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1.
J Neurosci Methods ; 328: 108445, 2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contralateral seventh cervical nerve transfer (contralateral C7 transfer) is a novel treatment for patients with spastic paralysis, including stroke and traumatic brain injury. However, little is known on changes in plasticity that occur in the intact hemisphere after C7 transfer. An appropriate surgical model is required. NEW METHOD: We described in detail the anatomy of the C7 in a mouse model. We designed a pretracheal route by excising the contralateral C6 lamina ventralis, and the largest nerve defect necessary for direct neurorrhaphy was compared with defect lengths in a prespinal route. To test feasibility, we performed in-vivo surgery and assessed nerve regeneration by immunofluorescence, histology, electrophysiology, and behavioral examinations. RESULTS: Two types of branching were found in the anterior and posterior divisions of C7, both of which were significantly larger than the sural nerve. The length of the nerve defect was drastically reduced after contralateral C6 lamina ventralis excision. Direct tension-free neurorrhaphy was achieved in 66.7% of mice. The expression of neurofilament in the distal segment of the regenerated C7 increased. Histological examination revealed remyelination. Behavioral tests and electrophysiology tests showed functional recovery in a traumatic brain injury mouse. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: This is the first direct tension-free neurorrhaphy mouse model of contralateral C7 transfer which shortened the time of nerve regeneration; previous models have used nerve grafting. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes a simple, reproducible, and effective mouse model of contralateral C7 transfer for studying brain plasticity and exploring potential new therapies after unilateral cerebral injury.

2.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-6, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of CUBE-SITR MRI and high-frequency ultrasound for the structural imaging of the brachial plexus to exclude neoplastic brachial plexopathy or structural variation and measure the lengths of anterior and posterior divisions of the C7 nerve, providing guidelines for surgeons before contralateral cervical 7 nerve transfer. METHODS: A total of 30 patients with CNS and 20 with brachial plexus injury were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent brachial plexus CUBE-STIR MRI and high-frequency ultrasound, and the lengths of the anterior and posterior divisions of C7 nerve were measured before surgery. Precise length of anterior and posterior divisions of contralateral C7 nerve was measured during surgery. RESULTS: MRI-measured lengths of anterior and posterior divisions of C7 nerves were positively correlated with that measured during surgery (anterior division, r = 0.94, p < .01; posterior division, r = 0.92, p < .01). High agreement was found between MRI-measured and intra-surgery measured length of anterior and posterior divisions of C7 nerve by BLAD-ALTMAN analysis. Ultrasonography could feasibly image supraclavicular C7 nerve and recognize small variant branches derived from middle trunk of C7 nerve root, which could be dissected intra-operatively and confirmed by electromyography during the procedure of contralateral C7 nerve transfer. CONCLUSION: CUBE-STIR MRI had advantages for the imaging of the brachial plexus and measurement of the length of root-trunk-anterior/posterior divisions of C7 nerve. The clinical role of ultrasonography may be a simple way of evaluating general condition of C7 nerve and provide guidelines for contralateral C7 nerve transfer surgery.

3.
Br J Neurosurg ; 33(4): 413-417, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681010

RESUMO

Objective: Contralateral C7 nerve root transfer surgery has been successfully applied to rescue motor function of a hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury. This surgical technique is challenging, and limited anatomical space makes it difficult to manipulate tissues and may lead to higher complication rates. The authors hypothesis a new surgical route in which cervical nerve roots of both donor and recipient sides are exposed from a posterior intradural approach and neurorrhaphy is performed easily and clearly. The feasibility of this operation is tested in a cadaver model. Methods: A fresh cadaver was placed prone. After a standard midline incision and extensive cervical laminectomy, the dura and arachnoid were widely opened, and the spinal nerve roots of C6, C7, and C8 were exposed bilaterally. Nerve grafting was attempted between pairs of donor and recipient nerve roots on contralateral sides of the spinal cord. After completion of neurorrhaphy, the dura was closed. Results: Precise neurorrhaphy could be performed intradurally between posterior and anterior nerve roots of C7 on both sides. Multiple anastomoses of C7 to various nerve roots on the contralateral side could also be performed within the same surgical field with an interposition nerve graft. Conclusion: The posterior intradural repair idea affords many advantages, the pathway is shorter and more straightforward, which provides more access to multiple nerve roots repair in one surgical field, and is more familiar to many neurosurgeons and spine surgeons. It may potentially be adapted for clinical use.

