, resulting in enormous economic losses. Our previous studies indicated that imidazole arctigenin derivatives possessed antiviral activities against aquatic rhabdoviruses. Based on the data of structure-activity relationship, a new imidazole arctigenin derivative, 4-(8-(2-bromoimidazole)octyloxy)-arctigenin (BOA), was designed and synthesized. And its antiviral activities against aquatic rhabdoviruses (SVCV, IHNV and MSRV) were evaluated in vitro. By comparing inhibitory concentration at half-maximal activity (IC 50), we found that BOA (IC50 = 1.11 µM) possessed a higher anti-IHNV activity than the antiviral imidazole arctigenin derivatives which were found in our previous study. Besides, BOA could cause profound inhibition of SVCV and MSRV replication. By the reduction assays on cytopathic effect, BOA exhibited a protective effect on two host cell lines. As a typical rhabdovirus, SVCV was chosen as a model to illuminate the anti-rhabdovirus mechanism of BOA. BOA was discovered to not impact directly on viral particles or interfere with SVCV adsorption. And it worked within the 2-6 h of the early phase of virus replication. In addition, after repression of cell cycle S phase and recovery of caspase-3/8/9 activities activated by SVCV, BOA inhibited SVCV-induced apoptosis and then reduced the release of viral particles at the late stage of virus replication. Altogether, BOA was expected to be a highly efficient antiviral agent against multiple rhabdoviruses in the field of aquaculture.

2.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 128, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common form of oral ulcerative disease, whose cause is still unknown. Researchers have found the association of many factors with the occurrence of RAS, and proposed oral bacterial infection could be a cause for this disease. METHODS: To investigate whether the occurrence of RAS is associated with oral bacterial infection, we performed high throughput sequencing analysis of bacterial samples collected from the normal oral mucosa and aphthous ulcers of 24 patients. RESULTS: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes were the most abundant phyla in the microbiomes analysed. The alpha diversities of the oral mucosa and aphthous ulcer microbiomes were similar, suggesting a similar richness and diversity. The NMDS analysis showed the oral mucosa and aphthous ulcer microbiomes are significantly different. This suggestion is further supported by Anosim, MRPP, and Adonis analyses. More detailed comparison of the two groups of microbiomes suggested that the occurrence of RAS is significantly associated with the increase of Escherichia coli and Alloprevotella, as well as the decrease of Streptococcus. CONCLUSIONS: Considering E. coli is a very common intestinal bacterium, we propose that E. coli colonization could be a cause for RAS, and controlling E. coli colonization could help curing RAS.

3.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399566

RESUMO

Transcription and pre-mRNA splicing are coupled to promote gene expression and regulation. However, mechanisms by which transcription and splicing influence each other are still under investigation. The ATPase Prp5p is required for pre-spliceosome assembly and splicing proofreading at the branch-point region. From an open UV mutagenesis screen for genetic suppressors of prp5 defects and subsequent targeted testing, we identify components of the TBP-binding module of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex, Spt8p and Spt3p. Spt8Δ and spt3Δ rescue the cold-sensitivity of prp5-GAR allele, and prp5 mutants restore growth of spt8Δ and spt3Δ strains on 6-azauracil. By chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we find that prp5 alleles decrease recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to an intron-containing gene, which is rescued by spt8Δ. Further ChIP-seq reveals that global effects on Pol II-binding are mutually rescued by prp5-GAR and spt8Δ. Inhibited splicing caused by prp5-GAR is also restored by spt8Δ. In vitro assays indicate that Prp5p directly interacts with Spt8p, but not Spt3p. We demonstrate that Prp5p's splicing proofreading is modulated by Spt8p and Spt3p. Therefore, this study reveals that interactions between the TBP-binding module of SAGA and the spliceosomal ATPase Prp5p mediate a balance between transcription initiation/elongation and pre-spliceosome assembly.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) have a higher prevalence of known risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aims to determine if SCZ patients are at increased risk of incident OSA. METHODS: A total of 5092 newly diagnosed SCZ patients and 5092 non-SCZ controls matched by gender, age, and index year were included between 2000 and 2012 and followed to 2013. Participants newly diagnosed with OSA were defined as incidents. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the OSA incidence rate between the two groups studied. RESULTS: SCZ patients were at increased risk of OSA compared to non-SCZ controls after adjusting for gender, age, comorbidities, and duration of antipsychotic use (2.12 versus 1.01 per 1000 person-years, HR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.36-2.85). Also, this study confirmed the existence of some known risk factors for OSA, including male gender (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.14-2.37), obesity (HR 2.62, 95% CI 1.19-5.80), hypertension (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.06-2.47), hyperlipidemia (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.04-2.38), diabetes (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.01-2.38), and antipsychotic use (duration < 1 year (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.37), 1-3 years (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06-2.82), and 3-5 years (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.06-2.44)). CONCLUSION: This study shows SCZ patients are at increased risk of OSA, and there is still an association with higher risk of OSA after controlling for known risk factors, indicating that it is necessary to develop targeted interventions in SCZ patients to reduce the negative impact of OSA on health.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386416