4.
World Neurosurg ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spasticity and muscle weakness are common severe neurologic sequelae after stroke. Contralateral peripheral neurotization has been successfully applied to promote motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury. Here we present the first report of contralateral lumbar to sacral nerve transfer for the lower extremities in hemiplegic patients after stroke. CASE DESCRIPTION: Two patients were enrolled in the study. The first is a 57-year-old man who suffered from permanent muscle weakness in his left leg after right cerebral infarction. The second patient is a 42-year-old man who had spasticity and hemiplegia in both upper and lower limbs on the right 32 months after a left cerebral hemorrhage. Both patients underwent contralateral lumbar to sacral nerve rerouting to improve lower-limb motor function. 20 months after surgery, both patients experienced significant improvement in ambulatory status. CONCLUSION: Although long-term follow-up and a randomized controlled trial are required, this study demonstrates the safety and possible benefits of contralateral lumbar to sacral nerve transfer for hemiplegic patients after stroke. This novel surgical approach could provide a new means for lower-limb motor functional recovery.

5.
Neurosci Res ; 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125610

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation could enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of implanted electrodes with different contacts in resected sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve resection and microsurgical repair models were established and randomly divided into four groups (point contact, 1/4 circle contact; whole-circle contact; no electrodes as control). Electrical stimulation was performed and electrophysiological, morphological and histological exams (of the sciatic nerve and muscle) were conducted at 4 and 10 weeks post-implantation. Point and 1/4 circle contact groups showed significantly higher scores in the sciatic functional index (SFI), increased amplitude of compound muscle action potential (AMP) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) compared to the control group at both 4 and 10 weeks post-implantation. Point and 1/4 circle contact morphologically promoted sciatic nerve regeneration and reduced muscular atrophy with less mechanical injury to the nerve trunk observed compared with the whole-circle contact group at both 4 and 10 weeks post-implantation. Electrodes with point and 1/4 circle contacts represented an alternatively portable and effective method of electrical stimulation to facilitate injured sciatic nerve regeneration and reduce subsequent muscular atrophy, which might offer a promising approach for treating peripheral nerve injuries.

6.
J Neurosurg Spine ; 28(5): 555-561, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424673

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Spinal accessory nerve (SAN) injury results in a series of shoulder dysfunctions and continuous pain. However, current treatments are limited by the lack of donor nerves as well as by undesirable nerve regeneration. Here, the authors report a modified nerve transfer technique in which they employ a nerve fascicle from the posterior division (PD) of the ipsilateral C-7 nerve to repair SAN injury. The technique, first performed in cadavers, was then undertaken in 2 patients. METHODS Six fresh cadavers (12 sides of the SAN and ipsilateral C-7) were studied to observe the anatomical relationship between the SAN and C-7 nerve. The length from artificial bifurcation of the middle trunk to the point of the posterior cord formation in the PD (namely, donor nerve fascicle) and the linear distance from the cut end of the donor fascicle to both sites of the jugular foramen and medial border of the trapezius muscle (d-SCM and d-Traps, respectively) were measured. Meanwhile, an optimal route for nerve fascicle transfer (NFT) was designed. The authors then performed successful NFT operations in 2 patients, one with an injury at the proximal SAN and another with an injury at the distal SAN. RESULTS The mean lengths of the cadaver donor nerve fascicle, d-SCM, and d-Traps were 4.2, 5.2, and 2.5 cm, respectively. In one patient who underwent proximal SAN excision necessitated by a partial thyroidectomy, early signs of reinnervation were seen on electrophysiological testing at 6 months after surgery, and an impaired left trapezius muscle, which was completely atrophic preoperatively, had visible signs of improvement (from grade M0 to grade M3 strength). In the other patient in whom a distal SAN injury was the result of a neck cyst resection, reinnervation and complex repetitive discharges were seen 1 year after surgery. Additionally, the patient's denervated trapezius muscle was completely resolved (from grade M2 to grade M4 strength), and her shoulder pain had disappeared by the time of final assessment. CONCLUSIONS NFT using a partial C-7 nerve is a feasible and efficacious method to repair an injured SAN, which provides an alternative option for treatment of SAN injury.