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying type-2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) are unclear. This study investigates the coupling of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (GluN2B), and the subsequent phosphorylation of GluN2B (Tyr1472-GluN2B) in the spinal cord in a rat model of type-2 DNP. Expression levels of PSD-95, Tyr1472-GluN2B, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and its phosphorylated counterpart (Thr286-CaMKII), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-soxazole propionic acid receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) and its phosphorylated counterpart (Ser831-GluR1) were significantly increased versus controls in the spinal cord of type-2 DNP rats whereas the expression of total spinal GluN2B did not change. The intrathecal injection of Ro25-6981 (a specific antagonist of GluN2B) or Tat-NR2B9c (a mimetic peptide disrupting the interaction between PSD-95 and GluN2B) induced an antihyperalgesic effect and blocked the increased expression of Tyr1472-GluN2B, CaMKII, GluR1, Thr286-CaMKII, and Ser831-GluR1 in the spinal cords; the increase in spinal cord PSD-95 was not affected. These findings indicate that the PSD-95-GluN2B interaction may increase phosphorylation of GluN2B, and subsequently induce the expression of phosphorylation of CaMKII and GluR1 in the spinal cord of type-2 DNP rats. Targeting the interaction of PSD-95 with GluN2B may provide a new therapeutic strategy for type-2 DNP.

6.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369184

RESUMO

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for high-level production of aromatic chemicals has received increasing attention in recent years. Tyrosol production from glucose by S. cerevisiae is considered an environmentally sustainable and safe approach. However, the production of tyrosol and salidroside by engineered S. cerevisiae has been reported to be lower than 2 g/L to date. In this study, S. cerevisiae was engineered with a push-pull-restrain strategy to efficiently produce tyrosol and salidroside from glucose. The biosynthetic pathways of ethanol, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were restrained by disrupting PDC1, PHA2, and TRP3. Subsequently, tyrosol biosynthesis was enhanced with a metabolic pull strategy of introducing PcAAS and EcTyrAM53I/A354V . Moreover, a metabolic push strategy was implemented with the heterologous expression of phosphoketolase (Xfpk), and then erythrose 4-phosphate was synthesized simultaneously by two pathways, the Xfpk-based pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway, in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, the heterologous expression of Xfpk alone in S. cerevisiae efficiently improved tyrosol production compared with the coexpression of Xfpk and phosphotransacetylase. Finally, the tyrosol yield increased by approximately 135-folds, compared with that of parent strain. The total amount of tyrosol and salidroside with glucose fed-batch fermentation was over 10 g/L and reached levels suitable for large-scale production.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391001

RESUMO

Although the milestone discovery of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been translated into clinical practice, only a fraction of patients can benefit from it with durable responses and subsequent long-term survival. Here, we tested the anti-tumor effect of combining PD-L1 blockade with 4-1BB costimulation in 3LL and 4T1.2 murine tumor models. Dual treatment induced further tumor regression and enhanced survival in tumor-bearing mice more so than PD-L1 and 4-1BB mAb alone. It was demonstrated that dual anti-PD-L1/anti-4-1BB immunotherapy increased the number of intratumoral CD103+CD8+ T cells and altered their distribution. Phenotypically, CD103+CD8+ T cells expressed a higher level of 4-1BB and PD-1 than their CD103- counterparts. Administration of PD-L1 mAb and 4-1BB mAb further increased the cytolytic capacity of CD103+CD8+ T cells. In vivo, CD103-CD8+ T cells could differentiate into CD103+CD8+ progeny cells. In a human setting, more CD8+ T cells differentiated into CD103+CD8+ T cells in the peripheral tumor region of lung cancer tissues than in the central tumor region. Collectively, infiltrated CD103+CD8+ T cells served as a potential effector T cell population. Combining 4-1BB agonism with PD-L1 blockade could increase tumor-infiltrated CD103+CD8+T cells, thereby facilitating tumor regression.