7.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; 43(3): 259-268, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28901818

RESUMO

Restoration of digital flexion after brachial plexus injury or forearm injury has been a great challenge for hand surgeons. Nerve transfer and forearm donor muscle transfer surgeries are not always feasible. The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of restoring digital flexion by brachialis muscle transfer. Ten lower brachial plexus- or forearm-injured patients were enrolled. After at least 12 months following surgery, the middle-finger-to-palm distance was less than 2.5 cm in six patients. In the other four patients with less satisfactory results, secondary tenolysis surgery was performed and the middle-finger-to-palm distances were reduced to 2.0-4.0 cm. The average grasp strength was 20 ± 4 kg. Elbow flexion was not adversely affected. In conclusion, brachialis muscle transfer is an effective method for reconstructing digital flexion, not only in lower brachial plexus injury, but also in forearm injury patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

8.
J Neurosurg ; 128(1): 304-311, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE Contralateral peripheral neurotization surgery has been successfully applied to rescue motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury (CNI). It may contribute to strengthened neural pathways between the contralesional cortex and paretic limbs. However, the effect of this surgery in the lower extremities remains unknown. In the present study the authors explored the effectiveness and safety of contralateral peripheral neurotization in treating a hemiplegic lower extremity following CNI in adult rats. METHODS Controlled cortical impact (CCI) was performed on the hindlimb motor cortex of 36 adult Sprague-Dawley rats to create severe unilateral traumatic brain injury models. These CCI rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. At 1 month post-CCI, the experimental group (Group 1, 12 rats) underwent contralateral L-6 to L-6 transfer, 1 control group (Group 2, 12 rats) underwent bilateral L-6 nerve transection, and another control group (Group 3, 12 rats) underwent an L-6 laminectomy without injuring the L-6 nerves. Bilateral L-6 nerve transection rats without CCI (Group 4, 12 rats) and naïve rats (Group 5, 12 rats) were used as 2 additional control groups. Beam and ladder rung walking tests and CatWalk gait analysis were performed in each rat at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months to detect the skilled walking functions and gait parameters of both hindlimbs. Histological and electromyography studies were used at the final followup to verify establishment of the traumatic brain injury model and regeneration of the L6-L6 neural pathway. RESULTS In behavioral tests, comparable motor injury in the paretic hindlimbs was observed after CCI in Groups 1-3. Group 1 started to show significantly lower slip and error rates in the beam and ladder rung walking tests than Groups 2 and 3 at 6 months post-CCI (p < 0.05). In the CatWalk analysis, Group 1 also showed a higher mean intensity and swing speed after 8 months post-CCI and a longer stride length after 6 months post-CCI than Groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.05). Transection of L-6 resulted in transient skilled walking impairment in the intact hindlimbs in Groups 1 and 2 (compared with Group 3) and in the bilateral hindlimbs in Group 4 (compared with Group 5). All recovered to baseline level within 2 months. Histological study of the rat brains verified comparable injured volumes among Groups 1-3 at final examinations, and electromyography and toluidine blue staining indicated successful regeneration of the L6-L6 neural pathways in Group 1. CONCLUSIONS Contralateral L-6 neurotization could be a promising and safe surgical approach for improving motor recovery of the hemiplegic hindlimb after unilateral CNI in adult rats. Further investigations are needed before extrapolating the present conclusions to humans.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 378(1): 22-34, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spastic limb paralysis due to injury to a cerebral hemisphere can cause long-term disability. We investigated the effect of grafting the contralateral C7 nerve from the nonparalyzed side to the paralyzed side in patients with spastic arm paralysis due to chronic cerebral injury. METHODS: We randomly assigned 36 patients who had had unilateral arm paralysis for more than 5 years to undergo C7 nerve transfer plus rehabilitation (18 patients) or to undergo rehabilitation alone (18 patients). The primary outcome was the change from baseline to month 12 in the total score on the Fugl-Meyer upper-extremity scale (scores range from 0 to 66, with higher scores indicating better function). Results The mean increase in Fugl-Meyer score in the paralyzed arm was 17.7 in the surgery group and 2.6 in the control group (difference, 15.1; 95% confidence interval, 12.2 to 17.9; P<0.001). With regard to improvements in spasticity as measured on the Modified Ashworth Scale (an assessment of five joints, each scored from 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating more spasticity), the smallest between-group difference was in the thumb, with 6, 9, and 3 patients in the surgery group having a 2-unit improvement, a 1-unit improvement, or no change, respectively, as compared with 1, 6, and 7 patients in the control group (P=0.02). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging showed connectivity between the ipsilateral hemisphere and the paralyzed arm. There were no significant differences from baseline to month 12 in power, tactile threshold, or two-point discrimination in the hand on the side of the donor graft. RESULTS: The mean increase in Fugl-Meyer score in the paralyzed arm was 17.7 in the surgery group and 2.6 in the control group (difference, 15.1; 95% confidence interval, 12.2 to 17.9; P<0.001). With regard to improvements in spasticity as measured on the Modified Ashworth Scale (an assessment of five joints, each scored from 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating more spasticity), the smallest between-group difference was in the thumb, with 6, 9, and 3 patients in the surgery group having a 2-unit improvement, a 1-unit improvement, or no change, respectively, as compared with 1, 6, and 7 patients in the control group (P=0.02). Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging showed connectivity between the ipsilateral hemisphere and the paralyzed arm. There were no significant differences from baseline to month 12 in power, tactile threshold, or two-point discrimination in the hand on the side of the donor graft. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center trial involving patients who had had unilateral arm paralysis due to chronic cerebral injury for more than 5 years, transfer of the C7 nerve from the nonparalyzed side to the side of the arm that was paralyzed was associated with a greater improvement in function and reduction of spasticity than rehabilitation alone over a period of 12 months. Physiological connectivity developed between the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and the paralyzed hand. (Funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Registry number, 13004466 .).


Assuntos
Braço/inervação , Hemiplegia/cirurgia , Espasticidade Muscular/cirurgia , Transferência de Nervo , Nervos Periféricos/transplante , Potenciais de Ação , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Avaliação da Deficiência , Hemiplegia/etiologia , Hemiplegia/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/reabilitação , Transferência de Nervo/efeitos adversos , Nervos Periféricos/anatomia & histologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neurosurgery ; 83(4): 819-826, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and repair is related with cortical reorganization. However, the mechanism of innervating dual targets by 1 donor nerve is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cortical reorganization when the phrenic nerve simultaneously innervates the diaphragm and biceps. METHODS: Total brachial plexus (C5-T1) injury rats were repaired by phrenic nerve-musculocutaneous nerve transfer with end-to-side (n = 15) or end-to-end (n = 15) neurorrhaphy. Brachial plexus avulsion (n = 5) and sham surgery (n = 5) rats were included for control. Behavioral observation, electromyography, and histologic studies were used for confirming peripheral nerve reinnervation. Cortical representations of the diaphragm and reinnervated biceps were studied by intracortical microstimulation techniques before and at months 0.5, 3, 5, 7, and 10 after surgery. RESULTS: At month 0.5 after complete brachial plexus injury, the motor representation of the injured forelimb disappeared. The diaphragm representation was preserved in the "end-to-side" group but absent in the "end-to-end" group. Rhythmic contraction of biceps appeared in "end-to-end" and "end-to-side" groups, and the biceps representation reappeared in the original biceps and diaphragm areas at months 3 and 5. At month 10, it was completely located in the original biceps area in the "end-to-end" group. Part of the biceps representation remained in the original diaphragm area in the "end-to-side" group. Destroying the contralateral motor cortex did not eliminate respiration-related contraction of biceps. CONCLUSION: The brain tends to resume biceps representation from the original diaphragm area to the original biceps area following phrenic nerve transfer. The original diaphragm area partly preserves reinnervated biceps representation after end-to-side transfer.