9.
Clin Respir J ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421898

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the main treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To date, the link between CPAP usage and incident stroke has been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: This nationwide population study is designed to examine the effect of CPAP on stroke incidence in OSA patients. METHODS: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), this study collected data from 4,275 OSA patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2011 and divided them into two groups according to whether they received CPAP treatment. After matching baseline demographics and comorbidities, both cohorts contained 959 OSA patients and were followed to a newly diagnosed stroke or until the end of 2013. Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the incidence of stroke between patients with OSA receiving CPAP or no CPAP treatment RESULTS: CPAP treatment for OSA patients predicted a lower incidence rate (3.41 vs. 5.43 per 1,000 person-years) and tended to protect against the development of stroke (hazard ratio (HR): 0.68, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.38-1.23) compared to those without CPAP treatment, but the estimate was not statistically significant. Similar results were also observed by dividing stroke into ischemic (2.65 vs. 4.30 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.35-1.31) or hemorrhagic origin (0.76 vs. 1.12 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-2.40). CONCLUSIONS: It is possible that treatment with CPAP might be beneficial for protection against stroke, but this conclusion should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with satisfactory CPAP quality and duration are needed to validate this observation.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442569

RESUMO

In this study, a pectin polysaccharide, AER-A3 (Mw 1.12 × 105 g/mol), was isolated and purified from the root bark of Aralia elata by ion exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Its planar structure was investigated in combination with UPLC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, HILIC-ESI--MS/MS, GC-MS and NMR techniques. The main chain of AER-A3 was unambiguously determined to be smooth region and hairy region with a chain length ratio of 1:1 characterized by occurrence of (1 → 2)-α-Rhap, (1 → 2,3)-α-Rhap, (1 → 2,4)-α-Rhap, (1 → 2,3,4)-α-Rhap, and (1 → 4)-α-GalpA, whereas the branched chain included T-α-Araf, (1 → 5)-α-Araf, (1 → 3,5)-α-Araf, T-ß-Galp, (1 → 3)-ß-Galp, (1 → 3,4,6)-ß-Galp, (1 → 4)-Glcp, (1 → 3)-Glcp, and (1 → 3)-Manp. In addition, SEC-MALLS-RID, CD and Congo red assays showed that AER-A3 had no helical conformations but existed as a globular shape with branching. AER-A3 had good scavenging activities against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals. Anti-tumor assay investigated the effects of AER-A3 on human A549 and HepG2 cancer cell lines in vitro. These results provided a scientific basis for the use of the polysaccharides in A. elata root barks in pharmaceuticals.

11.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 27(Pt 3): 753-761, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381778

RESUMO

Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play a key role in the global nitrogen cycle and in nitrogenous wastewater treatment. The anammox bacteria ultrastructure is unique and distinctly different from that of other prokaryotic cells. The morphological structure of an organism is related to its function; however, research on the ultrastructure of intact anammox bacteria is lacking. In this study, in situ three-dimensional nondestructive ultrastructure imaging of a whole anammox cell was performed using synchrotron soft X-ray tomography (SXT) and the total variation-based simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (TV-SART). Statistical and quantitative analyses of the intact anammox bacteria were performed. High soft X-ray absorption composition inside anammoxosome was detected and verified to be relevant to iron-binding protein. On this basis, the shape adaptation of the anammox bacteria response to iron was explored.

12.
Chem Asian J ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307921

RESUMO

Two-dimensional metal sulfides and their hybrids are emerging as promising candidates in various areas. Yet, it remains challenging to synthesize high-quality 2D metal sulfides and their hybrids, especially iso-component hybrids, in a simple and controllable way. In this work, a low-temperature selective solid-liquid sulfidation growth method has been developed for the synthesis of CuS nanoflakes and their hybrids. CuS nanoflakes of about 20 nm thickness and co-component hybrids CuOx /CuS with variable composition ratios derived from different sulfidation time are obtained after the residual sulfur removal. Besides, benefiting from the mild low-temperature sulfidation conditions, selective sulfidation is realized between Cu and Fe to yield iso-component FeOx /CuS 2D nanoflakes of about 10-20 nm thickness, whose composition ratio is readily tunable by controlling the precursor. The as-synthesized FeOx /CuS nanoflakes demonstrate superior lithium storage performance (i. e., 707 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1 and 627 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 after 450 cycles) when tested as anode materials in LIBs owing to the advantages of the ultrathin 2D nanostructure as well as the lithiation volumetric strain self-reconstruction effect of the co-existing two phases during charging/discharging processes.