11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6888, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28761096

RESUMO

Central neurologic injury (CNI) causes dysfunctions not only in limbs but also in cognitive ability. We applied a novel peripheral nerve rewiring (PNR) surgical procedure to restore limb function. Here, we conducted a prospective study to develop estimates for the extent of preattentive processes to cognitive function changes in CNI patients after PNR. Auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) was measured in CNI patients who received the PNR surgery plus conventional rehabilitation treatment. During the 2-year follow-up, the MMN was enhanced with increased amplitude in the PNR plus rehabilitation group compared to the rehabilitation-only group as the experiment progressed, and progressive improvement in behavioural examination tests was also observed. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the changes in Fugl-Meyer assessment scale scores and in MMN amplitudes. These results suggested that PNR could affect the efficiency of pre-attention information processing synchronously with the recovery of motor function in the paralyzed arm of the in chronic CNI patients. Such electroencephalographic measures might provide a biological approach with which to distinguish patient subgroups after surgery, and the change in MMN may serve as an objective auxiliary index, indicating the degree of motor recovery and brain cognitive function.

12.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 31(10-11): 898-909, 2017 Oct-Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845734

RESUMO

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a most common peripheral nerve entrapment neuropathy characterized by sensorimotor deficits in median nerve innervated digits. Block-design task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been used to investigate CTS-related neuroplasticity in the primary somatosensory cortices. However, considering the persistence of digital paresthesia syndrome caused by median nerve entrapment, spontaneous neuronal activity might provide a better understanding of CTS-related neuroplasticity, which remains unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate both local and extensive spontaneous neuronal activities with resting-state fMRI. A total of 28 bilateral CTS patients and 24 normal controls were recruited, and metrics, including amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC), were used to explore synaptic activity at different spatial scales. Correlations with clinical measures were further investigated by linear regression. Decreased amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation were observed in the bilateral primary sensory cortex (SI) and secondary sensory cortex (SII) in CTS patients (AlphaSim corrected P < .05). This was found to be negatively related to the sensory thresholds of corresponding median nerve innervated fingers. In the voxel-wise FC analysis, with predefined seed regions of interest in the bilateral SI and primary motor cortex, we observed decreased interhemispheric and increased intrahemispheric FC. Additionally, both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric FC were found to be significantly correlated with the mean ALFF.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Descanso , Córtex Somatossensorial/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Oxigênio/sangue
13.
Neural Regen Res ; 11(4): 670-5, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27212933

RESUMO

Although some patients have successful peripheral nerve regeneration, a poor recovery of hand function often occurs after peripheral nerve injury. It is believed that the capability of brain plasticity is crucial for the recovery of hand function. The supplementary motor area may play a key role in brain remodeling after peripheral nerve injury. In this study, we explored the activation mode of the supplementary motor area during a motor imagery task. We investigated the plasticity of the central nervous system after brachial plexus injury, using the motor imagery task. Results from functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that after brachial plexus injury, the motor imagery task for the affected limbs of the patients triggered no obvious activation of bilateral supplementary motor areas. This result indicates that it is difficult to excite the supplementary motor areas of brachial plexus injury patients during a motor imagery task, thereby impacting brain remodeling. Deactivation of the supplementary motor area is likely to be a serious problem for brachial plexus injury patients in terms of preparing, initiating and executing certain movements, which may be partly responsible for the unsatisfactory clinical recovery of hand function.

14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 18784, 2016 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732072

RESUMO

There have been controversies on the contribution of contralesional hemispheric compensation to functional recovery of the upper extremity after a unilateral brain lesion. Some studies have demonstrated that contralesional hemispheric compensation may be an important recovery mechanism. However, in many cases where the hemispheric lesion is large, this form of compensation is relatively limited, potentially due to insufficient connections from the contralesional hemisphere to the paralyzed side. Here, we used a new procedure to increase the effect of contralesional hemispheric compensation by surgically crossing a peripheral nerve at the neck in rats, which may provide a substantial increase in connections between the contralesional hemisphere and the paralyzed limb. This surgical procedure, named cross-neck C7-C7 nerve transfer, involves cutting the C7 nerve on the healthy side and transferring it to the C7 nerve on the paretic side. Intracortical microstimulation, Micro-PET and histological analysis were employed to explore the cortical changes in contralesional hemisphere and to reveal its correlation with behavioral recovery. These results showed that the contralesional hemispheric compensation was markedly strengthened and significantly related to behavioral improvements. The findings also revealed a feasible and effective way to maximize the potential of one hemisphere in controlling both limbs.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Lateralidade Funcional , Atividade Motora , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Córtex Motor/patologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ratos , Fatores de Tempo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
15.
World Neurosurg ; 84(3): 702-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25936903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Total brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) results in the total functional loss of the affected limb and induces extensive brain functional reorganization. However, because the dominant hand is responsible for more cognitive-related tasks, injuries on this side induce more adaptive changes in brain function. In this article, we explored the differences in brain functional reorganization after injuries in unilateral BPAI patients. METHODS: We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to 10 left and 10 right BPAI patients and 20 healthy control subjects. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), which is a resting-state index, was calculated for all patients as an indication of the functional activity level of the brain. Two-sample t-tests were performed between left BPAI patients and controls, right BPAI patients and controls, and between left and right BPAI patients. RESULTS: Two-sample t-tests of the ALFF values revealed that right BPAIs induced larger scale brain reorganization than did left BPAIs. Both left and right BPAIs elicited a decreased ALFF value in the right precuneus (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). In addition, right BPAI patients exhibited increased ALFF values in a greater number of brain regions than left BPAI patients, including the inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and fusiform gyrus. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed that right BPAIs induced greater extents of brain functional reorganization than left BPAIs, which reflected the relatively more extensive adaptive process that followed injuries of the dominant hand.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/lesões , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/fisiopatologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurosurgery ; 76(2): 187-95; discussion 195, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25549193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central neurological injury (CNI) is a major contributor to physical disability that affects both adults and children all over the world. The main sequelae of chronic stage CNI are spasticity, paresis of specific muscles, and poor selective motor control. Here, we apply the concept of contralateral peripheral neurotization in spasticity releasing and motor function restoration of the affected upper extremity. OBJECTIVE: A clinical investigation was performed to verify the clinical efficacy of contralateral C7 neurotization for rescuing the affected upper extremity after CNI. METHODS: In the present study, 6 adult hemiplegia patients received the nerve transfer surgery of contralateral C7 to C7 of the affected side. Another 6 patients with matched pathological and demographic status were assigned to the control group that received rehabilitation only. During the 2-year follow-up, muscle strength of bilateral upper extremities was assessed. The Modified Ashworth Scale and Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale were used for evaluating spasticity and functional use of the affected upper extremity, respectively. RESULTS: Both flexor spasticity release and motor functional improvements were observed in the affected upper extremity in all 6 patients who had surgery. The muscle strength of the extensor muscles and the motor control of the affected upper extremity improved significantly. There was no permanent loss of sensorimotor function of the unaffected upper extremity. CONCLUSION: This contralateral C7 neurotization approach may open a door to promote functional recovery of upper extremity paralysis after CNI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Hemiplegia/cirurgia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Paresia/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Hemiplegia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Paresia/etiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Pain Physician ; 17(1): E99-105, 2014 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24452663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deafferentation pain secondary to brachial plexus avulsion, spinal cord injury, and other peripheral nerve injuries is often refractory to conventional treatments. Stimulation of the primary motor cortex (M1) has been proven to be an effective treatment for intractable deafferentation pain. The mechanisms underlying the attenuation of deafferentation pain by motor cortex stimulation remain hypothetical. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this case report is to: (1) summarize a case in which a patient suffering chronic intractable deafferentation pain for 25 years underwent rTMS treatment over M1, (2) describe the evidence from PET imaging, and (3) reveal a possible relief mechanism with cortical plasticity. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University hospital. RESULTS: This patient had successful pain control with no transient or lasting side effects. The pain relief remained stable for at least one week. At the end of the 20-day procedure, pain relief was obtained according to the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (-34.6%) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) (-31.6%). In the PET/CT scans, the glucose metabolism was significantly reduced contralaterally to the pain side in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, and caudate nucleus. There was no statistically significant difference in any other cortical area. LIMITATIONS: Single case of a patient with long-term intractable deafferentation pain having a PET study. CONCLUSION: This study implies that a single session of 20 Hz rTMS over the motor cortex could reduce the pain level in patients suffering from long-term, intractable deafferentation pain. The stimulation of the M1 induces deactivation in the ACC, insula, and caudate nucleus. The changes in these pain-related regions may mirror an adaptive mechanism to pain relief after rTMS treatment.