13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1279371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337220

RESUMO

Background: sCD30 and sCD26 are correlated with autoimmune diseases. However, little research has been done on the relationship between them and primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Methods: This study enrolled 47 patients diagnosed with ITP in the Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (Tianjin, China), from January 2015 to August 2015. The peripheral blood of all subjects was collected. The mRNA expression of CD30 was quantified by RT-PCR, and concentrations of sCD30 and sCD26 were measured by ELISA. Patient characteristics, CD30 mRNA levels, and sCD30 and sCD26 concentrations were analyzed. Results: The concentration of sCD30 was higher in active ITP patients (median, 35.82 ng/mL) than in remission ITP patients (median, 23.12 ng/mL; P = 0.021) and healthy controls (median, 25.11 ng/mL; P = 0.002). Plasma sCD26 levels decreased in remission ITP patients compared with that in healthy controls (median, 599.4 ng/mL vs. 964.23 ng/mL; P = 0.004). Ratios of sCD26/sCD30 in active ITP patients decreased compared with those in controls (P = 0.005). Increased sCD30 was positively correlated with hemorrhage (r = 0.493, P = 0.017) in ITP patients while little relationship was identified between sCD26 and ITP. Conclusion: Since sCD30 levels and sCD26/sCD30 ratios may contribute to the activity of the disease, they may be used to assess ITP disease activity.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 270: 36-41, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with endometriosis (EM) have increased vulnerability to certain psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety, as well as bipolar disorder (BD). This study investigates the risk of BD development in EM patients. Also, the impact of EM treatment on the risk of developing BD is examined. METHODS: A total of 17,832 EM patients and 17,832 non-EM controls matched by age, index year, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score were included between 2000-2012 and followed to the end of 2013. Participants newly diagnosed as BD by board-certified psychiatrist were defined as incidents. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of the BD incidence rate between two studied groups. RESULTS: EM patients were associated with an increased risk of BD development compared with non-EM controls after adjusting for age, CCI score, and different treatment options (1.04 versus 0.56 per 1,000 person-years, HR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.75-3.12). Also, there was no significant difference in the risk estimate between different hormonal or surgical treatment groups, suggesting a limited impact of EM treatment on the risk of BD development. LIMITATIONS: This study deals with the duration of hormonal treatment, whether operated or not, which reduces the chances of showing the effect of individual EM treatment on the risk of BD development. CONCLUSION: This study shows that EM patients are associated with an increased risk of BD development. Further studies would be needed to elucidate the mechanism linking the EM and BD.

15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 177, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curd architecture is one of the most important characters determining the curd morphology of cauliflower. However, the genetic mechanism dissection of this complex trait at molecular level is lacking. Genes/QTLs responsible for the morphological differences between present-day loose-curd and compact-curd cauliflower haven't been well revealed. RESULTS: Herein, by using a common compact-curd parent and two loose-curd parents, we developed two double haploid (DH) populations including 122 and 79 lines, respectively. For each population, we decomposed the curd architecture concept into four parameters (basal diameter, stalk length, stalk angle and curd solidity), and collected corresponding phenotypic data for each parameter across two environments. The Kosambi function and composite interval mapping algorithm were conducted to construct the linkage map and analyze the QTLs associated with curd architecture parameters. A total of 20 QTLs were detected with the minimum likelihood of odd (LOD) values ranging from 2.61 to 8.38 and the percentage of the phenotypic variance explained by each QTL (PVE) varying between 7.69 and 25.10%. Of these, two QTLs controlling stalk length (qSL.C6-1, qSL.C6-2) and two QTLs controlling curd solidity (qCS.C6-1 and qCS.C6-2) were steadily expressed in both environments. Further, qSL.C6-1, qSL.C6-2, qCS.C6-1 and qCS.C6-4 fell into the same chromosomal region of the reference genome, indicating that these loci are involved in pleiotropic effects or are tightly linked. CONCLUSION: The current study identified a series of QTLs associated with curd architecture parameters, which might contribute essentially to the formation of present-day loose-curd cauliflower that is widely cultivated in China. These results may pave the way for intensive deciphering the molecular mechanisms of curd development and for marker-assisted selection of curd morphology in cauliflower breeding.

16.
J Med Chem ; 63(10): 5585-5623, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324999

RESUMO

The BET family of proteins consists of BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDt. Each protein contains two distinct bromodomains (BD1 and BD2). BET family bromodomain inhibitors under clinical development for oncology bind to each of the eight bromodomains with similar affinities. We hypothesized that it may be possible to achieve an improved therapeutic index by selectively targeting subsets of the BET bromodomains. Both BD1 and BD2 are highly conserved across family members (>70% identity), whereas BD1 and BD2 from the same protein exhibit a larger degree of divergence (∼40% identity), suggesting selectivity between BD1 and BD2 of all family members would be more straightforward to achieve. Exploiting the Asp144/His437 and Ile146/Val439 sequence differences (BRD4 BD1/BD2 numbering) allowed the identification of compound 27 demonstrating greater than 100-fold selectivity for BRD4 BD2 over BRD4 BD1. Further optimization to improve BD2 selectivity and oral bioavailability resulted in the clinical development compound 46 (ABBV-744).