Assuntos
Dor Intratável/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Manejo da Dor
18.
J Hand Surg Am ; 38(11): 2257-62, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24206993

RESUMO

Ulnar impaction syndrome generally occurs with positive ulnar variance. The solution to the problem is to unload the ulnocarpal joint. Effective surgical options include diaphyseal ulnar shortening osteotomy, open wafer osteotomy, and arthroscopic wafer osteotomy. Recently, Slade and Gillon described an open procedure of ulnar shortening in the osteochondral region of the ulnar head. The procedure minimizes the risk of hemarthrosis and does not require hardware removal, which are problems with other surgical options. This article introduces a new arthroscopic technique of distal metaphyseal ulnar shortening osteotomy for ulnar impaction syndrome. This technique offers the advantages of minimizing surgical injury to the dorsal capsule of the distal radoulnar joint and so protects its stability.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Osteotomia/métodos , Ulna/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Punho/cirurgia , Fios Ortopédicos , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Cápsula Articular/lesões , Instabilidade Articular/prevenção & controle , Síndrome
20.
Anat Sci Int ; 86(4): 225-31, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21993978

RESUMO

For surgeries aimed at the dissection of full-length phrenic nerve, a full appreciation of its trajectory, blood supply and correlation with adjacent anatomical structures is necessary, especially for endoscopic manipulations. A fresh cadaver study was conducted with the purpose of avoiding surgical complications and ensuring further efficacy and efficiency of endoscopic manipulations. Ten fresh adult cadavers were dissected. Special attention was paid to the topography of the origin, the trajectory of the phrenic nerve, and its anatomic communication with the surrounding vessels and organs. In the second side of the cadavers, thoracic endoscopic manipulations and observations were also performed. The full length of the phrenic nerve was 24.6 ± 1.7 and 30.6 ± 1.8 cm on the right and left side, respectively; the blood supply of the phrenic nerve in the thoracic cavity came exclusively from the pericardiacophrenic artery; the distance between the origin of the pericardiacophrenic artery and that of the internal thoracic artery ranged from 0.5 to 5.2 cm on the right side, and from 1.4 to 5.6 cm on the left; most of the pericardiacophrenic veins intermingled with small vessels of pericardium and pleura, forming a venous network and joining the innominate vein. Endoscopic dissection of the thoracic phrenic nerve together with the accompanying pericardiacophrenic artery can be performed. Extreme attention should be paid during surgery to a section of about 6 cm in length of the artery originating from the internal thoracic artery, while the accompanying veins do not require to be spared.


Assuntos
Dissecação/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Nervo Frênico/anatomia & histologia , Nervo Frênico/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Cadáver , Humanos , Artéria Torácica Interna/anatomia & histologia
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