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 725: 138284, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276046

RESUMO

The aerobic denitrification process is a promising and cost-effective alternative to the conventional nitrogen removal process. Widely used ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) will inevitably reach wastewater treatment plants, and cause adverse impacts on aerobic denitrification and nitrogen removal. Therefore, a full understanding of the responses and adaption of aerobic denitrifiers to ZnO NPs is essential to develop effective strategies to reduce adverse effects on wastewater treatment. In this study, the responses and adaption to ZnO NPs were investigated of a wild type strain (WT) and a resistant type strain (Re) of aerobic denitrifying bacteria Enterobacter cloacae strain HNR. When exposed to 0.75 mM ZnO NPs, the nitrate removal efficiency of Re was 11.2% higher than that of WT. To prevent ZnO NPs entering cells by adsorption, the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of WT and Re strains increased 13.2% and 43.9%, respectively. The upregulations of amino sugar and carbohydrate-related metabolism contributed to the increase of EPS production, and the increased nitrogen metabolism contributed to higher activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases. Interestingly, cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance contributed to resist Zn (II) released by ZnO NPs, and many antioxidative stress-related metabolism pathways were upregulated to resist the oxidative stress resulting from ZnO NPs. These findings will guide efforts to improve the aerobic denitrification process in an environment polluted by NPs, and promote the application of aerobic denitrification technologies.

18.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126809, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334258

RESUMO

Associations between plasma elements and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among the elderly are poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, we explored the associations between exposure to four plasma elements and CKD in elderly people aged ≥90 years in longevity areas in China. We measured plasma selenium, manganese, iron, and zinc levels and used logistic regression models to investigate associations between CKD and these four plasma elements after adjusting for confounding factors among 461 participants aged ≥90 years in the fifth wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study (CLHLS) conducted in 2009. The median plasma selenium, manganese, iron, and zinc levels were 120.51 µg/L, 26.64 µg/L, 2880.52 µg/L, and 1882.42 µg/L in the CKD group and 108.76 µg/L, 31.55 µg/L, 4512.00 µg/L, and 2294.24 µg/L in the non-CKD group, respectively. Single- and multiple-element multivariable models showed that plasma manganese, iron, and zinc were negatively associated with CKD. In the multiple-element multivariable models, the adjusted odds ratios for CKD were 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27-0.86) for the second highest quartile of manganese, 0.37 (95% CI: 0.21-0.68) and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.19-0.65) for the third highest and highest quartiles of iron, respectively, and 0.53 (95% CI: 0.29-0.94) for the highest quartile of zinc, compared with the lowest quartiles of these three elements. Plasma manganese, iron, and zinc levels protect against CKD in elderly people aged ≥90 years in longevity areas.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343548

RESUMO

The exploration of transitional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is important because of their unique properties and promising applications. Hence, finding a suitable strategy to design transitional MOFs with different states has become a key issue. Herein, we develop a modulator-induced strategy for fabricating transitional MOFs with carboxylic ligands by building esterification reaction. The exposed metal sites, mesoporous systems, morphologies, crystallinities, and components of transitional MOFs can be finely controlled when different modulators are employed. Notably, the Pt/solid-transitional MOF catalyst with more mesopores enhances conversion in the hydrogenation reaction of n-hexene, and the flower-like-transitional MOF catalyst with more Lewis acid sites exhibits better performance in the cycloaddition reaction. Therefore, the modulator-induced strategy may provide significant inspiration for preparing various transitional MOFs by building suitable chemical reactions.

20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 237: 116137, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241438

RESUMO

Enzymatic modification is generally applied to enhance desirable attributes of starch. In this study, ß-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (ß-CGTase) together with a specific cyclodextrinase (CDase) was used to modify corn starch. For single ß-CGTase treatment, the molecular weight (Mw) was reduced to 36.7 × 105 g/mol and 7.7 × 105 g/mol for 1 h and 6 h reaction, and the debranched samples had a high proportion of chains with degree of polymerization (DP) < 13, indicating an apparent depolymerization effect. CDase could hardly act on starch, while it had a high preference for cyclodextrin hydrolysis and produced mainly maltotetraose with ß-CGTase. There was a synergistic effect between ß-CGTase and CDase in starch degradation. Interestingly, the utilization of dual-enzyme significantly promoted the retrogradation inhibition property of starch, reducing the retrogradation enthalpy from 5.65 J/g to 1.42 J/g. It was proved that ß-CGTase and CDase had a great prospect in the future application.

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